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'^  PRINCETON,    N.  J. 

Purchased  by  the  Hammill   Missionary  Fund. 

BV  2550  .J63 
John,  I.  G. 

Hand  book  of  Methodist 






For  Use  of  Sunday  Schools,  Epworth  Leagues,  and  Per- 
sons Desiring  Missionary  Information. 

^  / 

I.  G.  JOHN/D.D., 


Nashville,  Tenn.  : 

Publishing  Hoise  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South. 

Baruee  &  Smith,  Agents. 



To  Bishop  John  C.  Keener,  D.D., 
a  constant  friend^  able  ad'oocate^  and  stanch  supporter  of 
modern  Missions,  the  inangnrator  of  our  mission  xuork  in 
Mexico  in  iSys,  and  the  author  of  the  resolution  in  1883, 
ivhich  opened  the  Japan  Mission. 

Copyright,  1893. 


The  i^reparation  of  this  volume,  though  far  more  la- 
borious than  at  first  sight  will  appear,  has  been  from 
the  first  a  labor  of  love.  In  the  beginning  the  work  of 
research  was  undertaken  in  order  to  meet  a  constantly 
increasing  demand  for  concrete  facts  and  information. 
Keen  and  intelligent  inquiries  from  pastors  and  people 
required  prompt  and  satisfactory  response.  In  an  age 
characterized  by  celerity  of  movement  and  economy 
of  time  clear-cut  facts  and  condensed  statements  are 
best  appreciated. 

The  generous  reception  given  the  first  hand  books 
led  to  the  preparation  of  the  entire  series  in  which 
the  most  important  fields  occupied  by  the  Methodist 
Church  have  been  reviewed.  The  work,  though  hon- 
estly done,  has  been  carried  on  in  addition  to  the  du- 
ties of  the  oflSce  involving  heavy  correspondence,  edi- 
torial work,  and  no  small  amount  of  travel ;  hence  in- 
accuracies may  have  crept  in.  Corrections  will  always 
be  in  order  and  gratefully  received. 

In  addition  to  files  of  letters  and  reports  extending 
from  1871  to  the  present  time,  we  are  greatly  indebted 
to  Bishop  A.  W.  Wilson's  admirable  synopsis  entitled 
"Missions  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South," 
written  while  Missionary  Secretary  and  published  in 
1882 ;  also  to  "  Missions  and  Missionary  Society  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,"  by  Eev.  J,  M.  Reid,  D.D., 
long  Missionary  Secretary' of  the  M.  E.  Church;  and  to 
Dr.  S.  L.  Baldwin,  Recording  Secretary,  for  most  valu- 


4  Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

able  information  secured  from  the  annual  reports  kind- 
ly furnished. 

Tlie  extreme  condensation  of  the  work  is  regretted 
by  the  writer,  yet  he  would  indulge  in  the  hope  that 
it  may  supply,  to  some  extent  at  least,  the  urgent  de- 
mands of  the  pastors  of  the  Church,  Sunday  schools, 
and  Epwoi'th  Leagues  for  a  sketch  of  our  missionary 
work  brought  up  to  a  recent  date. 

The  author  receives  no  pecuniary  benefit  from  the 
publication  of  this  book,  the  profits  accruing  from  sales 
going  into  the  treasury  of  the  Board  of  Missions. 

I.  Ct.  John. 

Nashville    Tenn.,  April  25,  1893. 


This  important  Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions 
was  born  of  the  editorial  instinct  and  training  which 
knows  the  value  of  the  printed  page  as  an  educator 
and  that  seeks  to  win  a  cause  by  a  clear  and  strong 
statement  of  facts  as  well  as  of  arguments  in  its  behalf. 
The  eloquent  address  or  sermon  is  invaluable  for  the 
advocacy  of  the  cause  of  Missions,  but  not  less  impor- 
tant is  the  printed  page  which  sets  forth  the  cogent  ar- 
gument and  preserves  for  ready  access  the  instructive 
fact.  It  feeds  the  fire  kindled  by  the  glowing  periods 
of  the  speaker  and  strengthens  the  convictions  that 
seemed  born  of  the  Rpell  wrought  by  fervid  speech. 
It  furnishes  the  material  out  of  which  great  speeches 
are  made.  With  all  his  fervor  Patrick  Henry  recog- 
nized that  the  people  were  most  influenced  by  facts. 
They  are  best  influenced  by  the  speaker  who  is  most 
instructive  and  wlK>se  statements  can  be  reproduced  at 
the  fireside. 

"  Coal  is  portable  climate,"  said  Emerson.  A  Hand 
Book  like  this  is  a  portable  zeal,  and  needs  only  to  be 
consumed  to  change  the  atmosphere  of  a  home  or  a 
community.  To  the  doubter  who  asks  if  modern 
Missions  have  in  very  truth  the  Christ  which  saves  it 
makes  the  unanswerable  reply:  "The  blind  receive 
their  sight,  the  deaf  hear,  lepers  are  cleansed,  and  the 
poor  have  the  gospel  preached  unto  them."  It  was 
facts  that  impressed  Charles  Darwin^  when  he  saw 
what  Missions  were  doing  for  the  Patagonians,  and 


6  Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

made  him  a  lifelong  contributor  to  the  missionary  so- 
ciety which  labored  among  them.  It  is  a  like  knowl- 
edge that  makes  British  oliicers  the  most  liberal  con- 
tributors to  the  missions  of  India  and  Ceylon  and  that 
caused  a  great  American  general  to  say,  after  a  tour 
around  the  world,  that  if  he  were  seeking  to  conquer 
any  country  in  Asia  he  would  throw  his  forces  just  in 
those  great  strategic  points  now  occupied  by  missiona- 

The  day  is  past  when  Missions  are  made  the  butt  of 
the  wits  of  the  pulpit  or  of  the  Reviews,  as  was  the 
case  a  hundred  years  ago.  The  present  century  was 
already  twelve  years  old  when  a  legislator  in  Massa- 
chusetts opposed  the  incorporation  of  the  Board  of 
Commissioners  for  Foreign  Missions  because  "  we  have 
too  little  religion  in  our  land  to  j^ermit  any  to  be  ex- 
ported." The  world  has  long  known  that  the  real  test 
of  a  religion  is  whether  it  will  V)ear  exporting  and 
that  only  such  religions  as  are  marked  by  missionary 
zeal  have  made  the  deepest  impression  on  the  land  of 
their  birth.  The  contest  for  supremacy  to-day  is 
among  the  three  missionary  religions  of  the  world: 
Buddhism,  Mohammedanism,  and  Christianity.  The 
vigor  of  each  is  measured  by  the  strength  of  its  pur- 
pose to  share  with  other  nations  the  truth  as  it  sees  it. 
While  Buddhism  is  limited  in  its  missionary  opera- 
tions to  Asia,  and  Mohammedanism  to  Asia  and  Africa 
together  with  tlie  Turkish  posisessions  in  Europe,  it  is 
the  glory  of  Christianity  that  its  missions  are  not  alone 
in  every  continent  and  the  islands  of  the  sea,  but  that 
missionaries  of  the  cross  await  anxiously  the  hour 
when  on  every  plateau  of  Asia  and  in  every  forest  of 
Africa  they  may  be  peimitted  to  preach  Christ  Jesus 
the  Saviour.    And  while  comparatively  few  new  tern- 

Introduction.  •     7 

pies  or  mosques  are  being  l^uilt  every  sun  sets  on  a 
half  score  of  new  Christian  churches  just  completed 
and  ready  for  eager  worshipers. 

The  Christian  missionary  has  always  been  the  best 
pioneer.  Commerce  follows  in  the  wake  of  the  ship 
which  lands  a  missionary  on  a  heathen  shore.  The 
Cotton  spinners  of  Manchester  study  the  movements  of 
missionaries  as  eagerly  as  they  read  the  crop  reports  of 
the  Gulf  states.  The  missionary  creates  the  demand 
and  makes  the  market  for  the  manufactures  of  Europe 
and  America.  A  new  sense  of  manhood  which  comes 
with  the  teaching  of  the  missionary  leads  to  the  cloth- 
ing of  the  nude  body  and  the  substitution  of  the  rude 
implements  of  agriculture  or  of  manufacture.  The 
new  convert  finds  that  his  mind  is  no  less  naked  than 
his  body,  and  seeks  to  furnish  it.  The  printing  press 
goes  with  the  improved  plowshare  or  loom  as  the  un- 
folding gospel  bursts  into  the  full  bloom  of  Christian 
civiHzation.  The  world  of  letters  now  sees  how  many 
new  languages  and  dialects  have  been  conquered  by 
the  tireless  labors  of  the  missionary.  He  has  reduced 
some  of  the  languages  to  order  and  imposed  the  laws 
of  grammatical  construction  upon  speech  as  wild  as 
the  swift  steeds  which  have  never  known  a  bridle. 
Thus  are  found  the  rude  treasures  of  historic  lore  or 
the  fragmentary  remains  of  an  attempt  at  story  or 
song.  Whether  as  geographer  making  maps  of  dark 
continents,  as  linguist  discovering  new  languages  for 
the  w^orld  of  letters,  or  as  navigator  making  new 
paths  in  the  sea,  the  world  is  larger,  wiser,  and  better 
for  the  labors  of  the  missionary.  The  leaven  which 
he  has  put  in  the  five  continents  is  fast  leavening  the 
world.  He  has  not  alone  given  the  needed  outlet  for 
the  manufactures  of  Christendom,  he  has  made  possi- 

8         Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ble  a  better  and  more  joyous  Christian  life  at  liome  be- 
cause of  its  vigor  in  seeking  to  reach  the  whole  world. 
Methodism  and  Missions  are  almost  inseparable 
terms.  While  neither  the  tirc-t  to  undertake  foreign 
missionary  work,  nor  the  largest  contributors  to  the 
cause,  the  followers  of  Wesley  have  never  been  lacking 
in  missionary  zeal  or  effort.  The  present  volume  is 
not  intended  to  inflame  their  pride,  but  rather  to  deep- 
en their  sense  of  responsibility  as  they  are  reminded 
of  what  their  fathers  did  with  rather  hmited  resources. 
The  Wesleys  were  born  in  a  missionary  atmosphere  at 
Epworth.  Their  father,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Wesley,  was 
so  fired  by  the  success  of  the  Danish  missionaries  that 
he  not  only  planned  a  mission  to  India,  but  offered 
himself  for  the  work.  We  can  readily  imagine  the 
frequent  conversations  on  the  subject  in  the  famous 
rectory  as  he  tells  also  of  letters  received  from  the 
Governor  of  the  infant  colony  in  Georgia,  and  of  the 
need  of  missionaries  to  the  Indian  tribes  in  the  new 
world.  The  conscientious  Susanna  Wesley,  who  was 
of  like  mind  with  her  husband  about  going  to  India, 
w^is  not  a  woman  to  neglect  the  instruction  of  her  nu- 
merous household  on  the  duty  of  giving  the  gospel  to 
the  heathen.  In  such  a  home  Methodist  missions  were 
born,  and  it  seems  natural  to  have  John  and  Charles 
Wesley  go  forth  from  that  atmosphere  of  prayer  and 
missionary  zeal  to  preach  to  tlie  Clioctaws  and  Creeks 
of  Georgia.  That  they  did  not  succeed  in  their  mis- 
sion made  necessary  that  fuller  spiritual  equipment 
which  tlie  later  Methodist  missionaries  needed  to 
make  them  so  eminently  successful  in  their  work 
among  the  same  Indian  tribes.  The  failure  in  (Tcoigia 
made  i)Ossible  the  success  in  Fiji,  in  Ceylon,  in  China, 
and  Japan.    The  zeal   which   was  retidy  to  give  all 

Introduction,  *      9 

one's  goods  to  feed  the  poor  and  even  one's  body  to  be 
burned  need  to  be  reenforced  by  the  love  that  hopes 
all  things,  endures  all  things,  that  never  faileth. 

The  Moravians  tauglit  Wesley,  as  they  have  taught 
Christendom,  the  secret  of  missionary  success,  a  gospel 
intended  for  all,  needed  by  all,  adapted  to  all.  There 
has  never  boen  a  moment's  hesitation  caused  by  a  ques- 
tion as  to  God's  purposes  respecting  the  heathen.  The 
gospel  which  could  save  Kingswood  colliers  or  Lon- 
don mobs  could  save  Brahmin  or  Buddhist,  Fiji  or  Hot- 
tentot. The  condition  of  the  neglected  masses  at  home 
occupied  much  of  the  time  and  enlisted  most  of  the 
labor  of  the  Methodists,  whether  in  England  or  Amer- 
ica, during  the  earlier  decades  of  their  history  in  ei- 
ther country ;  but  they  had  among  them  a  few  like  Coke 
whose  eye  was  always  on  the  last  creature  who  should 
hear  the  gospel,  and  so  took  in  the  whole  range  of 
mankind.  It  was  lofty  minds  like  these  which  saw 
the  Land  of  Promise  and  dared  say  that  Christ  should 
yet  possess  it,  despite  the  walled  cities  and  the  Ana- 
kim.  They  are  the  heroic  names  of  Methodism,  and 
made  possible  the  later  organized  missionary  societies 
which  committed  the  Church  to  the  foreign  missionary 
work.  When  Coke  could  report  over  eleven  thousand 
converts  in  the  West  Indies  it  was  time  to  think  of  taking 
the  work  under  the  care  of  the  Wesleyan  Conference; 
and  when  fifteen  years  later  he  led  the  way  to  India  and 
was  found  dead  on  his  knees  before  his  ship  reached 
Ceylon,  the  time  was  ripe  for  the  organization  of  the 
Wesleyan  Missionary  Society,  to  be  followed  a  couple 
of  years  later  by  a  similiar  organization  in  the  United 
States.  Nor  with  such  men  as  Bunting,  Watson,  New- 
ton, Arthur,  Bangs,  Capers,  and  Durbin  to  serve  as  Mis- 
sionary Secretaries  has  the  Church  hesitated  to  give 

10        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

her  best  sons  to  the  advancement  of  the  cause  of  Mis- 

This  Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions,  giving  the 
latest  information  about  the  missionary  wort  of  the 
several  Methodist  Churches  throughout  the  world,  and 
especially  full  m  its  information  as  to  the  Missions  of 
the  two  great  branches  of  Episcopal  Methodism,  will 
be  hailed  not  alone  by  the  preachers  and  thoughtful  lay- 
men of  the  Church.  A  new  constituency  is  now  to  be 
considered  and  a  mighty  one.  The  Epworth  Leagues 
of  Methodism  are  eagerly  seeking  to  know  both  what 
is  being  done  and  what  they  may  be  desired  to  do  in 
extending  the  cause  of  Missions  in  heathen  lands  and 
among  the  degraded  or  priest-ridden  people  of  our 
own  continent.  From  this  great  army  of  young  Chris- 
tians are  to  come  many  of  our  most  efficient  missiona- 
ries as  well  as  our  most  liberal  and  self-denying  con- 
tributors to  the  cause.  Let  this  volume  help  to  in- 
struct them  in  the  victoi-ies  won  and  in  the  plan  of  the 
battle  now  being  fought.  It  should  be  added  to  the 
course  of  reading  for  the  Leagues  and  be  placed  in 
every  Sunday  school  library  and  widely  scattered 
among  the  homes  of  our  people.  Whatever  differ- 
ences in  our  ecclesiastical  organizations,  the  triumphs 
in  missionary  lands  are  the  common  heritage  and  joy 
of  all  who  bear  the  name  of  Methodists.  The  martyrs 
who  have  borne  their  faithful  testimony  and  sealed  it 
with  their  blood  belong  to  no  one  branch  of  Metho- 
dism, or  even  to  Methodism  itself;  they  belong  to  all 
who  love  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  in  sincerity.  May 
none  of  our  Mission  Boards  lack  candidates  for  the 
field  after  the  wide-spread  reading  of  this  Hand  Book! 

E.  R.  Hendrix. 

Kansas  City,  Mo.,  April  17,  1893. 



English  Methodist  Missions 13-72 

Wesleyan  Missions:  Ceylon  Mission— East  India  Mis- 
sion—West Indies  Mission— South  Africa  Mission— West 
Africa  Mission— Australasia— The  Friendly  Islands— Fiji 
Mission— Cliina Mission.  Bible  Christian  Missionary  Socie- 
.  ty— Methodist  New  Connexion  Missionary  Society— United 
Methodist  Free  Church  Home  and  Foreign  Missionary  So- 
ciety—Welsh Calvinistic  Methodist  Foreign  Missionary  So- 
ciety—Primitive Methodist  Missionary  Society— Missionary 
Society  of  the  Methodist  Church  of  Canada. 

Missions  in  the  South 73-164 

Missions  among  the  Colored  People— Africa— French  Mis- 
sion—Brazil Mission— Indian  Missions— Texas  Missions. 

Foreign  Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South  .  165-358 
China  Mission— Mexican  Mission— Central  Mexican  Mis- 
sion—Mexican Border  Mission— Brazil  Mission— Japan  Mis- 

Home  Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South  . .  359-382 

Missions  in  Destitute  Regions  of  the  Regular  Work— Ger- 
man Missions— Western  Work— California  Mission. 

Woman's  Missionary  Society,  M.  E.  C,  S 383-442 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church 443-600 

American  Indians— Africa  — Soutli  America— China— 
Scandanavian  Missions  —  Norway  —  Denmark—  Sweden- 
German  Missions— Germany  and  Switzerland— Bulgaria- 
Italy —India— Mexico— Japan— Corea. 

Work  of  Other  Methodist  Bodies 601-604 

Missions  of  the  Protestant  Metliodist  Cluirch— The  Wes- 
leyan Methodist  Connection— The  Missionary  Board  of  the 
African  Methodist  Episcopal  Cluirch. 




With  John  Wesley  the  missionary  spirit 
was  an  inheritance.  His  father,  aroused  by 
the  success  of  the  Danish  missionaries  in 
Tranquebar,  planned  a  mission  to  India,  and 
offered  himself  for  the  work.  His  mother 
shared  her  husband's  spirit,  and  sought  to  im- 
bue her  children  with  her  own  zeal  for  the 
spread  of  the  gospel  among  the  heathen.  The 
interest  of  the  rector  of  Epworth  in  the  con- 
version of  the  Indians  of  North  America 
caused  him  to  correspond  with  Gen.  Ogle- 
thorpe, who  had  charge  of  the  infant  colony 
in  Georgia,  and  this  correspondence  was 
among  the  agencies  that  decided  John  and 
Charles  Wesley  to  go  out  in  1735,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  "  Society  for  the  Propagation 
of  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  Parts,"  as  mission- 
aries to  the  Indians  of  the  New  World.  God 
had  for  them  a  broader  field  than  the  natives 
of  North  America.  *'The  world  was  their 
parish."     They  returned  to  London  to  meet 


14       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Peter  Boliler,  the  Moravian  missionary,  under 
whom  they  were  converted.  Speaking  of  his 
meeting  with  Bohler,  John  Wesley  said:  "O 
what  a  work  hath  God  begun  since  his  com- 
ing to  Enghmd!  Such  a  one  as  shall  never 
have  an  end  till  heaven  and  earth  shall  pass 
away."  These  words  seem  prophetic.  The 
Christian  world  is  beginning  to  recognize  the 
agency  of  the  Wesleyan  revival  in  the  won- 
derful movement  of  the  present  century,  which 
has  united  all  branches  of  Protestant  Christi- 
anity in  the  effort  to  evangelize  the  world. 

In  1756  the  demands  of  destitute  regions  in 
England  and  Ireland  were  recognized  by  the 
"Wesleyan  Conference,  and  a  fund  was  raised 
to  supply  them  with  the  gospel.  This  was 
the  beginning  of  Home  Missions  among  the 

In  1769,  thirteen  years  after  the  Wesleyans 
had  opened  their  Honie  Missions,  it  became 
evident  that  there  was  work  for  Methodism  in 
the  New  World.  Mr.  Wesley,  in  the  Confer- 
ence of  that  year,  asked:  "  Who  are  willing  to 
go  to  America  as  missionaries?"  Eichard 
Boardman  and  Joseph  Pilmoor  responded  to 
the  call. 

In  that  age  a  voyage  to  America  was  more 
formidable  than  a  tour  around  the  world  to- 

Wesley  an  Missions,  .    15 

day;  and  the  crosses  those  men  might  antici- 
pate were  as  heavy  as  those  that  the  missiona- 
ies  of  the  present  day  are  called  to  endure. 
Money  was  needed  with  which  to  send  them 
out,  and  Mr.  Wesley  proposed  a  collection  for 
that  purpose.  The  Conference  numbered  one 
hundred  and  ten  preachers.  The  collection 
amounted  to  £10,  or  about  $7  each,  from  these 
early  itinerants.  This  was  the  first  collection 
for  Foreign  Missions  raised  by  Wesleyan  Meth- 
odists. Other  men  followed  these  two  mis- 
sionaries to  America;  but  the  work  was  pros- 
perous, and  erelong  became  self-supporting. 

In  1784  Dr.  Coke  was  made  Superintendent 
of  Missions.  That  year  a  mission  was  opened 
in  the  Isle  of  Jersey.  In  1785  missionaries 
were  sent  to  Nova  Scotia,  Newfoundland,  and 
the  island  of  Antigua.  These  missions  were 
re-enforced  in  1786.  In  1787  missions  were 
commenced  at  St.  Vincent,  St.  Christopher, 
and  St.  Eustatius,  and  the  work  strengthened 
in  the  Norman  isles.  In  1788  five  additional 
missionaries  were  sent  to  the  West  Indies. 
In  1789  the  work  had  spread  to  Dominica, 
Barbadoes,  Saba,  Tortola,  and  Santa  Cruz.  In 
1790  two  more  missionaries  were  sent  to  the 
West  Indies,  and  Jamaica  was  added  to  the 
stations.     A  committee  of  nine  preachers  was 

16       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions* 

appointed  to  take  the  management  of  these 
missions.  In  1791  Mr.  Wesley  closed  his 

On  the  death  of  Mr.  Wesley  the  burden  of 
the  foreign  work  devolved  on  Dr.  Coke.  Aft- 
er his  appointment  in  1784  as  Superintendent 
his  labors  had  been  those  of  an  apostle.  He 
traveled  over  Great  Britain,  soliciting  contri- 
butions, selecting  men  for  the  work,  and  cor- 
responding with  the  missionaries.  After  the 
Conference  of  1786  he  sailed  for  Halifax  with 
.three  missionaries,  but  was  driven  by  stress  of 
weather  to  Antigua.  Moved  by  the  religious 
destitution  of  the  people,  he  distributed  the 
missionaries  among  the  islands,  and  thus  laid 
the  foundation  of  the  Wesleyan  Mission  in 
the  West  Indies.  On  his  return  to  England 
he  spent  eighteen  months  in  raising  money 
for  Missions,  and  at  the  close  of  the  Confer- 
ence of  1788  sailed  with  a  company  of  mis- 
sionaries, whom  he  placed  on  other  islands  of 
the  West  Indies.  He  returned  to  England 
and  sent  out  several  missionaries,  and  in  1790 
went  out  with  another  company.  In  1791, 
the  year  of  Mr.  Wesley's  death,  these  missions 
reported  23  missionaries,  498  French  mem- 
bers, 350  mulattoes,  and  4,377  negroes— total, 
5,847.     To  aid  Pr.  Coke  in  the  work  that  wm 

Wesleyan  Missions,  .  17 

multiplying  every  year,  the  Conference  ap- 
pointed a  committee  of  finance  and  advice, 
which  embraced  all  the  ministers  of  the  Con- 
nection resident  for  the  time  being  in  London. 
This  committee  was  charged  with  the  exami- 
nation of  missionaries  who  were  sent  out,  the 
inspection  of  accounts,  and  the  correspond- 
ence with  the  missionaries  in  the  field.  This 
year  three  more  missionaries  were  sent  to  the 
West  Indies,  and  a  mission  projected  in 
France.  In  the  Minutes  of  1792  Sierra  Le- 
one, Africa,  appears  on  the  list  of  missionary 
stations.  In  1793  the  Conference  provided 
for  a  general  collection  for  Foreign  Missions 
to  be  raised  in  all  the  congregations  of  the 

From  the  Minutes  of  1796  we  learn  that 
Eev.  A.  Murdoch  and  Kev.  A.  Patton  were 
solemnly  set  apart  by  the  Conference  for  mis- 
sion work  in  the  Foulah  country,  Africa.  In 
1799  Gibraltar  was  added  to  the  list  of  mis- 
sion stations.  That  year  Eev.  G.  Whitfield 
was  appointed  Treasurer  for  Foreign  Mis- 
sions. At  the  request  of  the  Conference,  Dr. 
Coke  drew  up  a  statement  of  the  work  of 
God  carried  on  by  these  missions,  and  it  en- 
tered on  its  Minutes  the  following  record: 
"We  in  the  fullest  manner  take  these  mi§- 

18       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions.     ' 

sions  under  our  own  care,  and  consider  Dr. 
Coke  as  our  agent." 

At  the  Conference  of  1800  a  body  of  rules 
was  compiled  for  the  regulation  of  Foreign 
Missions,  and  Dr.  Coke  was  authorized  to 
send  a  missionary  to  Gibraltar  and  another  to 
Madras.  In  1804  Mr.  Hawkshaw  was  sent  to 
open  a  mission  at  Demerara,  South  America. 
In  connection  with  Dr.  Coke  as  Superintend- 
ent, the  name  of  Mr.  Entwistle  appears  as  the 
first  Missionary  Secretary,  with  Mr.  Thomas  as 
Treasurer.  These  officers  were  amenable  to 
the  Mission  Committee,  consisting  of  the  Lon- 
don preachers.  The  machinery  necessary  for 
the  management  of  the  missionary  movement 
which  God  was  developing  through  the  agency 
of  the  people  called  Methodists  took  shape  as 
the  demand  for  it  arose.  In  1804  the  mem- 
bers within  the  bounds  of  its  various  missions 
amounted  to  15,846. 

Thus,  during  those  years  when  William 
Carey  was  pleading  the  cause  of  the  heathen 
with  his  Baptist  brethren,  the  Wesleyan 
Methodists  were  planting  missions  among  the 
heathen  negroes  of  the  West  Indies,  and  their 
converts  had  been  multiplied  into  thousands. 
The  year  before  the  organization  of  the  Bap- 
tist Missionary  Society  the  Wesleyan  Method- 

Wesleyan  Missions,  -    19 

ist  Conference  had  created  a  Missionary  Com- 
mittee to  co-operate  with  the  Missionary- 
Superintendent  of  Foreign  Missions  in  the 
selection  of  missionaries,  the  collection  and 
disbursement  of  money,  and  the  correspond- 
ence with  men  in  the  field.  Without  assum- 
ing the  name,  the  Conference  was  already  a 
Foreign  Missionary  Society.  The  year  that 
the  Baptist  Missionary  Society  was  organized 
the  Methodists  were  opening  a  mission  in  Af- 
rica; and  the  year  that  William  Carey,  with 
very  scant  support  from  his  brethren,  sailed 
for  India,  the  Wesleyans  were  lifting  collec- 
tions in  all  their  congregations  for  the  sup- 
port and  enlargement  of  their  Foreign 
Missions,  which  may  rank  among  the  most 
successful  of  modern  days.  We  do  not  de- 
preciate the  work  of  other  Churches,  but  sim- 
ply claim  for  Methodism  its  rightful  place  in 
the  van  of  modern  Missions. 

Dr.  Coke  had  it  in  his  heart  to  commence  a 
mission  in  the  East  Indies,  and  Providence 
opened  the  way.  Sir  Alexander  Johnson, 
chief  justice  of  Ceylon,  was  impressed  with 
the  importance  of  a  mission  on  that  island. 
He  was  familiar  with  the  character  and  re- 
sults of  the  Wesleyan  Missions  in  the  West 
Indies,   and    earnestly   urged    the   Wesleyan 

20        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Conference  to  extend  its  work  to  Ceylon.  Dr. 
Coke  warmly  seconded  the  appeal.  He  not 
only  advocated  a  mission  in  the  East  Indies, 
but  claimed  the  privilege  of  sharing  the  toil 
of  those  who  wonld  pioneer  the  work.  His 
friends  sought  to  dissuade  him,  but  after  lis- 
tening to  their  arguments  he  burst  into  tears 
and  exclaimed:  "If  you  will  not  let  me  go, 
you  will  break  my  heart."  He  proposed  not 
only  to  go  out  and  open  the  mission,  but  out 
of  his  own  private  fortune  to  advance  the 
money  that  would  be  required  for  outfit,  trav- 
el, and  settlement  of  the  missionaries  in  the 
field.  It  was  finally  decided  to  send  out  with 
Dr.  Coke  six  missionaries  for  Ceylon  and  one 
for  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  On  the  13th  of 
December,  1813,  he  sailed  with  Messrs.  Ault, 
Lynch,  Erskine,  Harvard,  Squance,  and 
Clough.  On  the  way  Mrs.  Ault,  wife  of  one 
of  the  missionaries,  died  full  of  faith,  and  was 
buried  in  the  deep.  On  the  3d  of  May,  1814, 
Dr.  Coke  was  suddenly  called  to  his  reward, 
and  his  companions  with  sad  hearts  committed 
his  body  to  the  ocean.  The  death  of  Dr.  Coke 
aroused  the  Church  more  effectually  than  his 
appeals.  When  left  without  their  leader,  both 
preachers  and  people  realized  the  need  of  a 
juore  thorough  organization,  and  of  combined 

Wesleyan  Missions.  •     ^1 

and  systematic  effort  to  carry  on  the  work  in 
the  mission  fields  which  the  great  Head  of  the 
Church  had  plainly  committed  to  their  charge. 
In  the  midst  of  the  general  concern  as  to  the 
future  of  Missions,  Bev.  George  Morley,  Super- 
intendent of  the  Leeds  Circuit,  proposed  the 
formation  of  a  Missionary  Society  in  that  city. 

A  public  meeting  was  convened  in  Leeds 
October  5,  1813,  and  after  full  discussion  of 
the  duty  and  obligation  of  Christians  to  send 
the  gospel  to  the  whole  world,  it  was  resolved 
to  constitute  a  Society  to  be  called  "The 
Methodist  Missionary  Society  of  the  Leeds 
District."  The  money  collected  was  to  be 
sent  to  the  already  existing  committee  in 
London.  Other  places  followed  the  example 
of  Leeds,  and  erelong  there  were  Missionary 
Societies  in  every  congregation  in  the  king- 
dom. The  Connectional  Society,  with  a  code 
of  "  Laws  and  Regulations,"  was  not  organized 
until  1816,  yet  the  Leeds  meeting  in  1813  is 
considered  the  true  commencement  of  the  So- 

From  the  "  Revised  Rules  and  Regulations 
of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Missionary  Socie- 
ty, passed  at  the  Conference  of  1884,"  we  learn 
that  a  committee  appointed  by  the  Conference 
annually  is  now  intrusted  "  with  the  superin- 

22        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

tendence  of  the  collections  and  the  disburse- 
ments of  all  moneys  raised  for  the  purpose  of 
the  Society,  and  also  the  general  management 
of  the  missions."  The  General  Committee 
consists  of  the  President  and  Secretary  of  the 
Conference,  the  ex-President,  four  General 
Secretaries  and  an  Honorary  Secretary,  two 
General  Treasurers  and  a  Deputy  Treasurer, 
and  ninety- two  members. 

Ceylon  Mission. 

The  death  of  Dr.  Coke  left  his  little  compa- 
ny without  a  leader.  The  enterprise  had  rest- 
ed largely  upon  his  liberality,  and  they  found 
themselves  approaching  a  strange  land  with- 
out any  certain  assurance  of  support.  They 
felt,  however,  that  they  were  there  in  obedi- 
ence to  the  call  of  God,  and  relied  on  his  hand 
for  direction.  They  soon  realized  that  he  who 
said,  *'Lo,  I  am  with  you  alw^ay,"  was  their 
leader  in  this  work.  They  reached  Bombay 
May  21, 1813.  Their  mission  and  their  letters 
of  introduction  soon  secured  friends,  who  not 
only  sympathized  with  their  work,  but  ren- 
dered counsel  and  material  aid.  June  29 
the  mission  family,  with  the  exception  of  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Harvard,  landed  at  Point  de  Galle. 
Lord  Molesworth,  the  Commandant  of  Galle, 

Wesieyan  Missions,  .    23 

had  been  directed  by  the  Governor  of  Ceylon 
to  place  the  barracks  at  their  disposal.     He 
met  them  on  their  arrival  with  a  fraternal  wel- 
come, and  rendered  them  cordial  assistance. 
Grateful  for  these  assurances  that  God  was 
opening  their  way,  they  entered  on  their  work. 
They  decided  to  open  stations  at  Jaffna  and 
Batticaloa  for  the  Tamil  portion  of  the  island, 
and  at  Galle  and  Metara  for  the  Singalese. 
After  celebrating  the  Lord's  Supper  together, 
in  which  Lord  Molesworth  asked  permission 
to  join  them,  Messrs.  Lynch  and  Squance  left 
Galle  for  Jaffna.     At  Colombo  they  were  cor- 
dially welcomed  by  the  Governor  and  other 
leading  officials  as  well  as  the  English  clergy- 
man and  the  Baptist  missionary.     Here  they 
met  Daniel  Theophilus,  the  first  convert  in 
Ceylon    from    Mohammedanism — a    man    of 
strong   mind   and   good   education.     He   was 
persecuted  by  his  relatives,  and  his  life  threat- 
ened.    He  went  with  them  to  Jaffna.     Here 
they  met  Christian  David,  a  Tamil  preacher 
from  Tranquebar,  who  told  them  he  had  been 
praying  for  ten  years  that  a  missionary  should 
be  sent  to  Ceylon.     He  aided  them  greatly  in 
their  work,  and  they  in  turn  assisted  him  in 
the  way   of   religious  instruction.     The   En- 
glish schools  w^ere  placed  by  the  government 

24        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

under  their  charge.  At  the  request  of  the 
English  residents,  they  held  services  in  En- 
glish. The  other  missionaries  met,  in  their 
stations,  similar  aid  and  encouragement. 
Thus,  though  their  leader  was  buried  beneath 
the  waves,  and  their  means  of  support  appar- 
ently cut  off,  God  had  provided  for  them,  and 
opened  the  way  for  the  accomplishment  of 
their  mission.  They  labored  hard  to  acquire 
the  language,  and  lost  no  opportunity  to  reach 
the  native  population. 

Mr.  Clough,  who  remained  at  Galle,  formed 
the  acquaintance  of  the  Moodeliar  of  the  dis- 
trict, who  called  one  day  and  stated  that  he 
had  heard  that  Mr.  Clough  desired  to  open  a 
school.  He  said  he  desired  to  place  his  chil- 
dren under  his  instruction,  and  offered  him  a 
good  house  near  his  own  residence,  well  fur- 
nished for  the  school.  The  offer  was  accept- 
ed and  the  school  opened.  The  influence  and 
friendship  of  the  Moodeliar  caused  many  of 
the  learned  priests  to  call  and  inquire  about 
the  Christian  religion.  He  secured  through 
the  same  influence  a  competent  Singalese 
teacher,  and  studied  diligently  the  language. 
One  of  the  most  influential  of  the  Buddhist 
priests  became  interested  in  the  study  of  the 
Bible,  and  earnestly  sought  at  the  hands  of 

Wesleyan  Missions.  .     25 

the  missionary  instruction  respecting  the  doc- 
trines of  Christianity.  After  two  months'  in- 
vestigation he  avowed  his  faith  in  Christ,  and 
desired  to  receive  baptism,  and  by  this  act 
publicly  renounced  his  faith  in  the  religion  of 
his  ancestors.  As  this  act  would  not  only  re- 
duce him  from  affluence  and  high  position  to 
poverty,  but  would  expose  his  life  to  peril  at 
the  hands  of  his  former  followers  and  friends, 
Mr.  Clough  informed  the  Governor  of  the 
facts  in  the  case  and  invoked  his  protection 
for  the  convert.  The  reply  was  that  if  the 
priest  had  from  conviction  embraced  the 
Christian  religion  he  should  be  protected  in 
the  exercise  of  his  religious  rights.  Every  ef- 
fort was  made  by  the  priests  and  his  old 
friends  to  shake  his  resolution,  but  he  was 
firm.  He  had  "  counted  the  cost,"  and  on  the 
25th  of  December,  1814,  he  laid  aside  his  yel- 
low robes,  and  in  the  presence  of  a  crowded 
congregation  was  baptized  under  the  name  of 
Peterus  Panditta  Sekarras.  He  supported 
himself  as  a  Singalese  translator  for  the  gov- 
ernment while  he  pursued  his  studies  with 
the  view  of  preaching  to  his  countrymen. 
Many  of  the  priests  were  shaken  in  their 
faith  in  Buddhism,  and  would  have  embraced 
Christianity,  but  with  the  surrender  of  their 

26        Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

yellow  robes  they  forfeited  their  freehold  es- 

The  abundant  harvest  caused  the  laborers 
to  overtax  their  strength.  Mr.  Ault,  after  a 
short  but  successful  career  at  Batticaloa,  laid 
down  his  trumpet  and  was  buried  with  marks 
of  respect  by  all  classes  of  people.  The  ex- 
cessive labors  of  the  others  told  on  their 
health.  Mr.  Harvard,  at  Colombo,  itinerated 
among  the  villages  in  that  region,  preaching 
through  an  interpreter.  At  Colombo  a  Sun- 
day-school with  two  hundred  scholars  was  or- 
ganized. A  printing-press  was  put  in  opera- 
tion under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Harvard,  who 
was  a  printer ;  and  spelling-books,  hymn  books, 
and  religious  tracts  and  books  were  issued  in 
the  Singalese,  Tamil,  and  Portuguese  lan- 

Another  Buddhist  priest  became  interested 
in  the  study  of  the  Bible.  He  permitted  Mr. 
Harvard  to  preach  in  the  temple  of  which  he 
was  chief  priest.  After  an  earnest  inquiry 
and  a  severe  struggle,  he  publicly  avowed  his 
faith  in  Christ,  though  at  the  loss  of  his  in- 
come and  friends.  He  was  baptized  under  the 
name  of  George  Nadoris  de  Silva,  He  ac- 
companied the  missionaries  in  their  preaching 
tours.     Crowds  came  and  listened  to  the  gos- 

Wesleyan  Missions,  -   27 

pel  preached  by  one  who  had  held  high  posi- 
tion in  the  temples  of  Buddha.  Great  num- 
bers of  the  priests  acknowledged  their  belief 
in  Christianity;  but  they  had  also  "counted 
the  cost,"  and  were  unwilling  to  make  the 
surrender.  One  man  among  them,  after 
earnest  examination  of  the  claims  of  the 
gospel,  was  baptized  by  the  name  of  Benja- 
min Parks. 

In  1814  Eev.  John  McKinney  arrived  from 
the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  in  1816  Messrs. 
Calloway,  Carver,  Broadbent,  and  Jackson  re- 
enforcecl  the  mission.  The  work  daily  gath- 
ered strength.  In  1817  the  Wesleyans  opened 
vernacular  schools,  and  before  the  close  of  the 
year  they  had  over  1,000  scholars,  and  during 
the  first  thirty  years  of  the  history  of  these 
schools  over  21,000  pupils,  male  and  female, 
received  instruction  in  the  numerous  schools 
of  the  mission.  The  school,  however,  did  not 
supersede  the  pulpit  and  printing-press.  The 
testimony  of  the  converts  revealed  a  Christian 
experience  as  full  and  satisfactory  as  any  the 
missionaries  had  heard  or  witnessed  in  Chris- 
tian England.  In  1860  the  mission  reported 
43  missionaries  and  assistants,  3,195  members, 
and  880  on  trial.  In  1890  the  mission  in  Cey- 
lon consisted  of  the  Colombo,  Kandy,  Galle, 

28       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

and  Jaffna  Districts.  These  districts  reported 
70  missionaries,  3,599  full  members,  and  1,071 
on  trial. 

East  India  Mission. 

When  the  Ceylon  Mission  was  established, 
the  Wesleyan  missionaries  realized  that  God 
had  opened  the  way  to  India,  and  in  1817  Mr. 
Lynch,  the  senior  missionary,  proceeded  to 
Madras.  In  a  short  time  the  field  became  one 
of  considerable  usefulness.  In  1819  the  En- 
glish and  Malabar  School  he  had  established 
had  150  pupils.  In  1817  Mr.  Homer  and  wife 
reached  Bombay.  He  soon  acquired  the  lan- 
guage, and  began  to  preach  to  the  peopla  He 
gathered  some  forty  boys  in  a  school,  which  in 
1819  numbered  180.  In  1821  the  Madras  Mis- 
sion reported  147  members.  In  1823  there 
was  one  missionary  at  Seringapatum,  one  at 
Bengalon,  and  two  at  Negapatum,  and  a  mem- 
bership in  all  of  191.  In  1827  these  reported 
16  schools,  with  542  children,  and  251  mem- 
bers, including  some  pioneer  soldiers.  The 
converts  suffered  much  from  loss  of  caste  and 
expulsion  from  their  families,  but  they  "count- 
ed all  things  loss  for  the  excellency  of  the 
knowledge  of  Christ  Jesus  their  Lord."  In 
1830  there  were  reported  9  missionaries,  25 
schools,  over  1,000  scholars,  many  of  whom 

Wesleyan  Missions,  •  29 

were  females,  and  314  members.  This  year 
two  missionaries  were  sent  to  Calcutta,  but 
after  a  time  one  was  sent  to  Ceylon  and  the 
other  to  Bengalon. 

In  1837  Kev.  Jonathan  Crowther  was  made 
General  Superintendent  of  the  India  Missions. 
Five  missionaries  and  their  families  went  out 
with  him.  There  were  several  conversions 
this  year,  among  them  Arumaga  Tambiran. 
He  was  of  good  family,  had  been  well  edu- 
cated, and  was  zealous  for  his  religion.  He 
was  of  the  Siva  sect,  and  made  many  pilgrim- 
ages, but  they  gave  him  no  peace.  The  con- 
version of  one  of  his  pupils  led  to  an  inter- 
view with  the  missionary,  and  this  to  his  own 
conversion.  His  former  disciples  sought  to 
carry  him  off  by  force,  and  he  had  to  appeal 
to  the  protection  of  law.  Before  the  court, 
and  in  the  midst  of  a  furious  crowd,  he  wit- 
nessed a  good  confession. 

In  1838  a  mission  was  opened  in  the  Mysore 
country.  In  1839  several  missionaries,  among 
them  Dr.  Authur,  author  of  the  "  Tongue  of 
Fire,"  were  sent  out.  In  1860  there  were  cen- 
tral stations  at  Madras,  Negapatum,  Manaar- 
goody,  Trichinopoly,  Bengalore  (Tamil), 
Bengalore  (Canona),  and  Coonghul;  17  mis- 
sionaries,  and   428    members.     In    1890  the 

30        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

East  India  Mission  embraced  the  Madras, 
the  Negapatum,  the  Trichinopoly,  the  Hydra- 
bad,  the  Mysore,  the  Calcutta,  the  Lucknow, 
and  Benares  Districts,  with  79  missionaries, 
3,438  members,  and  812  on  trial. 

West  Indies  Mission. 

Nathaniel  Gilbert,  the  Speaker  of  the  House 
of  Assembly  in  Antigua,  visited  England  in 
search  of  health,  and  was  converted  under 
the  ministry  of  John  Wesley.  He  returned 
to  Antigua  in  1760.  The  African  slaves 
of  the  island  were  fresh  from  the  heathen- 
ism of  Africa.  He  began  to  teach  them  the 
gospel,  and  two  hundred  of  them  were  gath- 
ered into  the  Methodist  Society  under  his  su- 
perintendency.  He  met  bitter  opposition,  but 
was  faithful  to  his  charge  until  death  called 
him  home.  God  took  care  of  the  little  flock. 
John  Baxter,  a  Wesleyan  local  preacher  con- 
nected with  the  royal  dock-yard  at  Chatham, 
was  sent  out  as  a  shipwright.  He  gathered 
the  remains  of  the  Society,  and  in  1778  re- 
ported to  Mr.  Wesley  that  the  little  company 
had  been  kept  together  by  the  prayers  and  la- 
bors of  two  faithfid  black  women.  For  eight 
years  Mr.  Baxter,  while  making  his  support 
in  the  dock-yard,  continued  his  labors,  receiv- 

Wesleyan  Missions,  •  31 

ing  during  that  time  into  the  Society  about 
two  thousand  souls. 

In  1786  Dr.  Coke  and  three  missionaries 
were  on  their  v/ay  to  Nova  Scotia,  when  their 
vessel  was  driven  south  by  a  storm,  and  landed 
at  Antigua  on  Christmas-day.  They  met  Mr. 
Baxter  on  his  way  to  church.  Dr.  Coke 
preached  that  day,  and  administered  the 
Lord's  Supper.  He  remained  six  weeks  in 
the  West  Indies;  and  after  visiting  several  of 
the  islands,  placed  Mr.  Warrener  at  Antigua, 
Mr.  Clarke  at  St.  Vincent's,  and  Mr.  Hammet 
at  St.  Christophus.  From  that  time  the  West 
Indies  Mission  was  carried  on  with  constantly 
increasing  success.  The  good  results  of  the 
labors  of  the  missionaries  commanded  the  at- 
tention and  respect  of  the  government;  and  in 
1795,  when  the  French  fleet  threatened  Anti- 
gua, the  missionary  was  requested  to  organize 
his  members  into  a  military  band  for  the  de- 
fense of  the  island.  He  and  his  people 
promptly  responded,  but  the  attack  was  not 

In  1826  all  the  missionaries  of  Antigua, 
with  part  of  their  families,  were  returning 
home  from  a  district  meeting  when  the  vessel 
was  wrecked.  Thirteen  were  lost.  Only  one, 
Mrs.  Jones,  was  saved.     The  work  was  re-en- 

32        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

forced  and  extended  to  Trinidad,  Demarara, 
St.  Eustatiiis,  Barbadoes,  Tortola,  Jamaica, 
Bermudas,  St.  Domingo,  and  other  points. 
In  1853  there  were  397  preaching-places,  79 
missionaries  and  assistants,  48,589  members, 
259  Sunday-schools,  and  18,247  scholars.  In 
1890  this  mission  embraced  two  Conferences, 
with  90  ministers,  45,928  members,  and  2,450 
on  trial.  In  addition  to  these,  the  Bahama 
and  Honduras  District  reported  17  mission- 
aries, 5,251  members,  and  125  on  trial. 

South  Africa  Mission. 

In  1814  John  McKinney  was  sent  to  South 
Africa,  but  on  his  arrival  the  Governor  re- 
fused to  permit  him  to  preach,  and  he  was  or- 
dered to  Ceylon.  In  1815  Barnabas  Shaw  and 
his  wife  were  sent  out.  The  Governor  refused 
to  grant  him  license  to  preach,  but  he  had  a 
commission  from  the  King  of  kings,  and  the 
following  Sunday,  as  an  embassador  from 
God,  he  delivered  his  message  to  a  congrega- 
tion of  soldiers.  He  desired,  however,  to 
work  among  the  natives,  and  at  this  juncture 
Eev.  M.  Schemlen,  a  missionary  of  the  Lon- 
don Missionary  Society,  came  to  Cape  Town 
with  some  Namaquas.  He  encouraged  Shaw 
to  attempt  a  mission   among  the  heathen  be- 

Wesleyan  Missions.  .  33 

yoiid  Orange  Eiver.  While  in  doubt  as  to 
whether  he  should  engage  in  the  undertaking 
before  receiving  the  sanction  of  the  Board, 
his  brave  and  devoted  wife,  though  in  feeble 
health,  urged  her  husband  to  undertake  the 
enterprise,  pledging  her  personal  property  to 
pay  its  cost  if  the  committee  in  London 
should  decline  to  meet  the  expense.  A  wagon 
and  oxen  and  supplies  were  purchased,  and 
they  started  on  their  w^eary  journey  under  the 
sultry  sun,  Schemlen  being  their  guide.  On 
the  twenty-seventh  day  of  their  journey  they 
met  a  party  of  Hottentots.  Conversing  with 
their  chief,  Shaw  learned  that  his  people  had 
heard  of  the  "great  w^ord,"  and  he  was  on  his 
w^ay  to  Cape  Town  for  a  missionary  to  teach 
him  and  his  people  the  way  of  salvation.  The 
meeting  seemed  providential.  They  had  met 
where  their  roads  crossed,  and  had  either  par- 
ty been  delayed  a  half-hour  possibly  they 
would  not  have  met,  and  the  mission  would 
not  have  been  opened. 

The  delight  of  the  chief  was  great  wdien  he 
learned  that  the  white  man  to  wliom  he  was 
talking  was  a  missionary  in  searcli  of  a  people 
to  whom  he  could  preach  the  gospel  of  Christ. 
He  wept  for  joy  when  Sliaw  tol<l  him  that  he 
v/ould  go  with  him  and  instruct  his  people.  It 

34       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

was  two  Imiidred  miles  to  the  home  of  the 
chief,  and  the  way  lay  through  tangled  forest 
and  rugged  mountains.  When  within  two  or 
three  days'  journey  from  their  destination,  the 
chief  hastened  on  with  the  good  news.  On 
their  last  day's  journey  some  twenty  or  thirty 
Namaquas,  mounted  on  young  oxen  and  riding 
at  full  gallop,  brought  them  a  welcome  from 
the  people,  and  then  set  off  at  full  speed  to 
announce  their  coming.  The  whole  town 
turned  out  to  meet  them.  The  next  day 
they  held  service.  During  the  sermon  the 
chief  and  many  of  his  people  wept  aloud. 
After  the  sermon  arrangements  for  the  mis- 
sion were  made  between  the  missionary  and 
the  chief  and  his  people.  After  seeing  them 
safely  established  in  their  work,  Mr.  Schem- 
len  left  them  for  his  own  field,  which  was  dis- 
tant four  weeks'  journey.  Mr.  Shaw  and  his 
wife  found  an  abundance  of  work.  During 
the  day  they  were  building  a  house,  tilling 
the  ground,  and  devoting  the  evenings  to  the 
religious  instruction  of  the  people.  Soon  a 
chapel  was  built  and  a  school  commenced,  a 
class  formed,  and  erelong  a  Church  organized 
with  seventeen  members  by  baptism. 

The  work  spread  among  the  people.     When 
the  news  reached  England,  great  interest  in 

Wesleyan  Missions.  '  35 

the  mission  was  aroused.  In  1818  Kev.  E. 
Edwards  came  out.  His  arrival  caused  great 
joy  to  the  missionaries  and  the  people.  The 
night  of  their  arrival  they  were  awakened  by 
tlie  songs  of  the  natives,  who  had  gathered 
around  the  house  of  the  missionaries,  and  in 
their  native  language  sung  the  praises  of  their 
Redeemer.  Mr.  Edwards  had  brought  with 
him  a  forge.  When  he  set  it  up  and  began 
work,  it  was  to  the  people  a  day  of  wonder. 
The  mission  was  now  enlarged.  The  nows  of 
the  great  work  spread  from  tribe  to  tribe,  and 
deputations  came  asking  for  missionaries.  In 
1821  the  mission  was  strengthened  by  three 
new  missionaries.  A  station  was  opened  in 
Kaffraria  and  two  men  sent  to  Madagascar. 

Among  the  early  converts  under  the  minis- 
try of  Barnabas  Shaw  was  a  Namaquan  who 
was  baptized  under  the  name  of  Jacob  Links. 
He  was  for  some  time  employed  as  an  inter- 
preter, as  he  understood  both  Dutch  and  En- 
glish. He  learned  the  latter  that  he  might 
have  access  to  its  religious  literature,  which 
he  studied  with  great  diligence.  He  soon  ex- 
hibited remarkable  gifts  as  a  preacher,  and 
was  employed  as  an  assistant  missionary. 
One  day  he  and  Mr.  Shaw  met  a  Dutch  boer 
who  denied  that  the  gospel  was  for  the  Hot- 

36       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

tentots  because  their  name  is  not  found  in 
the  Bible.  Links  replied:  ''Master,  you  say 
that  our  names  do  not  stand  in  the  book.  Will 
yoa  tell  me  whether  the  name  Dutchman  or 
Englishman  is  to  be  found  in  it?"  No  an- 
swer was  given.  Links  then  said:  "Master, 
you  call  us  heathen.  That  is  our  name.  Now  I 
find  that  the  book  says  that  Jesus  came  as  a 
light  to  lighten  the  heathen.  So  we  read  our 
name  in  the  book."  The  Dutchman  was  si- 
lent. The  argument  of  the  Hottentot  might 
silence  many  in  our  land  and  day  who  ques- 
tion the  obligation  of  the  Church  to  send  the 
gospel  to  the  heathen. 

Jacob  and  a  native  exhorter  and  Mr.  Threl- 
fall,  a  missionary  who  was  sent  out  in  1822, 
were  on  their  way  to  open  a  new  mission 
among  the  great  Namaquas,  when  they 
were  all  murdered  by  the  savages  employed 
as  their  guides.  After  Jacob  was  shot,  he 
died  exhorting  his  murderers  and  commend- 
ing his  soul  to  God.  The  death  of  Mr.  Threl- 
fall  quickened  the  interest  in  England  in  be- 
half of  the  mission,  and  men  gladly  offered 
themselves  to  carry  on  the  work. 

Barnabas  Shaw  visited  England  in  1837  to 
recruit  his  health,  but  soon  returned  to  his 
post.     He  closed  work   in  1857  on  the  field 

Wesleyan  Missions.  •  37 

where  he  had  planted  the  cross.  In  1860  the 
mission  was  divided  into  three  districts,  with 
39  chapels,  67  other  preaching-places,  21  mis- 
sionaries, 2,147  members,  and  3,159  Sunday- 
school  scholars.  In  1890  the  South  Africa 
Mission  reported  21  missionaries,  2,299  mem- 
bers, and  620  on  trial. 

West  Africa  Mission. 

In  1795  Dr.  Coke  united  with  a  number  of 
gentlemen  of  different  denominations  to  open 
a  mission  for  the  civilization  of  the  Foulahs 
of  AYest  Africa.  The  scheme  proposed  to  civ- 
ilize and  then  Christianize  the  heathen  of  Af- 
rica. In  1796  Dr.  Coke  reported  the  failure 
of  the  enterprise  to  the  Conference,  and  after 
earnest  prayer  and  deliberation  it  was  decided 
to  open  a  mission  on  the  west  coast  of  Africa  on 
the  true  missionary  plan.  The  Minutes  show 
that  A.  Murdoch  and  W.  Patton  volunteered 
and  were  solemnly  and  prayerfully  set  apart 
for  this  work.  For  several  years  the  Minutes 
are  silent  respecting  this  mission.  In  the 
"Arminian  Magazine  "  of  1797  the  following 
item  appears:  "  There  are  also  in  Sierra  Leone, 
upon  the  coast  of  Africa,  400  persons  in  con- 
nection with  the  Methodist  Society,  of  whom 
223  are  blacks  and  mulattoes." 

88       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Mi. 


In  1804  a  letter  from  Mr.  Brown  appealing 
to  Dr.  Coke  for  help  stated  that  he  and  Mr. 
Gordon,  both  local  preachers,  and  a  native 
preacher  were  caring  for  the  little  flock.  In 
1808  a  letter  from  this  native  preacher,  Mingo 
Jordan,  to  Dr.  Adam  Clarke  stated  that,  in- 
cluding the  converted  maroons,  the  members 
in  and  around  Sierra  Leone  numbered  400. 
He  pleads  for  hymn  books  and  clothing  for 
the  preachers.  In  1811  Dr.  Coke  sent  Rev. 
George  Warren  as  superintendent  of  the  mis- 
sion. He  found  110  members.  The  decline 
from  400  in  1797  is  thus  explained:  After  the 
war  with  the  United  States  many  negroes  who 
had  served  in  the  British  army  congregated 
in  London.  Their  deplorable  condition  ar- 
rested public  attention.  *'  Subject  to  every 
misery  and  familiar  w^ith  every  vice,"  they 
were  festering  in  that  great  metropolis.  To 
rid  the  city  of  this  plague  the  "African  Com- 
pany" was  formed,  the  land  of  Sierra  Leone 
was  bought,  and  in  1787  four  hundred  negroes 
and  sixty  wdiites,  the  latter  chiefly  abandoned 
women,  were  emptied  on  the  west  coast  of  Af- 
rica. In  1791  about  one  thousand  two  hun- 
dred negroes  from  Nova  Scotia  were  poured 
into  this  seething  pool  of  vice.  In  1808  the 
company  transferred  the  colony  to  the  British 

Wesleyan  Missions.  .  39 

Government,  and  it  was  made  tlie  asylum  for 
captured  slaves.  Such  was  tlie  material  of 
which  the  population  of  Sierra  Leone,  which 
in  1847  amounted  to  41,735,  was  formed. 
The  strong  hand  of  the  British  Government 
could  secure  law  and  order,  but  it  could  not 
transform  the  moral  character  of  the  people. 
This  was  the  task  that  confronted  the  Wes- 
leyan  missionaries.  The  deadly  climate  in- 
creased their  difficulties. 

From  1811  to  1850  the  Wesleyan  Missionary 
Society  sent  out,  including  their  wives,  153 
missionaries.  Of  these,  54  died  with  the  fatal 
fever,  and  others  were  forced  by  sickness  from 
the  field.  The  committee  at  first  fixed  the 
period  of  service  at  seven  years,  then  at  three, 
then  at  two.  Only  in  a  few  instances  was  that 
term  of  service  exceeded.  Many  died  within 
the  first  year,  and  some  in  a  few  months  or 
weeks.  Often  stations  were  left  without  a 
missionary  for  months.  Yet  as  one  fell  an- 
other stepped  into  his  place,  and  with  a  hero- 
ism equal  to  that  of  the  "Light  Brigade," 
those  brave  Wesleyan  missionaries  went  down 
into  the  "valley  of  death."  In  view  of  the 
difficulties  they  encountered,  their  success  has 
been  remarkable.  In  1860  the  Sierra  Leone 
District  had  31  chapels,  7  missionaries,  107 

40       Hmid  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

local  preachers,  and  6,192  members.  The 
Gambia  District  had  6  chapels,  3  mission- 
aries, 8  local  preachers,  and  817  members. 
The  Cape  Coast  District  had  13  chapels,  8 
missionaries,  23  local  preachers,  and  1,012 
members.  In  1890  the  West  Africa  Mission 
reported  55  missionaries,  14,014  members,  and 
1,652  on  trial. 


In  1815  the  Wesleyan  Society  sent  a  mis- 
sionary to  New  South  Wales.  At  that  time 
it  was  a  penal  settlement  under  the  British 
Government.  A  few  Methodists  had  gone 
out  as  farmers  and  teachers.  They  were  in 
the  midst  of  convicts  and  savages.  In  1812 
they  organized  three  classes  with,  in  all,  nine- 
teen members,  and  wrote  to  the  Missionary 
Committee  setting  forth  the  condition  of  the 
land,  and  pleading  for  a  preacher.  This  was 
the  beginning  of  a  mission  which  has  grown 
into  one  of  the  largest  of  the  British  Colonial 

In  1815  Mr.  Leigh  was  sent  out.  He  was 
warmly  welcomed  by  the  little  band.  Soon 
chapels  were  erected  at  Sydney,  Windsor,  and 
Castlereagh,  and  a  circuit  with  fifteen  stations 
formed.  Mr.  Lawry  was  sent  out  in  1816,  and 
the  work  was  opened  among  the  natives.     In 

Wesleijan  Mi  fusions.  '  41 

1818  Walter  Lawry  was  added  to  the  mission- 
ary force,  and  in  1820  Mr.  Walker  was  sent 
out  to  tlieir  assistance.  They  extended  the 
work  both  among  convicts  and  natives,  em- 
bracing widely  different  points  in  the  circuits. 
Their  devotion  to  their  work  commanded  the 
respect  of  the  settlers  and  won  the  confidence 
and  love  of  the  heathen  tribes. 

In  1836  two  missionaries  were  sent  to  Port 
Philip,  South  Australia,  and  a  mission  was 
opened  at  Victoria.  The  mission,  re-enforced 
from  England,  and  raising  up  preachers  from 
its  midst,  was  so  wonderfully  prospered  that 
in  1854  all  the  Methodist  Societies  were  or- 
ganized under  the  Australian  Conference,  with 
the  four  Annual  Conferences  of  New  South 
Wales  and  Queensland,  Victoria  and  Tasma- 
nia, South  Australia,  and  New  Zealand. 

In  1890  the  mission  in  Australia  embraced 
the  New  South  Wales  and  Queensland,  the 
Chinese  Mission,  New  South  Wales,  the  Vic- 
toria and  Tasmania,  the  Chinese  Mission,  Vic- 
toria, the  South  Australia,  the  New  Zealand, 
the  Maori,  and  the  South  Sea  Missions.  Con- 
ferences have  reported  2,594  churches;  other 
preaching-places,  1,616;  ministers  and  preach- 
ers on  trial,  570;  full  members,  70,754;  on 
trial,  6,888;  Sunday-school  scholars,  166,482. 

42        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

The  Friendly  Islands. 

In  1797  the  London  Missionary  Society  sent 
several  missionaries  to  the  Society  Islands. 
They  were  landed  at  Tongataboo.  Three  of 
them  were  murdered  during  a  war  among  the 
natives,  and  the  others  were  plundered.  In 
1800  an  Englkh  ship  arrived  at  the  islands, 
and  the  discouraged  missionaries  were  con- 
veyed to  New  South  Wales. 

In  1822  Eev.  Walter  Lawry,  of  the  Wesley- 
an  Missionary  Society,  reached  Tongataboo. 
He  met  but  little  encouragement,  and  removed 
to  New  South  Wales  in  1823.  In  1825  the  So- 
ciety sent  out  Revs.  John  Thomas  and  John 
Hutchison.  They  built  a  residence  at  Hihi- 
fo,  and  commenced  the  study  of  the  language, 
and  sought  to  teach  the  pyople,  but  with 
small  success.  They  were  re-enforced  in  1817 
by  Revs.  N.  Turner,  W.  Cross,  and  Mr.  Weiss. 
They  found  two  native  preachers  at  Nukua- 
lofa, one  of  the  chief  towns  of  the  island,  who 
were  preaching  in  the  Tihiti  language.  Here 
they  erected  a  chapel  and  had  a  congregation 
of  over  two  hundred  souls. 

In  1830  Mr.  Thomas  visited  Lifuka,  the 
chief  of  the  Habai  Islands.  He  found  that 
the  king  had  already  renounced  idolatry.  He 
had  visited  Tonga  a  few  months  before,  and 

Wesleijan  Missions.  •  43 

brought  home  with  him  as  teachers  a  young 
man  and  his  wife  who  were  Christians.  Mr. 
Thomas  began  to  preach  to  the  natives,  and 
opened  schools  which  were  attended  chiefly 
by  adults,  both  male  and  female.  They  were 
taught  princii^ally  by  natives.  What  one 
learned  he  taught  to  others.  The  king  and 
the  chiefs  were  among  the  scholars.  After  a 
few  months  Taufaahau,  the  king,  and  a  num- 
ber of  natives  were  baptized.  A  large  build- 
ing, holding  1,500  people,  was  built,  which  was 
crowded  with  hearers.  The  king  was  active 
in  his  efforts  to  induce  the  people  to  renounce 

For  three  years  the  labors  of  the  mission- 
aries in  the  island  of  Vavau  had  been  unsuc- 
cessful. The  king  of  Habai  visited  Yavau 
with  twenty-four  canoes,  and  the  missionaries 
wrote  to  Finau,  the  king,  a  friendly  letter. 
Taufaahau  exhorted  him  to  give  up  his  idols 
and  receive  the  gospel.  At  length  he  yielded, 
and  burned  the  house  of  his  idols.  Over  a 
thousand  of  his  people  joined  him  in  renounc- 
ing idolatry.  They  were  eager  to  be  instruct- 
ed, and  kept  the  Habai  people  busy  day  and 
night.  As  one  company  retired  another  took 
its  place,  eager  to  hear  the  v/onderful  things 
they  told  them  of  God,  who  so  loved  the  world 

44       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

that  he  sent  his  Son  to  die  for  the  salvation  of 
every  soul. 

Among  the  missionaries  who  reached  Nuku- 
alofa was  W,  Woon,  a  printer.  He  printed 
school-books,  selections  from  the  Bible,  hymn- 
books,  catechisms,  and  other  useful  books. 
They  were  eagerly  bought  by  the  people,  and 
greatly  advanced  the  cause.  The  schools  soon 
sent  out  a  supply  of  teachers,  and  other 
schools  were  established  on  several  of  the  isl- 
ands. Native  preachers  proved  the  chief 
evangelical  agency  in  winning  the  people  from 
idolatry  to  Christ.  The  wives  of  the  mission- 
aries taught  the  women  to  sew,  and  they  were 
soon  neatly  dressed,  while  their  homes  re- 
vealed their  advance  from  barbarism  toward 

In  July,  1834,  a  wonderful  awakening  be- 
gan at  Vavau.  Thousands  had  abandoned 
their  idols  and  embraced  the  lotu^  as  they 
called  Christianity,  but  the  missionaries  saw 
the  danger  of  the  people  settling  down  in  a 
mere  profession  without  the  power  of  the  gos- 
pel. They  covenanted  to  pray  for  a  richer 
baptism  of  the  Spirit.  Their  prayers  were 
heard.  A  native  local  preacher  was  preaching 
at  a  village  named  Utui  on  Christ's  compas- 
sion toward  Jerusalem.     The  word  came  with 

Wesleyan  Missions,  •  45 

power  upon  tlie  people.  They  wept  and  con- 
tinued in  prayer  all  night.  The  next  Sunday 
the  displays  of  power  were  renewed.  The 
whole  population  were  jjenitents.  The  flame 
spread  from  Yavau  to  Habai,  and  from  there 
to  Tonga,  until  witnesses  of  the  power  of  the 
gospel  to  save  sinners  were  found  in  all  the 
islands.  At  Vavau  the  schools  were  suspend- 
ed, and  in  six  weeks  over  2,000  were  converted 
and  the  members  in  the  Society  increased  to 

Among  the  most  efficient  agencies  in  the 
great  change  among  these  people  was  Taufaa- 
han,  the  king.  By  the  death  of  Fanau  he  be- 
came king  both  of  Habai  and  Vavau.  After- 
ward, by  the  addition  of  Tonga,  he  became  the 
supreme  ruler  of  all  the  Friendly  Islands. 
He  was  baptized  under  the  name  of  George, 
and  his  wife  v^as  named  Catherine.  He  had 
been  a  fierce  and  cruel  warrior.  After  his 
conversion  he  was  not  only  a  wise  and  faithful 
ruler,  but  a  humble  and  devout  Christian. 
He  and  his  wife  met  classes  and  superintended 
schools.  He  was  a  faithful  local  preacher, 
never  seeking  to  be  preferred  above  others, 
but  filling  his  appointments  with  the  greatest 
cheerfulness.  Commander  AVilkes,  of  the  Unit- 
ed States  Exploring  Expedition,  was  greatly 

46        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

impressed  with  George,  both  as  a  king  and 
Cliristian,  and  bore  generous  testimony  as  to 
the  wonderful  work  accomplished  among  his 
people  by  the  labors  of  the  missionaries. 

In  1853  there  were  on  the  Friendly  Islands 
95  chapels,  9  missionaries,  720  day-school 
teachers,  487  local  preachers,  7,161  members, 
and  7,928  Sunday-school  scholars. 

Fiji  Mission. 
In  1835  Kev.  W.  Cross  and  D.  Cargill 
opened  a  mission  on  Lakemba,  one  of  the  Fiji 
Islands.  The  population  of  these  islands  was 
estimated  at  200,000.  They  were  a  warlike 
race,  and  noted  among  the  South  Sea  Islands 
for  their  cannibalism.  When  the  missionaries 
approached  the  beach,  they  were  met  by  two 
hundred  men  with  painted  faces,  and  armed 
with  muskets,  clubs,  spears,  and  bows  and  ar- 
rows. They  doubted  whether  they  should 
land,  but  were  told  that  the  chief  w^anted  to 
know  who  they  were.  They  went  to  his  house 
and  stated  their  business.  He  seemed  pleased, 
and  gave  them  some  land  and  Imilt  a  tempora- 
ry house  for  each  of  the  families.  They  com- 
menced preaching,  and  several  who  had  re- 
ceived instruction  on  the  Friendly  Islands 
were  baptized.  Many  others  would  have 
abandoned  their  idols,  but  feared  their  chiefs. 

Wesley  an  Missions.  .  47 

After  several  years,  with  the  aid  of  native 
teachers  and  preachers,  some  of  whom  were 
from  the  Friendly  Islands,  and  some  were  the 
converted  Fijians,  they  carried  the  gospel 
from  Lakemba  to  Eewa,  Vewa,  Bna,  Naudy, 
and  other  islands  of  the  Fiji  group.  They 
usually  met  a  favorable  reception  from  the 
chiefs  and  the  people.  In  1845  a  religious 
movement  commenced  in  the  island  of  Vewa 
similar  to  that  in  the  Friendly  Islands.  The 
conviction  of  many  was  deep,  and  the  evidence 
of  a  change  of  heart  clear  and  bright.  Many 
leaders  in  wickedness  in  former  days  became 
leaders  in  the  Church  of  Christ.  Among 
them  was  a  chief  by  the  name  of  Varin.  He 
had  long  been  the  human  butcher  Seru,  one 
of  the  chief  kings.  He  had  superintended 
many  a  cannibal  feast.  Under  the  preaching 
of  the  gospel  his  guilty  conscience  was 
aroused.  He  found  peace  through  Christ, 
and  then,  like  Paul,  he  preached  the  faith  he 
once  labored  to  destroy. 

China  Mission. 

In  1850  George  Piercy  felt  his  heart  drawn 
to  the  heathen  world,  and  the  call  pointed  him 
to  the  millions  of  China.  He  advised  with  a 
friend,  Mr.  Henry  Peed,  an   intelligent  and 

4:8        Hmid  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

zealous  Christian,  who  sought  to  dissuade  him 
from  so  hopeless  an  enterprise.  To  every  ar- 
gument Piercy  quietly  replied:  "I  believe, 
sir,  that  God  has  called  me  to  China,  but  I 
have  no  impression  that  I  have  a  call  to  any 
other  part  of  the  mission  field."  He  at  last 
consented  "for  the  present"  to  abandon  the 
idea,  and  returned  to  his  plow.  In  six  months 
he  again  called  on  Mr.  Eeed,  and  said:  '*The 
impression  on  my  mind  regarding  China  not 
only  continues,  but  is  stronger  than  ever." 
Impressed  by  the  young  man's  earnestness, 
Mr.  Keed  gave  him  a  letter  of  introduction 
to  Eev.  William  Arthur,  one  of  the  Secre- 
taries of  the  Wesleyan  Missionary  Society. 
He  was  kindly  received  by  Mr.  Arthur,  who 
heard  his  story  and  told  him  that  the  Society 
had  no  money  with  which  to  open  a  mission 
in  the  vast  empire  of  the  East.  Without  en- 
couragement or  help,  Piercy  determined  to 
obey  what  he  considered  the  call  of  God.  He 
had  saved  from  his  wages  sufficient  to  pay  his 
passage  to  Hong  Kong,  where  he  landed  Jan- 
uary 30,  1851.  He  had  been  told  that  among 
the  British  soldiers  there  was  a  Cliristian 
sergeant  and  a  few  pious  Wesleyans.  He 
repaired  to  the  barracks  and  asked  the  first 
soldier  he  met  if  he  could  tell  him  where  he 

Wesleyan  Missions.  .  49 

would  find  Sergeant  Eoss.  "  He  is  dead,"  was 
the  reply.  His  heart  sunk,  and  he  felt  that 
he  was  indeed  alone.  A  few  words  revealed 
the  fact  that  the  man,  a  corporal,  w^as  the  only 
living  member  of  Sergeant  Eoss's  class.  All 
had  died.  The  corporal  told  Piercy  he  had 
"often  longed  and  prayed  for  a  Christian 
companion."  His  prayer  was  answered. 
Piercy  told  his  story,  and  the  soldier  and  the 
missionary  clasped  hands  as  brethren.  The 
corporal  introduced  him  to  Dr.  Legge,  of  the 
London  Missionary  Society.  That  noble  mis- 
sionary welcomed  him  to  his  home  and  cheered 
him  with  Christian  sympathy  and  advice. 
He  was  soon  at  work.  He  secured  rooms,  one 
of  which  would  hold  about  sixty  people,  and 
*'in  his  cwn  hired  house"  began  service  for 
the  English  soldiers.  Soon  a  class  of  twenty 
was  formed,  made  up  of  soldiers  and  their 
wives.  These,  out  of  their  poverty,  gave  some- 
thing for  his  support,  while  small  sums  com- 
ing from  his  friends  in  England  enabled  him 
to  give  his  whole  time  to  the  work  of  his  Mas- 
ter. After  a  few  months  he  left  Hong  Kong 
for  Canton,  that  he  might  have  access  to  the 
native  population.  Dr.  Hobson,  of  the  Lon- 
don Missionary  Society,  met  him  with  the 
same  cordial  sjjirit  that  had  been  manifested 

50        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

by  Dr.  Legge.  He  devoted  himself  diligently 
to  the  study  of  the  language  and  preparing 
for  the  work  to  which  he  had  been  so  strange- 
ly called. 

He  again  offered,  himself  to  the  Society, 
this  time  to  be  accepted.  His  movements  and 
zeal  had  aroused  the  Church  at  home.  Two 
young  men  well  equipped  for  mission  work 
requested  to  be  sent  to  China.  A  liberal  lay- 
man offered  $5,000,  to  be  paid  wdien  two  men 
should  sail  to  join  Mr.  Piercy  in  the  field,  and 
also  pledged  $500  per  annum  for  the  support 
of  the  mission.  Other  offers  of  aid  came  in. 
The  committee  recognized  in  these  events  the 
call  of  the  Master.  Piercy  was  accepted  as  a 
missionary,  and  W.  K.  Beach,  J.  Cox,  and 
Miss  Wannop,  a  trained  teacher,  were  sent 
out  to  join  him  in  Canton. 

The  report  of  the  Wesley  an  Society  for  the 
years  1889  and  1890  shows  great  prosperity  in 
this  China  Mission.  It  is  divided  into  the 
Canton  and  Wuchang  Districts,  having  in 
both  18  chapels,  with  16  additional  preaching- 
places,  21  missionaries,  33  catechists,  1,166 
full  members,  and  163  on  trial. 




The  first  missionary  movement  of  the  Bible 
Christian  Missionary  Society  was  for  the  pur- 
pose of  sending  missionaries  into  the  morally 
and  spiritually  destitute  regions  of  Great 
Britain.  This  was  in  1821.  In  1831  their 
attention  was  drawn  to  North  America; 
and  two  missionaries  were  sent  out.  One 
opened  work  in  Canada  West,  and  the  other 
in  Prince  Edward's  Island.  The  mission  was 
prospered  and  became  a  self-sustaining  organ- 
ization, which  numbered,  when  all  the  Metho- 
dists of  Canada  were  united,  about  seven  thou- 
sand souls. 

In  1850  it  was  decided  to  open  a  mission  in 
South  Australia,  and  Eevs.  James  Way  and 
James  Eowe  were  sent  to  the  field.  Later 
they  sent  others  to  Victoria,  Queensland,  and 
New  Zealand.  These  missions  were  success- 
ful, and,  as  they  became  self-supporting,  were 
placed  on  the  list  of  independent  circuits. 


52  English  Methodist  Missions. 


China  was  next  chosen  as  a  mission  field. 
In  1885  two  missionaries  were  sent  out  under 
the  China  Inland  Mission.  To  meet  the  ex- 
pense a  general  fund  was  raised,  to  which  the 
members  contributed  liberally.  Six  mission- 
aries were  sent  to  the  province  of  Yunnan — 
three  to  Yunnan,  the  capital  of  the  province, 
and  three  to  the  city  of  Chang-fung-foo.  The 
work  has  prospered.  A  ten  days'  revival  in 
the  capital  recently  led  to  the  conversion  of  a 
number  of  the  natives  to  Christ.  The  Society 
a  few  years  ago  was  supporting  four  mission- 
aries. A  native  Church  with  seven  members 
had  been  formed,  and  the  day  school  was 
prosperous.  Tracts  and  Bibles  that  set  forth 
the  teaching  and  work  of  Cliristianity  were 
circulated.  Preaching  and  books,  with  the 
medical  treatment  of  opium  patients,  awakened 
much  attention  and  secured  the  confidence 
of  the  people.  In  1888  they  had  a  station  at 
Yunnan,  which  was  served  by  Rev.  T.  G. 
Vanstone  and  wife  and  S.  Pollard,  and  an- 
other at  Chang-fung-foo,  served  by  Rev.  S. 
T.  Thorne  and  wife  and  F.  T.  Dymond. 

The  Society  also  had  47  missionaries  at 
work  among  the  abandoned  classes  of  London 
and  other  points  in  England. 

The  following  figures  from  the  reports  end- 

Neiv  Connexion  Missionary  Society.     .  53 

ing  in  1890  will  indicate  the  expansion  of 
these  missions:  Australia:  Ordained  mis- 
sionaries, 78;  native  teachers,  1,755;  other 
helpers,  385;  preaching  places,  334;  Sunday 
school  scholars,  12,500;  communicants,  5,426. 
New  Zealand:  Ordained  missionaries,  7;  na- 
tive teachers,  80;  other  helpers,  22;  commu- 
nicants, 294.  China:  Ordained  missionaries, 
6;  members,  6. 


The  Methodist  New  Connexion  Society  be- 
gan its  mission  work  in  1824.  Its  first  field 
was  Ireland.  A  resolution  was  adopted  by 
the  Conference  that "  an  effort  be  made  to  dif- 
fuse the  blessings  of  Christianity  in  that  is- 
land." The  organization  was  completed  at 
the  Conference  of  1825,  and  in  1826  a  mission 
was  opened  in  Belfast  and  adjacent  towns. 
The  work  in  this  field  is  still  continued  with 
considerable  success. 

Their  next  mission  was  in  Canada.  In  1837 
Rev.  John  Addyman  was  sent  out.  In  1839 
Rev.  H.  O.  Crofts,  D.D.,  was  sent  to  his  aid, 
and  their  united  labors  were  attended  with 
marked  success.     In  1875  it  became   one   of 

54  English  Methodist  Missions. 

the  leading  Methodist  Churches  of  the  Do- 
minion. When  it  united  with  the  Methodist 
bodies  it  brought  as  its  offering  to  the  com- 
mon altar  396  Churches,  7,661  members,  and 
9,259  Sunday  school  scholars. 

The  desire  to  enter  the  foreign  field  was 
cherished  for  years  before  it  was  realized.  In 
1859  it  was  decided  to  enter  China,  and  Rev. 
John  Innocent  and  Eev.  William  A.  Hall 
were  commissioned  for  the  work.  They  en- 
tered and  commenced  work  in  Shanghai,  study- 
ing the  language  and  surveying  the  field. 
Tientsin,  the  great  seaport  of  North  China, 
situated  at  the  junction  of  the  Grand  Canal 
with  the  Pei  Ho  Eiver,  about  30  miles  from 
the  sea  and  80  miles  southeast  of  Peking,  was 
chosen  as  their  first  station.  They  were  the 
pioneers  at  this  point.  The  work  has  ex- 
panded into  three  circuits.  At  Tientsin  they 
have  a  fine  establishment  in  the  British  Com- 
pound. It  has  2  missionaries  and  their  wives, 
1  single  lady,  10  native  helpers,  2  out  stations, 
3  churches,  and  105  members.  The  college 
for  training  native  preachers  has  1  principal, 
1  native  teacher,  and  18  students.  They  have 
two  chapels  for  daily  preaching.  The  female 
college  for  training  native  women  and  girls 
has  4  native  women  and  12  girls.     There  is 

Neiv  Connexion  Missionary  Society.       55 

also  a  chapel  and  native  churcli  at  Taku,  and 
at  Hsing  Clii,  to  the  west  of  Tientsin. 

The  village  of  Chu  Chia  Tsai  is  about  140 
miles  south  of  Tientsin.  The  mission  was 
opened  under  peculiar  conditions.  A  farmer 
of  the  village  was  led  by  a  dream  to  visit 
Tientsin  and  listen  to  the  foreign  preaching. 
He  became  a  sincere  believer  in  Christ,  and 
when  he  returned  home  he  took  with  him  a 
supply  of  Bibles,  hymn  books,  and  religious 
publications.  On  reaching  home  he  openly 
confessed  his  faith  in  Jesus  as  the  Saviour  of 
the  world,  invited  his  neighbors  to  his  house, 
read  the  Bible  to  them,  and  told  of  his  con- 
version. The  people  of  the  village  were 
awakened;  the  work  extended  out  into  the 
district,  and  ere  long  an  earnest  appeal  was 
sent  to  Tientsin  for  a  missionary.  They 
gladly  responded  and  regular  work  was 
opened,  and  now  the  circuit  embraces  up- 
wards of  300  miles  of  the  province  and  more 
than  40  native  churches. 

Near  the  city  of  Tai  Ping,  north  of  Tient- 
sin, are  extensive  mines,  worked  by  a  syndi- 
cate of  Chinese  mandarins.  They  applied  to 
the  mission  for  a  medical  missionary,  ojffering 
him  facilities  for  evangelistic  work  among  the 
workmen.     The  missionary  was  supplied,  and 

56  English  Methodist  Missions. 

an  extensive  circuit  was  formed  around  the 
Tang  San  collieries,  extending  to  the  city  of 
Yung  Ping  Fu,  near  the  old  wall. 

The  policy  of  the  Society  has  been  to  carry 
on  the  work  chiefly  by  the  aid  of  native  help. 
The  remarkable  success  of  the  mission  is 
largely  due  to  the  efficiency  of  the  native 
preachers  it  has  trained  in  its  theological 
school  in  Tientsin.  In  1891,  with  6  mis- 
sionaries in  the  field,  they  had  40  native 
preachers  and  catechists,  1,268  members,  227 
candidates  for  membership,  52  chapels,  19 
schools,  and  178  scholars.  In  Shantung  they 
have  a  hospital  with  beds  for  30  in  patients 
and  a  dispensary,  under  the  charge  of  a  med- 
ical missionary.  Patients  come  from  all  parts 
of  the  district,  often  as  many  as  thirty  a  day. 
This  enterprise  is  adding  largely  to  the  influ- 
ence of  the  missionaries  and  the  success  of 
the  mission.  A  number  of  pious  native  wom- 
en have  been  employed  in  teaching  the  gospel 
to  their  heathen  sisters  with  marked  success. 
They  are  unable  to  read  or  write,  but  being 
endowed  with  the  retentive  memories  for 
which  the  Chinese  are  remarkable,  they  can 
recite  appropriate  selections  from  the  Bible, 
catechisms,  and  hymns  to  the  women,  and  ex- 
plain them  with  remarbable  force  and  effect. 

United  Meth.  Free  Church  H.  and  F.  M.  S.  57 

In  Tientsin  they  have  a  college  for  the  train- 
ing of  these  female  workers.  The  women  it 
is  sending  out  are  carrying  the  gospel  to 
homes  and  individuals  that  are  inaccessible  to 
the  male  missionaries. 

The  report  of  1889  gives  for  the  China  Mis- 
sion 7  ordained  missionaries  and  1,301  mem- 


The  AYesleyan  Association  united  with  cer- 
tain of  the  Wesleyan  Reformers  in  1857. 
Prior  to  this  it  had  opened  missions  in  Jamai- 
ca and  the  colonies  in  Australia.  Rev.  Thom- 
as Pinnock,  an  ex- Wesleyan  minister^  with 
several  Churches  under  his  charge  in  Jamaica, 
had  proposed  to  unite  with  the  Wesleyan  As- 
sociation Churches,  and  they  were  received 
into  the  connection.  In  1838  Revs.  J.  Blyth- 
man  and  J.  Larkin  were  sent  to  Jamaica.  The 
work  has  been  prosperous.  The  membership 
has  been  increased  and  2,000  boys  and  girls 
have  attended  the  school.  In  1889  the  Ja- 
maica Mission  reported  10  ordained  missiona- 
ries and  2,17G  members. 

The  mission  in  Australia   was   opened   in 

58  English  Methodist  Missions. 

1849  by  Eev.  J.  Townsend.  But  little  ad- 
vance was  reported  at  tlie  time  of  the  union. 
Since  then  there  has  been  an  upward  move- 
ment. New  missionaries  have  been  sent  out, 
the  work  enlarged,  and  new  stations  opened. 
At  the  present  time  tlie  mission  is  divided 
into  the  Victoria  and  Tasmania,  and  the  New 
South  Wales  and  Queensland  Districts.  In 
1889  they  reported  a  missionary  force  of  35 
ordained  preachers  and  2,343  members,  with 
88  lay  workers,  and  71  chapels. 

Rev.  J.  Tyer man  began  the  mission  in  New 
Zealand  in  18G4.  The  work  has  encountered 
difficulties  from  the  removal  of  members  and 
temporary  reverses  in  the  colony.  In  1889 
there  were  in  this  field  11  ordained  mission- 
ries,  .37  lay  workers  and  946  communicants. 

In  1859  a  body  of  Christians  in  Sierra  Leone, 
West  Africa,  were  admitted  into  the  connec- 
tion of  the  United  Methodist  Free  Churches, 
and  Rev.  Joseph  New  was  sent  to  take  charge 
of  the  work  already  open.  Soon  after  Rev. 
Charles  Warboys  was  added  to  the  mission. 
The  mission  was  very  successful,  but  in  a 
short  time  New  sank  under  the  fever  and 
found  a  grave  in  African  soil.  Mr.  Warboys 
continued  the  work,  but  soon  was  forced  from 
the  field  by  failing  health.     The   call  to  fill 

United  Meth.  Free  Church  R.  and  F.  M.  S.,  59 

tlieir  places  was  promptly  answered.  Eevs. 
J.  S.  Potts,  W.  Micklethwaite,  S.  Walmsley, 
T.  H.  Cartlieii,  and  T.  Truscott  cheerfully  met 
the  perils  of  the  climate  and  carried  on  the 
mission  with  marked  success  during  its  early 
history.  Churches  were  built,  schools  opened, 
and  a  ministerial  institute  for  native  preach- 
ers established.  In  1889  the  mission  report- 
ed 4  native  ordained  preachers  and  2,809 

Charles  Cheetham,  of  Haywood,  a  zealous 
member  of  the  Methodist  Free  Churches,  be- 
came deeply  interested  in  the  missions  of  Dr. 
Kraph,  the  pioneer  missionary  of  East  Africa. 
After  an  interview  with  the  missionary,  who 
warmly  represented  the  claims  of  East  Africa, 
and  who  volunteered  to  lead  a  missionary  par- 
ty to  the  field,  Mr.  Cheetham  succeeded  in  in- 
ducing his  Church  to  engage  in  the  enter- 
prise. Eevs.  Thomas  Wakefield  and  James 
Woolner  and  two  young  Swiss  were  appoint- 
ed and  sailed  for  Africa  with  Dr.  Kraph  in 
1861.  Their  leader  brought  them  to  the  field, 
but  very  soon  his  health  gave  way,  the  health 
of  Woolner  also  failed,  and  they  were  com- 
pelled to  return  home.  They  soon  were  fol- 
lowed by  the  two  young  Swiss.  Mr.  Wake- 
field was  alone  until   Eev.  Charles  New  was 

60  English  Methodist  Missions. 

sent  out  late  in  1862.  The  two  missionaries  met 
bravely  the  vicissitudes  of  pioneer  work  and 
went  among  the  savage  races  around  them.  In 
1868  Mr.  Wakefield  visited  England,  and,  after 
pleading  the  cause  of  Africa,  returned.  Mr. 
New  returned  home  in  1872.  The  stirring  ap- 
peals of  these  faithful  missionaries  greatly 
deepened  the  interest  of  the  Church  in  behalf 
of  the  mission.  Mr.  New  returned  to  the  field 
in  1874.  He  attempted  a  new  mission,  but  re- 
ceived cruel  treatment  from  a  savage  chief. 
He  attempted  to  reach  Kibe,  but  his  strength 
failed.  Mr.  Wakefield  started  to  relieve  him, 
but  when  he  reached  the  place  his  faithful 
comrade  had  gone  to  his  reward.  Mr.  New 
possessed  noble  qualities  as  a  pioneer  mis- 

Mr.  Wakefield  was  again  alone.  He  was 
with  the  Wa  Kyika  race,  some  twelve  miles 
from  the  ocean.  In  addition  to  faithful  evan- 
gelical work  he  translated  portions  of  the 
Bible  and  hymns  into  the  language  of  the  peo- 
ple. In  1886  the  solitary  missionary  was 
cheered  by  the  arrival  of  Rev.  John  Baxter, 
John  Houghton,  and  Rev.  W.  H.  During,  the 
last  a  colored  minister  from  West  Africa. 
Baxter  soon  broke  down  and  returned  home. 
Mr.  Houghton  and  wife,  while  at  Goldbante, 

United  Meth.  Free  Church  H.  mid  F.  M.  S.  61 

a  new  station  on  the  river  Sana,  where  Mr. 
Wakefield  had  recently  opened  a  mission  to 
the  Gallas,  was  massacred  with  a  number  of 
native  converts.  Mr,  During  alone  remained 
of  the  party.  He  has  been  a  most  trustworthy 
and  useful  missionary. 

Mr.  Wakefield  remained  until  1887,  when 
he  was  relieved  by  the  arrival  of  Kevs.  F.  J. 
Horn,  T.  H.  Carthen,  and  W.  G.  Howe.  They 
were  placed  respectively  at  Elbe,  Jomvu,  and 
Goldbante,  in  the  Galla  country,  where  Mr. 
During  was  at  work.  The  mission  has  been 
greatly  hindered  by  tribal  contests,  especially 
in  the  Galla  country,  but  the  stations  have 
not  been  assailed.  The  mission  is  consid- 
ered one  of  the  best  and  strongest  of  the  Uni- 
ted Methodist  missions.  In  1889  it  had  4  or- 
dained missionaries  and  223  communicants. 

The  China  Mission  was  opened  in  1864  by 
Eev.  W.  E.  Fuller,  at  Ningpo.  He  was  soon 
joined  by  Eev.  John  Mara.  In  1868  Eev.  T. 
W.  Galpin  joined  the  mission.  He  remained 
in  the  work  about  ten  years.  In  1869  Mr. 
Galpin  was  alone.  In  1871  Eev.  Eobert  Swal- 
low became  his  fellow-laborer,  and  opened 
work  in  one  of  the  suburbs  of  Ningpo.  A 
little  later  they  were  joined  by  Eev.  E.  I.  Ex- 
ley.     He  was  a  zealous  missionary,  but  ere  he 

62  Englhh  Methodist  Mi 


could  carry  out  liis  plans  consumption  closed 
his  labors.  His  place  was  filled  by  Eev.  W. 
Sootliill,  who  was  sent  out  to  open  a  new  sta- 
tion at  Wenchow.  ^The  war  with  France  had 
embittered  the  Chinese  in  Wenchow  against 
foreigners,  and  a  riot  followed,  in  which  the 
mission  premises  were  destroyed  and  the  mis- 
sion discontinued.  When  peace  was  restored 
the  Chinese  Government  made  ample  compen- 
sation for  all  losses,  and  the  work  was  resumed 
and  has  since  been  carried  on  successfully. 

In  1886  Mr.  Swallow  and  family  returned 
to  England.  His  chief  object  was  to  prepare 
for  the  work  of  a  medical  missionary.  His 
object  accomplished,  he  returned  with  his  wife 
to  Ningpo,  where  they  have  carried  on  their 
work  with  greatly  increased  success.  The 
mission  in  1889  reported  3  stations,  3  ordained 
missionaries,  and  325  members. 

All  the  United  Methodist  Missions  report 
62  stations,  63  ordained  missionaries,  and  10,- 
108  communicants. 


The  Welsh  Calvinistic  Methodists  felt  the 
pulsations  of  the  missionary  spirit  very  early 

Welsh  Calvinistic  Methodist  M.  S.        -63 

in  the  present  century.  Their  operations 
prior  to  1840  were  conclncted  through  the  Lon- 
don Missionary  Society.  They  were  liberal 
contributors  to  its  income,. and  several  of  its 
most  efficient  missionaries  had  been  trained 
for  their  ministry.  The  desire  that  their  con- 
nection should  have  a  mission  under  its  own 
charge  had  been  growing  for  years,  and  culmi- 
nated January  31,  1810,  in  the  organization  of 
the  "Welsh  Calvinistic  Foreign  Missionary 

Its  first  field  was  on  the  northeastern  border 
of  Bengal.  It  embraces  the  mountain  range 
that  sejoarates  the  valley  of  Assam  from  the  rich 
I)lains  of  Bengal,  inhabited  by  the  Garos, 
Kliasis,  Jaintias,  Nagas,  and  other  hill  tribes. 
The  treaty  made  by  the  British  Government 
with  the  Kings  of  Khasia  in  1834  provided  for 
a  military  station  at  Cherra  Punji  and  a  road 
across  the  Khasia  Hills  to  the  British  terri- 
tory in  Assam.  This  opened  the  field  to  mis- 
sionary labor.  It  "was  soon  visited  by  Mr. 
Lish,  of  the  Serampore  Mission,  but  he  did  not 
remain.  In  1837  it  was  explored  by  Kev.  J. 
Tomlin,  who  remained  for  a  few  months. 
When  the  AYelsh  Foreign  Society  was  formed 
Mr.  Tomlin  pointed  out  Khasia  to  the  directors 
as  an  open  and  promising  field.     His  sugges- 

64  English  Methodist  Missions. 

tions  were  accepted,  and  Rev.  Thomas  Jones  was 
chosen  to  plant  the  first  mission  in  northeast- 
ern India.  He  reached  Cherra  Pnnji  on  June 
20,  1841.  As  the  people  had  no  literature  or 
books,  the  task  of  acquiring  the  language  was 
very  difficult.  With  the  assistance  of  two 
young  natives  who  had  learned  a  little  English 
from  Mr.  Lish,  he  was  able  to  overcome  many 
difficulties  and  make  considerable  progress. 

In  1842  Revs.  W.  Lewis,  James  Williams,  and 
Dr.  Owen  Richards  were  ordained  for  the 
mission  field.  Mr.  Williams  and  wife  were 
sent  to  open  mission  work  in  Brittany,  in  the 
western  part  of  France.  The  interest  awakened 
in  behalf  of  the  Bretons  arose  from  the  fact 
that  being  a  branch  of  the  Celtic  family  they 
spoke  a  kindred  dialect.  The  work  is  carried 
on  at  Quimper,  Pont  I'Abbe,  Douarnenez,  and 
other  points  in  Brittany. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  and  Dr.  Richards,  the 
latter  a  medical  missionary,  reached  Cherra 
Punji  January  20,  1843.  They  remained  in 
the  field  until  1861.  In  September,  1845,  Rev. 
Daniel  Jones  joined  the  little  band,  but  he 
died  in  a  few  months  after  entering  the  field. 
Revs.  W.  Pryse,  T.  Jones,  R.  Parry,  D.  Sykes, 
and  G.  Hughes  were  sent  out  at  different  times; 
but  owing  to  death,  sickness,  or  defection,  the 

Welsh  Calvinistk  Methodist  M.  S.       '65 

work  was  reduced  to  one  or  two  men.  There 
were  only  fourteen  converts  during  the  first 
decade  of  the  mission.  There  was  a  congre- 
gation at  Nongsawlia  of  from  80  to  100,  and  a 
day  school  of  30  boys  and  18  girls  under 
charge  of  Mrs.  Lewis. 

A  mission  was  established  at  Jowai,  the 
leading  city  of  the  Jainta  hills,  in  1846.  The 
work  subsequently  extended  to  various  parts 
of  the  hills.  Work  was  opened  by  Eev.  W. 
Pryse  at  Sythet,  in  the  plains  of  Bengal,  in 
1849.  The  work  was  carried  on  for  a  time 
with  much  vigor  and  some  success  by  Kevs. 
Jones,  Parry,  Eoberts,  and  Hughes.  Circum- 
stances, however,  determined  the  mission  to 
confine  its  operations  to  the  Khasia  and 
Jaintia  Hills. 

When  the  mission  was  opened  the  people 
were  destitute  of  a  written  language.  Since 
then  the  New  Testament  has  been  translated 
into  Khasi  and  several  editions  published; 
also  the  Pentateuch,  a  hymn  book,  Dr.  AVatts's 
New  Testament  History,  Pilgrim's  Progress, 
and  a  nuDiber  of  schoolbooks  and  tracts. 
The  missionaries  expect  ere  long  to  complete 
the  translation  of  the  Old  Testament. 

The  change  wrought  among  the  people  is 
visible    in    their    outward    condition.     Their 

66  English  Methodist  Missions. 

houses  are  improved,  their  persons  cleanly, 
and  their  land  carefully  cultivated.  They  give 
liberally  to  support  the  gospel,  and  educate 
their  children.  They  have  demonstrated  the 
sincerity  of  their  faith  by  their  fidelity  under 
persecution  from  their  kindred.  Many  have 
read  the  story  of  U.  Borsing  Siim,  who  de- 
clined the  Eajahship  of  Cherra  rather  than 
surrender  his  profession  of  Christ. 

From  a  recent  report  we  learn  that  the  mis- 
sion was  divided  into  seven  districts  with  six 
missionaries  and  twenty-one  native  evangelists. 
There  had  been  an  increase  of  seventeen  in 
the  places  where  religious  services  were  held 
and  day  schools  established.  An  increase  of 
217  in  the  communicants  was  reported.  The 
Cherra  District  has  been  under  charge  of 
Eev.  John  Roberts.  Religious  services  and 
schools  were  held  at  ten  stations.  The  evan- 
gelical work  was  carried  on  with  the  aid  of 
four  native  preachers.  The  report  of  100  can- 
didates indicate  their  efficiency.  Their  school 
work  has  been  an  important  agency.  A  day 
school  was  established  in  Cherra  by  their  first 
missionary.  It  has  grown  into  a  Normal 
School  that  now  supplies  many  village  schools 
on  the  hills  with  teachers.  The  Shillong  Dis- 
trict, under  Rev.  T.  J.  Jones,  reported  an  in- 

Primitive  Methodist  Missionmij  Society.  -  67 

crease  of  158  members.  During  tlie  year  Mr. 
Jones  and  wife  visited  the  country  northeast  of 
Khasia.  They  found  in  that  region  a  Chris- 
tian village.  It  had  been  settled  in  1885  by  a 
Christian  family  from  Nongjiri.  They  were 
joined  by  several  heathen  families  who  had  re- 
nounced demon  worship,  built  a  schoolhouse, 
and  were  learning  to  read  with  the  Christian 
as  their  teacher.  These  hill  people  were  very 
superstitious.  They  believed  that  all  their 
bodily  ailments  were  caused  by  demons.  The 
cures  wrought  by  Dr.  Griffith  have  convinced 
them  that  the  medical  missionary  is  mightier 
than  the  demon.  Many  have  been  thus  led  to 
the  Great  Physician.  The  Rajah  of  Nonga- 
low  has  become  a  zealous  member  of  the 
Church.  The  communicants  reported  in  1885 
were  1,110  and  the  candidates  for  member- 
ship 1,158. 


The  Primitive  Methodists  arose  as  a  body 
in  1810.  In  1843  they  began  to  establish 
mission  stations  in  Canada,  New  Zealand, 
Australia,  Victoria,  New  South  Wales,  Queens- 
land, and  Tasmania. 

In  1869  a  Liverpool  trading  vessel  touclied 

68  Engllsli  Methodist  Missions. 

at  the  island  of  Fernando  Po,  in  the  Gulf  of 
Guinea,  on  the  west  coast  of  Africa.  The 
captain  and  carpenter  were  Primitive  Metho- 
dists. AYhile  on  shore  Mr.  Hands,  the  car- 
penter, met  a  few  Christians  who  had  been 
connected  with  a  Baptist  Mission.  Their 
missionary,  Mr.  Saker,  had  been  expelled  by 
the  Spanish  authorities.  The  little  flock  wel- 
comed Mr.  Hands,  who  held  several  meetings 
wdth  them.  They  wished  him  to  remain,  as  a 
change  in  government  allowed  liberty  of  wor- 
ship. This  was  impossible,  but  he  presented 
the  wants  of  this  faithful  band  and  the  hea- 
then around  to  the  Missionary  Committee  of 
his  Church,  and  after  carefully  considering 
the  outlook  Rev.  R.  W.  Burnett  and  H.  Roe 
and  their  wives  were  sent  to  Santa  Isabel,  the 
chief  town  on  the  island  of  Fernando  Po,  in 
January,  1870.  Land  was  soon  obtained  and 
the  work  commenced.  In  1871  Rev.  D.  T. 
Maylott  was  sent  out  to  open  a  mission  on  the 
western  coast.  In  1873,  in  company  with 
Rev.  W.  N.  Barleycorn,  one  of  the  first  con- 
verts at  Santa  Isabel,  he  reached  Georges  Bay. 
Land  Avas  secured  and  houses  for  church, 
parsonage,  and  school  were  built.  A  cate- 
chumen class  was  formed  in  February,  1874. 
In  October  the  first  convert,   a  young  man 

Primitive  Methodist  Missionary  Societij.    69 

named  Hoorree,  was  baptized.  The  work  in 
Santa  Isabel  was  very  successful,  reenforce- 
ments  were  sent  out  and  a  station  opened  at 
Banni,  on  the  northeast  coast  of  the  island,  to 
which  Mr.  Barleycorn  was  sent.  Troubles  with 
the  Spanish  authorities  forced  his  return.  A 
better  understanding  with  Spain  now  exists, 
educational  advantages  have  been  secured,  and 
the  mission  is  steadily  growing. 

In  1869  Eev.  H.  Buckenham  Avas  sent  to 
open  a  mission  at  Aliwall,  in  Cape  Colony,  in 
South  Africa.  He  conducted  worship  for  a 
time  in  a  Dutch  church.  Soon  a  room  was 
fitted  up,  and  after  a  time  a  day  school  for 
native  pupils  opened.  Later  a  church  and 
parsonage  and  schoolhouse  were  built.  In 
1875  Kev.  John  Smith  succeeded  Mr.  Buck- 
enham. A  training  school  for  natives  has 
been  opened,  which  it  is  hoped  will  be  made 
self-sustaining.  In  the  report  for  1891  it  is 
stated  that  in  all  the  foreign  stations  there 
was  a  membership  of  653,  being  an  increase 
of  127.  The  work  at  Aliwall  continues  to 
grow  in  every  department.  It  had  at  last  re- 
ports 3  traveling  and  27  local  preachers,  5 
chapels,  and  522  members — being  an  increase 
of  120. 

In  1889  Eev.  H.  Buckenham  and  wife,  Kev. 

10  English  Mefhodisf  Missions. 

A.  Baldwin,  and  Mr.  J.  Ward  sailed  for 
Africa  where  they  hoped  to  plant  a  mission 
on  the  Upper  Zambesi.  They  left  Kimberly 
March  28,  1890,  and  after  a  journey  of  five 
months  reached  the  Zambesi  River.  The  out- 
look was  encouraging. 


Prior  to  1883  Methodism  in  Canada  was 
divided  into  four  sections — viz.,  the  Meth- 
odist Church  of  Canada,  the  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church  of  Canada,  the  Primitive  Meth- 
odist Church  of  Canada,  and  the  Bible  Chris- 
tians of  Canada.  Up  to  that  date  each  body 
supported  and  controlled  its  own  missions. 
Since  the  union  of  these  bodies  into  the  Meth- 
odist Church  in  Canada  there  has  been  but 
one  fund  and  one  management. 

The  Missionary  Society  of  the  Methodist 
Church  in  Canada  was  originated  in  1824. 
Its  operations  were  among  the  early  settlers 
on  the  frontier  and  the  Indians  of  Ontario. 
The  field  has  extended  until  it  embraces  the 
whole  of  the  Dominion,  Newfoundland,  Ber- 
muda, and  Japan.  The  Domestic  Missions — 
which  embrace  the  dependent  fields  of   the 

Methodist  Church  of  Canada.  '  71 

Cbiirch  among  the  English-speaking  people 
throughout  the  Dominion,  Newfoundland,  and 
Bermuda — report  416  missionaries  and  40,376 
members.  Their  expenditures  in  1891  were 

The  French  work  is  within  the  Province  of 
Quebec.  They  report  9  missions,  7  missiona- 
ries, 2  supplies,  and  254  members.  The  work 
is  peculiar  and  difficult.  At  points  the  mis- 
sionaries and  converts  endure  persecution  for 
the  cause  of  Christ. 

The  Society  sustains  extensive  work  among 
the  Indians.  The  British  Columbia  Confer- 
ence reported,  in  1891,  14  missions,  10  mis- 
sionaries, 4  supplies,  and  1,044  members. 
The  Manitoba  and  Northwest  Conference  has 
17  missions  and  11  missionaries.  Some  mis- 
sions receive  only  an  occasional  visit.  It  re- 
ports 124  members.  The  central  Confer- 
ences embrace  the  Toronto,  London,  Niagara, 
Guelph,  Bay  of  Quinte,  and  Montreal  Confer- 
ences, 28  missions,  16  missionaries,  1,  845  mem- 
bers. Total  47  missionaries  and  4,138  mem- 
bers. The  expenditure  for  the  Indian  work 
reported  in  1891  was  $42,861.89. 

The  Chinese  work  was  begun  in  1885  with- 
in the  bounds  of  the  British  Columbia  Con- 
ference.    It  has  missions  at  Victoria,  Nanai- 

72  English  Methodist  Missions. 

mo,  Vancouver,  New  Westminster,  Kam- 
loops,  Ladners  Landing.  It  reports  3  mis- 
sionaries, 1  assistant,  and  165  members. 

The  Society  has  but  one  foreign  mission. 
The  Japan  Mission  was  begun  in  1873,  when 
two  men  were  sent  to  that  field.  They 
have  now  an  Annual  Conference  with  19 
missions,  28  missionaries,  22  assistant  mis- 
sionaries, 12  native  teachers,  and  1,819 
members.  The  expenditures  for  1891  were 
$26,523.73.  In  proportion  to  its  force  in  the 
field  and  the  money  expended  the  Canada 
Methodist  Mission  is  one  of  the  most  vigor- 
ous and  successful  in  Japan.  The  recent 
completion  of  tlie  tabernacle  at  Tokio  has 
added  greatly  to  the  efficiency  of  the  work  at 
that  point.  Immense  congregations  are  re- 
ported. During  1891  26  were  baptized  and 
as  many  remained  on  trial.  The  Bible  classes 
and  Sunday  schools  were  doing  effective  work. 
At  Azabu  the  regular  congregation  was  about 
250.  The  Bible  women  were  doing  good 
work.  The  young  men  of  the  Church  were 
active  in  school  work  and  efforts  to  reach 
young  men  of  their  kindred  or  race.  Their 
school,  styled  Eiwa  Gakko,  is  doing  good 
service  in  preparing  young  men  to  preach  the 
gospel  to  their  own  people. 


Prior  to  the  division  of  the  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church  into  its  two  great  co-ordinate 
branches,  its  missionary  operations  were  un- 
der the  direction  of  the  Parent  Society.  The 
history  of  that  Society  is  the  common  proper- 
ty of  both  divisions  of  the  Parent  Church. 
We  recognize  the  interest  our  Northern  breth- 
ren have  in  that  portion  of  our  early  history, 
although  in  their  history  of  the  early  missions 
of  our  Church  they  are  silent  respecting  the 
claims  Southern  Methodism  may  have  in  this 
portion  of  our  common  inheritance.  After 
having  completed  our  account  of  the  missions 
of  our  own  branch  of  the  Methodist  family, 
we  will  present  in  due  order  a  brief  history  of 
the  extended  and  successful  missions  of  North- 
ern Methodism. 

The  Society  Organized. 

"Beginning  at  Jerusalem."  That  was  the 
starting-point;  but  the  Master  had  said:  "  The 
field  is  the  world."     Moving  fj-om  that  center, 


74        Hand  Booh  of  MetJiodist  Missions, 

tlie  apostles  went  forth,  their  forces  multiply- 
ing as  they  advanced  until,  before  the  last  of 
their  number  had  laid  down  his  commission, 
the  gospel  of  the  kingdom  had  been  X3reached 
among  all  the  nations  of  the  then  known  world. 
On  this  line  early  Methodism  moved.  Begin- 
ning at  London,  it  soon  was  heard  in  Bristol. 
The  pulpits  of  Bristol  were  closed  against  it, 
and  its  message  was  heard  by  the  colliers  of 
Kingswood.  It  spread  from  city  to  city,  gath- 
ering strength  as  it  advanced,  until  its  societies 
were  organized  in  all  the  leading  centers  of 
the  United  Kingdom.  Then  a  call  was  heard 
from  America,  and  Boardman  and  Pilmoor 
were  sent  out  to  carry  on  the  work  in  the  West- 
ern world.  Already  a  flame  had  been  kindled 
by  Philip  Embury  and  Capt.  Webb,  in  New 
York.  The  work  spread  in  the  colonies,  sur- 
vived the  war,  and  in  1784  the  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church  was  fully  organized,  and  entered 
ux3on  its  work  on  this  continent.  Erelong 
Methodism  was  established  in  the  leading  cit- 
ies, towns,  and  communities  of  the  United 
States,  and  began  to  find  its  way  into  the  des- 
titute regions  around. 

About  the  year  1812  Bishop  Asbury  began 
to  solicit  contributions  for  the  support  of  min- 
isters who  were  sent  to  circuits  where  there 

M/ssio7is  in  the  South.  .  75 

was  no  adequate  support.  All  subscriptions 
were  carefully  entered  by  liim  in  a  memoran- 
dum book  which  he  carried  with  him,  and  the 
money  was  employed  as  the  increasing  wants 
of  these  destitute  circuits  required.  This  may 
be  considered  the  beginning  of  Domestic  or 
Home  Missions  of  American  Methodism.  We 
will  see  before  we  have  finished  the  account  of 
the  missions  of  the  Methodist  Church  that  this 
department  of  Christian  effort  has  not  been 

A  wide  field  was  also  open  to  earnest  evan- 
gelical labor  in  the  vast  frontier  that  w^as  rap- 
idly opening  in  the  unknown  regions  of  the 
West.  Population  w^as  pushing  out  into  the 
wilderness,  and  the  field  was  destined  to  make 
heavy  demands  on  the  zeal  of  the  pioneer 
preachers  and  the  liberality  of  the  older  organ- 

TJie  Churches  in  Europe  and  America  w^ere 
beginning  to  stir  under  the  calls  coming  from 
the  regions  overshadowed  by  the  pall  of  pagan 
night.  The  Wesleyan  Methodists  had  been 
in  the  field  for  nearly  a  half-century.  The 
Baptist  movement  of  1793  had  aroused  other 
branches  of  the  Protestant  Church.  The  Con- 
gregationalists  and  Baptists  of  the  United 
States  had  fallen  into  line  with  their  English 

76        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

brethren,  and  many  thoughtful  men  were  be- 
ginning to  inquire  whether  American  Meth- 
odism had  not  also  a  mission  in  the  heathen 
world.  While  earnest  men  were  debating  this 
question,  a  voice  was  heard  from  the  Indians 
of  the  West  that  profoundly  stirred  the  con- 
science of  the  Church.  A  drunken  negro 
(John  Stewart),  in  the  town  of  Marietta,  O., 
on  his  way  to  the  river  to  drown  himself,  was 
arrested  by  the  voice  of  Marcus  Lindsley,  a 
noted  Methodist  preacher  of  his  day.  The 
sermon  resulted  in  his  conversion.  An  im- 
pulse— who  will  say  it  was  not  the  same  that 
sent  Paul  to  Macedonia? — moved  him  to  bear 
his  message  among  the  savage  tribes  of  the 
North-west.  He  reached  the  Wyandotte 
Agency.  His  simple  story  touched  the  heart 
of  the  agent,  and  his  preaching  resulted  in  the 
conversion  of  several  chiefs  and  a  number  of 
the  people.  This  work,  demonstrating  the 
gospel  to  be  the  power  of  God  unto  salvation 
of  those  savage  tribes,  stirred  the  entire  Church, 
and  was  among  the  leading  agencies  which  led 
to  the  organization  of  our  Missionary  Society. 
Nathan  Bangs,  Joshua  Soule,  and  other  lead- 
ers of  our  Methodist  Israel  in  the  city  of  New 
York,  after  earnest  counsel  and  prayer,  de- 
cided that  the  time  had  come  when  American 

Missions  in  tJie  South.  '  77 

Methodism  should  jom  in  the  organized  mis- 
sionary movements  for  the  conversion  of  our 

In  answer  to  a  call  made  in  the  Methodist 
pulpits  of  the  city  of  New  York  a  meeting  was 
held  April  5,  1819,  at  which  the  pastors,  Book 
Agents,  editors,  and  leading  laymen  were  pres- 
ent. Joshua  Soule  took  prominent  part  in  the 
discussion.  On  his  motion  the  meeting  con- 
sidered and  adopted  the  Constitution  and  pro- 
ceeded to  the  election  of  its  officers.  Their 
names  are  worthy  of  record:  Bishop  William 
McKendree,  President;  Bishop  Enoch  George, 
First  Vice-president;  Bishop  Eobert  B.  Bob- 
erts.  Second  Vice-president;  Bev.  Nathan 
Bangs,  Third  Vice-president;  Mr.  Francis 
Wall,  Clerk;  Mr.  Daniel  Ayres,  Becording 
Secretary;  Bev.  Thomas  Mason,  Correspond- 
ing Secretary;  Bev.  Joshua  Soule,  Treasurer. 

The  movement  met  with  strong  opposition. 
It  was  claimed  that  the  Church  was  poor, 
and  that  the  work  growing  on  its  hands  to 
meet  the  wants  of  the  rapidly  increasing  pop- 
ulation of  the  country  would  tax  to  the  ut- 
most its  resources.  Some  of  the  Board  of 
Managers  resigned,  and  months  would  elapse 
and  no  meetings  would  be  lield.  A  few  had 
unfaltering  faith  in  the  success  of  the  move- 

78        JLind  Booh  of  Metliodisf  Missions. 

ment.  At  one  of  the  meetings  of  the  Board, 
wJien  the  number  present  was  small  and  the 
prospect  dark,  Joshua  Soule  uttered  the  char- 
acteristic words:  "The  time  will  come  when 
every  man  who  assisted  in  the  organization  of 
this  Society  and  persevered  in  the  undertak- 
ing will  consider  it  one  of  the  most  honorable 
periods  of  his  life."  His  words  were  prophetic. 
The  Constitution  provided  that  the  Society 
should  be  established  "wherever  the  Book 
Concern  should  be  located,"  and  the  Churches 
in  all  the  leading  cities  throughout  the  Connec- 
tion were  authorized  to  organize  auxiliary  so- 
cieties. The  women  of  the  Church  were  the 
first  to  respond.  The  first  auxiliary  was  the 
Female  Missionary  Society  in  the  city  of  New 
York.  It  existed  for  nearly  half  a  century.  It 
may  be  considered  the  beginning  of  woman's 
work  for  woman  in  organic  form  in  the  United 
States.  It  manifested  a  special  interest  in  the 
work  both  of  married  and  unmarried  female 
missionaries,  and  did  efficient  work  in  raising 
money  and  diffusing  the  spirit  of  Missions 
throughout  the  Church.  The  Young  Men's 
Missionary  Society  in  New  York  was  the  next 
auxiliary  that  was  formed.  Its  chief  work 
was  in  connection  with  missions  in  Liberia, 

Missions  in  the  So/ffh,  79 

Tlie  Bishops  cordially  indorsed  the  Society, 
and  co-operated  actively  in  its  operations.  The 
Baltimore  Conference  was  the  first  to  fall  into 
line  and  organize  an  auxiliary.  Then  came 
the  Virginia  Conference,  and  next  the  Gene- 
see Conference.  The  Domestic  Missionary 
Society  at  Boston  was  organized,  and  became 
an  auxiliary.  Auxiliaries  were  also  formed  at 
Cortland,  N.  Y.;  Stamford,  Conn.;  and  Colum- 
bia, S.  C.  These  all  sent  up  their  collections, 
which  at  the  close  of  the  first  year  aggregated 
$823.64.  The  first  anniversary  of  the  Society 
was  held  April  17, 1S20,  in  John  Street  Church, 
New  York.  Nathan  Bangs  presided  and  made 
the  opening  address.  The  report  was  read, 
speeches  made,  and  the  election  and  collection, 
with  a  few  items  of  business,  closed  the  hour. 
The  attendance  was  not  large.  Many,  during 
the  days  of  its  infancy,  "despised  it  as  a  day 
of  small  things."  Many  at  the  present  day  re- 
joice, for  they  see  in  that  humble  organization 
the  hand  of  God  planning  a  movement  that  is 
extending  itself  through  the  whole  earth. 

At  the  General  Conference  of  1820,  held  in 
Baltimore,  the  bishops  in  their  address  called 
attention  to  the  Missionary  Society,  and  warm- 
ly commended  it  to  the  favorable  consideration 
and  action  of  the  General  Conference.   The  ad- 

80        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

dress  was  referred  to  a  committee,  which  in  its 
report  fully  committed  American  Methodism 
to  the  cause  of  Foreign  Missions.  It  said: 
"Methodism  itself  is  a  missionary  system. 
Yield  the  missionary  spirit,  and  you  yield  the 
very  life-blood  of  the  cause."  The  report, 
and  the  Constitution  with  some  modifications, 
received  the  unqualified  indorsement  of  the 
General  Conference;  then  the  New  York  Soci- 
ety surrendered  its  life  to  give  birth  to  the 
Missionary  Society  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church.  The  General  Conference  had  barely 
closed  its  session,  when  the  Treasurer  an- 
nounced a  donation  of  $500  from  Dr.  Nehemi- 
ah  Gregory,  one  of  the  managers.  Other  lib- 
eral offerings  came  in.  One  by  one  the 
Conferences  became  auxiliary  to  the  Parent 
Society,  until  the  organization  was  complete, 
and  Episcopal  Methodism  was  fully  identified 
with  the  great  missionary  movement  of  the 
nineteenth  century. 

The  prophetic  words  of  Joshua  Soule  have 
been  fulfilled.  The  Church  has  indorsed  that 
organization  which,  amid  many  discourage- 
ments, he  and  his  associates  established.  At 
the  close  of  the  year  1821  the  collections  were 
$2,328.76;  in  1844  they  were  $146,578.78.  In 
1890  the  collections  of  Northern  and  Southern 

Missions  in  the  South.  .81 

Methodism  for  Foreign  and  Domestic  Mis- 
sions, including  the  collections  of  the  Woman's 
Boards,  amounted  to  11,934,088.77, 

Missions  Among  the  Colored  People. 

As  early  as  1787  we  learn  of  the  existence  of 
colored  members  of  the  Methodist  Church  in 
Philadelphia  and  New  York.  They  had  be- 
come dissatisfied  with  the  relations  between 
themselves  and  their  white  brethren,  and  the 
troubles  which  followed  resulted  in  the  forma- 
tion of  two  independent  Colored  Methodist 
Churches.  The  cause  of  complaint,  as  set 
forthinthe  "Preface"  to  the  bookof  Discipline 
of  the  African  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
reads  as  follows:  "In  November,  1787,  the 
colored  people  belonging  to  the  Methodist  So- 
ciety of  Philadelphia  convened  together  to 
take  into  consideration  the  evils  under  which 
they  labored,  arising  from  the  unkind  treat- 
ment of  their  white  brethren  who  considered 
them  a  nuisance  in  the  house  of  worship,  and 
even  pulled  them  off  their  knees  while  in  the 
act  of  prayer  and  ordered  them  to  back  seats. 
For  these  and  various  other  acts  of  unchristian 
conduct,  they  considered  it  their  duty  to  de- 
vise a  plan  in  order  to  build  a  house  of  their 
own,  to  worship  God  under  their  own  vine  and 

82       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

fig-tree."  These  troubles  culminated  in  the 
formation,  "in  1816,  of  the  African  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,"  which  in  doctrine  and  dis- 
cipline is  modeled  after  the  Church  from 
which  it  sprung.  The  colored  Methodists  in 
New  York,  a  few  months  later,  organized  un- 
der the  name  of  the  "Colored  Methodist  Epis- 
copal (Zion)  Church."  These  two  organizations 
are  now  among  the  largest  negro  Churches  in 
the  world,  and  are  doing  noble  work  for  the 
evangelization  of  their  race.  After  the  organ- 
ization of  these  two  colored  Churches  but  lit- 
tle attention  was  given  by  the  Methodist 
Conferences  in  the  North  to  the  religious  in- 
struction of  the  colored  people  in  their  midst. 
Owing  to  these  facts,  and  also  that  the  great 
bulk  of  the  negroes  was  in  the  South,  the 
missions  of  Methodism  among  the  colored  peo- 
ple were  confined  for  nearly  half  a  century  to 
the  Southern  Conferences.  They  furnished 
the  preachers  who  supplied  them  with  relig- 
ious instruction,  and  the  Southern  people  pro- 
vided the  church-buildings  in  which  they  wor- 
shiped God. 

The  commission  of  Methodist  preachers 
sends  them  "to  all  nations,"  and  when  the 
negroes  came  within  the  range  of  their  min- 
istrations, they  shared  freely  the  benefits  of 

Missions  in  the  South,  83 

tlieir  labors.  As  Methodism  extended  in  the 
South,  this  became  the  established  order. 
The  same  pastor  proclaimed  the  gospel  to 
master  and  slave.  Often  they  assembled  in 
the  same  congregation — the  whites  in  the 
body  of  the  church,  and  the  slaves  in  the  gal- 
lery or  a  portion  of  the  house  set  apart  for 
their  use.  When  special  services  were  held 
for  the  colored  people,  they  occupied  the  body 
of  the  church,  while  the  master  and  mistress 
were  seated  in  that  part  of  the  church  usually 
assigned  the  negroes.  In  stations  or  large  ap- 
pointments, and  on  quarterly  or  camp  meeting 
occasions,  special  services  were  held  for  the 
benefit  of  the  colored  people.  The  pastor  who 
preached  to  all  in  the  morning  would  j^reach 
to  the  slaves  from  the  same  pulpit  in  the  aft- 
ernoon. Under  these  ministrations  remarka- 
ble results  were  accomplished,  and  in  the  sev- 
eral Conferences  the  colored  membei'fe  were 
numbered  by  thousands. 

In  1808  Bishop  Asbury,  for  the  first  time, 
records  the  appointment  of  missionaries  to  the 
colored  people  in  South  Carolina.  J.  H.  Mil- 
lard was  appointed  to  a  mission  on  the  Savan- 
nah River  and  James  E.  Glenn  to  a  mission 
on  the  Santee.  These  names  should  be  held 
jn  sacred  remembrance.    They  are  the  pioneer^ 

84       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

of  a  mission  that  brought  multitudes  of  the 
sons  of  Ham  to  a  knowledge  of  the  cross.  As 
the  Church  in  the  South  extended  its  borders 
and  multiplied  its  laborers,  this  movement, 
opened  in  South  Carolina,  was  extended 
through  the  Connection.  Missions  were  organ- 
ized in  all  the  Conferences,  and  men  carefully 
chosen  for  the  work  devoted  their  entire  time 
to  the  religious  instruction  of  the  slaves.  They 
assembled  them  in  congregations,  baptized, 
and  organized  them  into  societies,  adminis- 
tered the  holy  communion,  visited  and  prayed 
with  them  in  their  cabins,  and  buried  their 
dead.  In  many  places  houses  of  worship  were 
built  for  their  use,  or  when  this  was  not  done 
they  used  the  same  house  in  which  the  white 
people  worshiped.  At  camp,  quarterly,  or  pro- 
tracted meetings  religious  service  was  careful- 
ly provided  for  the  colored  people.  Their  re- 
ligious opportunities  corresponded  with  those 
enjoyed  by  the  whites.  Many  were  licensed 
to  preach  and  exhort,  and  some  exhibited  such 
remarkable  gifts  that  they  attracted  crowds  of 
white  people  to  their  services.  They  were  thus 
trained  for  the  work  for  which  God  was  pre- 
paring them  among  their  own  people. 

While  a  great  work  was  accomplished  in  be- 
half of  the  negro  by  ministrations  of  pastors 

Missions  in  the  South.  8.5 

in  their  charges  and  by  missionaries  assigned 
to  this  special  work,  thoughtful  men  realized 
that  their  provisions  failed  to  reach  the  negroes 
on  the  large  sugar,  cotton,  and  rice  plantations, 
especially  when  they  were  located  in  river  val- 
leys, where,  owing  to  malaria,  but  few  white 
people  made  their  homes.  Among  those  who 
were  deeply  concerned  in  behalf  of  this  class 
was  Dr.  (afterward  Bishop)  Capers.  At  length 
a  way  for  the  supply  of  this  portion  of  the  ne- 
gro population  of  the  South  was  presented. 
The  attention  of  a  wealthy  planter  on  the  San- 
tee  River  had  been  arrested  by  the  good  re- 
sults that  had  followed  the  efforts  of  a  Meth- 
odist overseer  on  tho  plantation  of  a  friend  in 
Georgia,  and  he  was  anxious  to  employ  a  man 
of  like  qualifications.  Knowing  the  interest 
Dr.  Capers  felt  in  the  religious  welfare  of  the 
slaves,  this  gentleman  called  on  him  to  learn 
if  he  knew  of  a  Methodist  exhorter  whom  he 
could  recommend  as  an  overseer.  Dr.  Ca^Ders 
was  unable  to  name  a  suitable  man,  but  sug- 
gested that  if  he  would  allow  him  to  make  ap- 
plication at  the  approaching  Conference  to  the 
bishop  and  Mission  Board  a  minister  of  un- 
questionable character  could  be  sent  to  his 
plantation,  whose  time  and  labors  would  be 
devoted    to   the  religious  instruction   of   his 

86       Hand  Book  of  3Iethodist  Missions. 

slaves.  The  suggestion  was  accepted.  Short- 
ly after  a  similar  request  was  made  by  two 
planters  on  the  Pon  Pon  and  Combahee.  The 
bishop  and  Mission  Board  promptly  met  the 
call.  Two  men  were  chosen  who  seemed  spe- 
cially suited  to  a  work  of  such  delicacy  and 
importance.  The  following  account  of  the 
movement  from  the  pen  of  Dr.  (afterward 
Bishop)  Wightman,  coj^ied  by  Bishop  Mc- 
Tyeire  in  his  "History  of  Methodism,"  pre- 
sents clearly  the  difficulties  of  the  enterprise 
and  the.  success  it  achieved: 

"  The  first  missionaries  were  the  Rev.  John 
Honour  and  the  Rev.  John  H.  Massey.  As  if 
to  try  the  faith  of  the  Church  and  test  its 
power  of  self-sacrifice,  John  Honour,  although 
a  native  of  the  low  countries,  took  the  bilious 
fever  through  exposure  in  the  swamps  of  his 
field  of  labor,  and  in  September  ended  his  mor- 
tal life  and  glorious  work  together  and  entered 
into  his  rest.  The  operations  of  the  first  year 
gathered  four  hundred  and  seventeen  Church- 
members.  Foot-hold  was  gained.  The  ex- 
periment, eyed  with  distrust  by  most  of  the 
planters,  denounced  by  many  as  a  hurtful  in- 
novation upon  the  established  order  of  things, 
favored  by  very  few,  was  commenced.  The 
noble-hearted  e:entlemen  who  went  forward  in 

Missions  in  the  South.  87 

the  movement  were  in  advance  of  their  time, 
and  could  not  but  feel  that  they  had  assumed 
a  heavy  responsibility  in  indorsing  for  the 
beneficial  results  of  such  an  undertaking.  Of 
course  they  watched  the  development  of  the 
affair  with  no  small  solicitude.  As  far  as  it 
went  the  first  year  it  was  perfectly  satisfactory. 
The  second  year  the  membership  of  these  mis- 
sions more  than  doubled  itself.  Incredibly 
small,  however,  was  the  treasure-chest  of  the 
Missionary  Society.  The  sum  of  two  hundred 
and  sixty-one  dollars  was  reported  to  the  An- 
nual Conference  as  the  aggregate  of  the  col- 
lections for  the  year  1830.  The  following  year 
another  of  the  ministers  of  the  Conference  was 
added  to  the  small  but  brave  forlorn-hope. 
The  oral  instruction  of  the  little  negroes  by  cat- 
echism was  commenced;  two  hundred  and  fifty 
of  these  were  placed  under  the  care  of  the  mis- 
sionaries, and  nine  handred  and  seventy-two 
Church-members  were  reported.  At  the  ensu- 
ing session  of  the  Conference,  held  at  Darling- 
ton early  in  1832,  a  decided  and  memorable 
impulse  was  given  to  the  missionary  spirit, 
particularly  among  the  preachers,  by  a  speech 
delivered  at  the  anniversary  of  the  Missionary 
Society  by  the  Rev.  (now  Bishop)  James  O. 
Andrew.     After  the  usual  preparatory  exer- 

88       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

cises,  he  was  introduced  to  the  meeting,  and 
read  the  following  resolution :  '  That,  while  we 
consider  false  views  of  religion  as  being  every 
way  mischievous,  and  judge  from  the  past  that 
much  evil  has  resulted  from  that  cause  among 
the  slave  population  of  this  country,  we  are 
fully  persuaded  that  it  is  not  only  safe,  but 
highly  expedient  to  society  at  large  to  furnish 
the  slaves  as  fully  as  possible  with  the  means 
of  true  scriptural  instruction  and  the  worship 
of  God.'  We  have  heard  many  good  and  clev- 
er speeches  in  our  time,  a  few  withal  that  de- 
served to  be  called  great,  but  foremost  in  our 
recollection  stands  the  remarkable  speech 
made  by  Bishop  Andrew  on  that  occasion.  He 
drew  a  picture  of  the  irreligious,  neglected 
plantation  negro,  Claude-like  in  the  depth  of 
his  tone  and  color.  He  pointed  out  his  deg- 
radation, rendered  but  the  deeper  and  darker 
from  the  fitful  and  transient  flashings  up  of 
desires  which  felt  after  God — scintillations  of 
the  immortal,  blood-bought  spirit  within  him, 
which  ever  and  again  gleamed  amidst  the  dark- 
ness of  his  untutored  mind.  He  pointed  out 
the  adaptation  of  the  gospel  to  the  extremest 
cases.  Its  recovering  power  and  provisions 
were  adequate  to  the  task  of  saving  from  sin 
and  hell  all  men  of  all  conditions  of  life,  in  all 

Missions  in  the  Sonfh.  89 

stages  of  civilization.  He  pointed  to  the  con- 
verted negro,  the  noblest  prize  of  the  gospel, 
the  most  unanswerable  proof  of  its  efficiency. 
There  he  was,  mingling  his  morning  song  with 
the  matin  chorus  of  the  birds,  sending  up  his 
orisons  to  God  under  the  light  of  the  evening 
star,  contented  with  his  lot,  cheerful  in  his 
labors,  submissive  for  conscience's  sake  to 
plantation  discipline,  happy  in  life,  hoi3ef ul  in 
death,  and  from  his  lowly  cabin  carried  at  last 
by  the  angels  to  Abraham's  bosom.  Who 
could  resist  such  an  appeal,  in  which  argu- 
ment was  fused  in  fervid  eloquence?  The 
speech  carried  by  storm  the  whole  assem- 
bly." (McTyeire's  "History  of  Methodism," 
pp.  585,  586.) 

The  following  extract  from  the  report  of  the 
Board  of  Managers  at  its  anniversary,  Janu- 
ary, 1832,  indicates  the  character  of  the  work 
and  the  progress  it  was  making: 

"  The  mission  on  the  Santee  numbers  up- 
ward of  three  hundred  members  of  the  Church 
in  regular  and  good  standing.  A  considerable 
number  of  the  slaves  have  been  baptized  dur- 
ing the  past  year.  There  is  an  evident  im- 
provement among  the  negroes,  both  as  regards 
the  number  who  attend  the  means  of  grace 
and  the  solemn  attention  given  to  the  word 

90       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

"  The  negroes  served  on  the  Savannah  Eiver 
Mission  [by  the  Rev.  James  Dannelly]  being 
found  convenient  to  meeting-houses,  it  has 
been  judged  expedient  to  throw  that  mission 
into  the  regular  work  of  the  circuit. 

"  The  mission  on  Combahee,  Pon  Pon,  and 
Wappahoola  has  had  an  increase  the  last  year 
of  230  members,  making  the  aggregate  number 
of  members  670.  Upward  of  100  little  negroes 
receive  catechetical  instruction,  128  have  been 
baptized,  and  the  missionary  expresses  his 
conviction  that  the  religious  experience  of  the 
blacks  is  deeper  and  their  deportment  more 
becoming  every  year. 

"Guided  by  experience  and  cheered  by  suc- 
cess, we  come  to  bind  ourselves  afresh  to  this 
holy  work,  and  to  renew  the  solemn  obligations 
which  the  enterprise  of  negro  instruction  and 
salvation  imposes  on  us.  Into  this  long-neg- 
lected field  of  danger,  reproach,  and  toil  we 
again  go  forth,  bearing  the  precious  seed  of 
salvation.  And  to  the  protection  and  blessing 
of  the  God  of  Missions  our  cause  is  confident- 
ly and  devoutly  commended."  (McTyeire's 
"History  of  Methodism,"  pp.  586,  587.) 

At  the  close  of  1832  the  missionaries  re- 
ported 1,395  members  and  490  children  regu- 
larly catechised.  The  experiment  of  four  years 

Missions  ill  the  South.  ,  91 

had  demonstrated  the  success  of  the  move- 
ment. A  meeting  of  planters  in  St.  Luke 
Parish  indorsed  the  missionary  system.  Prej- 
udice yielded  before  the  results  achieved.  The 
friends  of  Missions  took  courage  as  the  way 
for  the  gospel  was  opened  to  the  thousands 
of  the  sons  and  daughters  of  Africa  who  had 
been  thrust  by  the  hand  of  greed  on  the  slaves 
of  the  Western  Continent.  In  1837  there  were 
ten  mission  stations.  In  1839  the  entire  mis- 
sion was  supplied  by  seventeen  missionaries, 
under  the  supervision  of  three  superintend- 
ents. The  field  embraced  231  plantations  and 
97  appointments,  with  a  membership  of  5,556, 
and  2,525  children  under  catechetical  instruc- 

The  following  rule,  suggested  by  the  South 
Carolina  Conference  Mission  Board,  indicates 
the  policy  that  prevailed  throughout  the 
Church  in  providing  for  the  religious  wants 
of  the  colored  people: 

"  That,  as  a  general  rule  for  our  circuits  and 
stations,  we  deem  it  best  to  include  the  colored 
people  in  the  same  pastoral  charge  with  the 
whites,  and  to  preach  to  both  classes  in  one 
congregation,  as  our  practice  has  been.  The 
gospel  is  the  same  far  all  men,  and  to  enjoy 
its  privileges  in  common  prouiotes  good-will. 

92       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

"  That  at  all  preaching-places  where  galler- 
ies or  suitable  sittings  have  not  been  provided 
for  the  common  people,  or  where  the  galleries 
or  other  sittings  are  insufficient,  we  consider 
it  the  duty  of  our  brethren  and  friends  to  pro- 
vide the  necessary  accommodation,  that  none 
may  make  such  a  neglect  a  plea  for  absenting 
themselves  from  public  worship."  (McTy- 
eire's  "  History  of  Methodism,"  pp.  587,  588. ) 

Dr.  Capers  made  frequent  mention  of  the 
co-operation  rendered  the  missionaries  by  the 
colored  local  preachers.  He  mentions  one, 
Henry  Evans,  "  who  was  so  remarkable  as  to 
have  become  the  greatest  curiosity  in  the  town, 
insomuch  that  distinguished  visitors  hardly 
felt  that  they  might  pass  a  Sunday  in  Fayette- 
ville  without  hearing  him  preach." 

The  catechisms  prepared  by  Dr.  Capers 
were  invaluable  auxiliaries  to  the  ministry  of 
the  word  in  the  religious  instruction  of  the 
children.  They  gave  form  and  fiber  to  the  re- 
ligion these  people  experienced  and  enjoyed. 
The  old-time  singing  of  the  negro  congrega- 
tions of  those  days  will  never  be  forgotten 
by  those  who  heard  it.  The  poetry  of  many 
of  their  songs  might  be  subject  to  criticism, 
but  the  melody  of  their  music  often  seemed 
an  echo  from  heaven. 

Missions  in  the  South.  .  93 

The  report  of  the  South  Carolina  Confer- 
ence Mission  Board  for  1854  sums  up  the  his- 
tory of  the  missions  to  that  date  in  the  follow- 
ing words: 

"Twenty-six  years  ago  the  South  Carolina 
Conference  began  a  system  of  regular  ecclesi- 
astical operations  among  the  plantation  ne- 
groes of  the  low  country,  by  establishing  two 
missions.  At  present  there  are  26  missionary 
stations,  on  which  are  employed  32  ministers, 
who  are  supported  by  the  Society.  The  num- 
ber of  Church -members  is  11,546,  including 
1,175  whites.  The  missionary  revenue  has 
risen  from  $300  to  $25,000.  These  are  the 
material  results,  so  far  as  statistics  are  con- 
cerned. They  call  for  devout  acknowledg- 
ments to  God,  who  has  given  us  abundant 
favor  in  the  sight  of  the  community  in  carry- 
ing on  a  line  of  operations  confessedly  diffi- 
cult and  delicate. 

"The  testimony  of  masters  and  missionaries 
goes  to  show  that  a  wholesome  effect  has  been 
produced  upon  the  character  of  the  negro  pop- 
ulation generally.  A  change  for  the  better  is 
visible  everywhere,  when  the  present  genera- 
tion is  contrasted  with  the  past;  and  in  how 
many  cases  the  gospel  ]ias  proved  the  power 
of  God  to  salvation,  and  presented  before  the 

94       Hand  Book  of  Ifethodist  Missions. 

throne  the  spirits  of  these  children  of  Ham, 
redeemed  and  washed  by  the  "blood  of  sprink- 
ling," and  fitted  for  an  abode  in  heaven,  the 
revelations  of  the  last  day  will  disclose." 
(McTyeire's  ^'History  of  Methodism,"  pp.  588, 

On  the  marble  that  marks  the  grave  of  Bish- 
op Capers  are  the  words:  "The  Founder  of 
Missions  to  the  Slaves."  He  sought  no  higher 
honor  in  this  world. 

The  zeal  of  South  Carolina  Methodism  for 
the  salvation  of  the  slaves  was  an  inspiration 
to  all  the  Southern  Conferences.  The  annals 
of  missionary  toil  can  furnish  few  nobler  evi- 
dences of  heroic  sacrifice  than  were  found  in 
the  self-denying  labors  of  those  men  who  la- 
bored on  the  negro  missions.  On  the  rice 
plantations  of  the  Atlantic  coast  and  the  sugar 
and  cotton  plantations  of  the  Gulf  States 
they  bore  the  message  of  life  to  the  cabins 
of  the  slave,  teaching  the  children  and  train- 
ing their  parents  respecting  the  doctrines  and 
duties  that  must  govern  a  Christian  life.  Ev- 
ery Christian  master  and  mistress  co-operated 
gladly  in  the  work.  When  they  were  unem- 
barrassed by  troubles  arising  from  untimely 
interference  from  outside  influences,  their  way 
was  open;  and  though  the  world  knew  little  of 

3Iissions  in  the  South  95 

their  devotion,  they  accomplished  a  work  that 
will  live  to  the  end  of  time.  The  organization 
of  these  missions  did  not  relieve  the  regular 
pastor  from  his  duty  to  the  slave.  In  Confer- 
ences where  but  few  missions  were  organized 
thousands  of  colored  members  were  annually 
reported.  In  1846  the  Mission  Board  report- 
ed 24,430  members,  while  the  General  Minutes 
gave  a  total  of  124,931.  Many  of  the  leading 
ministers  of  the  South  were  noted  for  their 
devotion  to  the  religious  welfare  of  the  slaves, 
and  at  an  Annual  Conference  the  presiding 
elder  could  pronounce  no  higher  encomium  on 
a  minister  than  to  say:  "He  is  a  good  negro 
preacher."  In  1860,  when  the  war  disturbed 
our  labors  among  these  people,  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  South,  reported  a  colored 
membership  of  207,776,  or  nearly  as  many  as 
the  entire  number  of  communicants  which  in 
that  day  had  been  gathered  into  Church  rela- 
tions by  all  the  Protestant  missionaries  at  work 
in  the  heathen  world.  When  the  record  of  the 
evangelization  of  the  sons  of  Ham  is  written 
by  the  pen  of  an  impartial  historian,  the  work 
of  the  missionaries  of  the  Southern  Methodist 
Church  will  appear  chief  among  the  agencies 
employed  by  our  Master  for  the  redemption 
of  the  African  race. 

96       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

It  was  not  until  1833  that  the  Missionary 
Society  had  a  missionary  in  the  foreign  field. 
At  the  General  Conference  of  1824  a  report, 
presented  by  Rev.  Joshua  Sonle,  was  adopted 
which  contained  the  following: 

Resolved,  by  the  delegates  of  the  Annual  Conferences 
in  General  Conference  assembled,  that  it  is  expedient, 
whenever  the  funds  of  the  Missionary  Society  will  jus- 
tify the  measure,  for  the  episcopacy  to  select  and  send 
a  missionary  to  the  colony  in  Africa  now  established 
under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Colonization  Society. 

The  colony  referred  to  was  Liberia. 

In  1825  the  Board  notified  the  bishops  that 
the  state  of  the  funds  of  the  Missionary  So- 
ciety justified  the  sending  of  a  man  to  Liberia. 
Pive  years  elapsed  before  a  man  suited  to  this 
important  and  perilous  mission  could  be  found. 
Melville  B.  Coxe,  a  native  of  Maine,  was  a 
member  of  the  Virginia  Conference,  and  sta- 
tioned at  Raleigh,  N.  C.  He  met  Bishop  Hed- 
ding  at  Norfolk  during  the  session  of  the  Vir- 
ginia Conference  in  1831,  and  offered  himself 
as  a  missionary  to  South  America.  The  bish- 
op proposed  that  he  should  go  to  Liberia.  The 
young  man  pondered  the  question  but  a  short 
time,  and  said:  "If  the  Lord  will,  I  think  I 
will  go."     He  met  the  bishop  in  May,  1832, 

Missions  in  the  South.  97 

and  received  his  appointment  to  Liberia, 
Africa.  The  Young  Men's  Missionary  So- 
ciety in  New  York  guaranteed  the  support  of 
the  mission. 

It  is  a  significant  fact  that  the  first  foreign 
missionary  of  American  Methodism  was  sent 
out  and  sustained  by  the  offerings  of  a  local 
society.  Bishop  McTyeire,  in  his  "  History  of 
Methodism,"  records  the  words  of  this  pioneer 
foreign  missionary  of  Episcopal  Methodism  to 
Bishop  McKendree  on  receiving  the  appoint- 
ment: "At  present  I  am  in  peace:  death  looks 
pleasant  to  me;  labor  and  sufferings  look  pleas- 
ant to  me ;  and  last,  though  not  least,  Liberia 
looks  pleasant  to  me.  I  see,  or  think  I  see, 
resting  on  Africa  the  light  and  cloud  of  heav- 
en." To  one  of  the  students  of  the  Wesley  an 
University  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  he  said:  "  If 
I  die  in  Africa,  you  must  come  over  and  write 
my  epitaph." 

"What  shall  I  write?" 

"Write,"  said  Coxe,  "Let  a  thousand  fall 
before  Africa  be  given  up." 

He  reached  Monrovia  March  7,  1833,  and 
entered  promptly  on  his  mission.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  Methodist  Church  and  local  preach- 
ers who  had  been  sent  out  by  the  Colonization 
Society  welcomed  the  missionary.  He  organ- 

98        Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ized  them  under  the  rules  of  his  Church,  as- 
sisted them  in  their  Sunday-schools,  and 
planned  new  missions.  His  work  was  pro- 
gressing most  encouragingly  when  he  was 
stricken  down  by  the  fatal  African  fever,  and, 
on  Sunday  morning,  July  21,  with  the  words, 
"  Come,  come,  come.  Lord  Jesus,  come  quick- 
ly," he  passed  to  his  reward. 

Most  earnestly  had  Mr.  Coxe  called  for  help 
as  the  field  opened  before  him.  Two  minis- 
ters. Rev.  E-ufus  Spaulding  and  Rev.  Samuel 
O.  Wright  and  their  wives,  and  Miss  Sophro- 
nia  Farrington,  had  offered  for  this  dangerous 
field  and  had  been  accepted.  Miss  Farring- 
ton was  the  first  young  lady  sent  out  by  the 
Methodist  Church  to  the  foreign  field.  They 
heard  of  the  death  of  Mr.  Coxe  before  they 
sailed,  but  they  did  not  falter.  They  reached 
Monrovia  January  1,  1834.  The  work  of  Mr. 
Coxe  was  taken  up,  and  on  the  10th  of  January 
the  *'  Liberia  Annual  Conference  "  was  organ- 

On  the  4th  of  February  Mrs.  Wright,  after 
one  month's  service  in  Africa,  was  laid  in  a 
missionary's  grave.  On  the  29th  of  March 
her  husband  joined  her  in  the  better  land. 
Mrs.  Wright  was  a  sister  of  Rev.  E.  E.  Wiley, 
P.D.,  who  remains  among  us,  one  of  the  lead- 

Missions  in  the  South.  -99 

ing  members  of  the  Holston  Conference.  Tlie 
graves  of  these  heroic  missionaries  hallow  the 
soil  of  the  Dark  Continent,  and  are  sacred 
links  that  should  bind  Southern  Methodism 
to  that  vast  mission  field.  Mr.  Spaulding  was 
forced  by  sickness  to  return  to  America  in  May. 

Thus  within  one  year  three  of  the  mission- 
aries gave  their  lives  for  Africa,  and  Miss 
Farrington  was  alone  amid  the  responsibilities 
of  the  mission.  She  remained  until  the  mis- 
sion was  re-enforced,  and  returned,  a  frail, 
emaciated  woman,  to  America  in  1835. 

In  February,  1835,  Kev.  John  Seys  was  sent 
out  as  superintendent  of  the  mission.  He 
found  that  death  had  stricken  down  the  Pres- 
byterian missionary ;  and  Miss  Farrington,  "  a 
delicate,  frail,  emaciated  woman,"  was  the  only 
missionary  to  welcome  him  to  the  field.  He 
took  out  with  him  a  young  colored  local  preach- 
er by  the  name  of  Francis  Burns.  Mr.  Seys 
entered  vigorously  on  his  work.  He  had  spent 
fifteen  years  in  the  West  India  Islands,  and 
was  in  a  measure  proof  against  the  fatal  fever 
of  West  Africa.  During  the  year  after  his 
arrival  upward  of  two  hundred  conversions 
were  reported.  In  November,  1835,  Mr.  Seys 
reported  himself  and  family  prostrate  with  the 
fever  and  his  son  already  sleeping  in  his  grave. 

100      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

The  General  Conference  of  1836  made  Libe- 
ria a  Mission  Conference  with  all  the  rights  of 
an  Annual  Conference,  except  the  right  of  rep- 
resentation in  the  General  Conference  and  to  a 
part  of  the  dividends  of  the  Book  Concern  and 
Chartered  Fund. 

In  1836  Mr.  Seys  visited  the  United  States 
to  obtain  re-enforcements  for  the  field  which 
stretched  out  to  the  heart  of  the  continent.  A 
number  responded.  After  hearing  an  appeal 
from  Mr.  Seys  in  behalf  of  Africa,  a  lady,  Mrs. 
Ann  Wilkins,  handed  the  following  note  to  Dr. 
Bangs :  "A  sister  who  has  little  money  at  com- 
mand gives  that  cheerfully,  and  is  willing  to 
give  her  life  as  a  female  missionary  if  she  is 
wanted."  She  was  sent,  and  continued  in  the 
field  until  1856.  There  were  soon  some  fif- 
teen missionaries  in  the  field. 

In  the  face  of  the  danger  that  attended  mis- 
sionary labors  on  the  fatal  coast  volunteers 
were  not  wanting  to  fill  the  places  of  the  men 
who  had  fallen.  In  seventeen  years  twenty- 
five  white  missionaries  died  in  the  field  or 
were  driven  home  with  broken  health.  At 
the  division  of  the  Church  in  1844  this  field 
fell  to  the  M.  E.  Church,  North.  We  will 
complete  the  history  of  their  missionary 
movements  in  a  future  number. 

Missions  in  the  South,  101 

French  Missions. 

In  1819,  the  year  the  Missionary  Society  was 
organized,  the  Missionary  Board  asked  the 
advice  of  the  Committee  with  reference  to 
sending  a  missionary  to  the  French  inhabit- 
ants of  Louisiana.  Two  young  men,  John  M. 
Smith  and  Ebenezer  Brown,  were  chosen  and 
instructed  to  prepare  themselves  by  the  study 
of  the  French  language  for  this  field.  Mr. 
Smith  for  some  reason  did  not  go.  In  1820 
Mr.  Brown,  the  first  missionary  of  the  Board, 
was  sent  to  Louisiana.  The  field  was  a  hard 
one.  The  French  people  were  either  under 
the  influence  of  Bomanism  and  very  difficult 
of  approach,  or  had  reacted  from  its  corrup- 
tions into  the  infidelity  of  that  day.  Mr. 
Brown  labored  also  under  the  great  difficulty 
of  speaking  but  imperfectly  the  language  of 
the  people  with  whom  he  was  called  to  labor. 
Though  he  failed  to  command  the  attention 
of  the  French  people,  he  found  a  little  com- 
pany of  English-speaking  Methodists  who 
were  greatly  strengthened  by  his  ministrations 
and  pastoral  labors. 

This  little  band  was  possibly  the  nucleus  of 
the  Church  that,  under  the  labors  of  Rev. 
Benjamin  M.  Drake,  of  the  Mississipj^i  Con- 
ference, has  achieved  such  noble  results  for 

102      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

evangelical  Christianity  in  New  Orleans  and 
the  surrounding  country. 

Beazil  Mission. 

Bishop  Andrew,  in  1835,  sent  Rev.  Fountain 
E.  Pitts  to  pioneer  a  mission  in  South  Amer- 
ica. He  reached  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  August 
and  entered  on  his  mission,  visiting  families, 
preaching,  and  organizing  a  Society.  He  pro- 
ceeded to  Montevideo,  where  he  preached  for 
several  weeks  and  organized  a  Society.  He 
then  ascended  the  Rio  de  la  Plata  to  Buenos 
Ayres,  the  special  field  he  was  to  explore. 
After  s]3ending  a  year  in  the  field,  he  returned 
with  an  encouraging  report.  Rev.  Justin 
Spaulding  was  sent  to  Brazil,  but  owing  to 
papal  intolerance  the  work  was  delayed  for 
forty  years.  In  1836  Dr.  Dempster  was  sent 
to  Buenos  Ayres.  The  w^ork  gradually  ex- 
tended from  the  English  to  the  Spanish  popu- 
lation, and  was  the  beginning  of  a  prosperous 
mission  now  under  the  charge  of  our  Northern 

These  early  movements,  viewed  in  the  light 
of  later  developments,  are  most  significant. 
They  were  prophetic  of  a  great  work  to  be 
done  for  the  Spanish-speaking  republics  of 
South  America,  as  well  as  for  Brazil,  with  an 
area  as  great  as  the  United  States  and  a  popu- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  .S'.  103 

lation  of  nearly  15,000,000  speaking  the  Portu- 
guese tongue.  A  whole  continent  open  to  us. 
Surely  American  Methodism  has  been  highly 
honored  by  such  responsibilities,  and  put  to 
the  test  by  so  great  an  open  door.  With  work 
enterprised  at  strategic  points  upon  both  At- 
lantic and  Pacific  coasts,  the  day  will  come 
when  Protestant  forces  will  compass  the  land. 


Indian  Missions. 

Bishop  Capers,  the  "founder  of  missions 
among  the  slaves,"  may  also  be  regarded  as  the 
pioneer  of  Methodist  missions  among  the  In- 
dians of  the  Southern  States.  His  heart,  like 
the  heart  of  his  Master,  seems  to  have  been 
drawn  toward  the  lowly  of  his  race. 

In  1821  he  was  authorized  by  Bishop  Mc- 
Kendree  to  travel  through  Georgia,  represent- 
ing the- condition  and  claims  of  the  Creek  In- 
dians, at  that  time  occupying  lands  in  Georgia 
and  Alabama,  and  numbering  about  twenty- 
four  thousand  souls.  He  was  also  authorized 
to  collect  funds  with  wdiich  to  establish  a  mis- 
sion among  them.  The  appeal  met  a  cordial 
response,  and  after  six  months  employed  in 
this  service  Dr.  Capers  entered  upon  his  mis- 
sion. He  visited  the  Creek  Agency  at  Flint 
Eiver  in  August,  1822.  Not  finding  the  Agent, 
he  proceeded  to  Coweta  and  obtained  an  in- 
terview with  the  famous  half-breed,  Mcintosh 

Missions  in  the  South.  105 

— the  most  noted  warrior  of  liis  tribe.  The 
chief  met  him  according  to  the  rnles  of  In- 
dian etiquette,  which  required  him  to  converse 
with  his  visitor  through  an  interpreter,  though 
he  both  understood  and  spoke  the  English 
language.  Dr.  Capers  presented  a  paper,  in 
behalf  of  the  Bishop  and  the  South  Carolina 
Conference,  setting  forth  the  object  of  his 
mission.  It  was  a\  armly  apjjroved  by  Mcin- 
tosh, but  he  declined  taking  any  action  without 
the  approval  of  the  Council  and  the  consent 
of  the  Agent.  The  Council  met  in  Novem- 
ber. Dr.  Capers  received  a  patient  hearing; 
and  his  proposals,  with  some  amendments, 
were  approved.  The  way  being  opened,  the 
mission  was  organized,  under  the  name  of 
"Asbury  Mission,"  with  Dr.  Capers  as  Super- 
intendent and  Eev.  Isaac  Hill  as  missionary. 
Mr.  Hill  commenced  the  erection  of  the  build- 
ings. He  was  succeeded  by  Eev.  Isaac  Smith 
and  Eev.  Hugh  Hamil.  The  latter  was  called 
to  another  field,  and  Mr.  Smith  and  his  de- 
voted wife  were  left  with  the  entire  work  on 
their  hands. 

Although  the  government  favored  the  mis- 
sion, and  the  Council  of  the  nation  had  cordial- 
ly approved  it,  it  encountered  determined  op- 
position.   A  number  of  prominent  Indians,  led 

106      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

by  "Big  Warrior,"  a  noted  cliief,  and,  as  many 
supposed,  encouraged  by  the  Agent,  who  felt 
no  sympathy  for  missionary  work,  stubbornly 
resisted  preaching  to  the  adults  of  the  tribe. 
For  a  time  it  seemed  that  the  work  would  be 
arrested.  The  missionary,  impelled  by  ear- 
nest love  for  souls,  persevered  in  his  work, 
and  in  due  time  opened  the  school.  It  was 
located  at  Fort  Mitchell,  near  the  present  city 
of  Columbus,  and  was  named  "Asbury  Man- 
ual Labor  School."  Dr.  Capers  manifested  a 
paternal  interest  in  its  welfare.  He  was  sta- 
tioned in  Milledgeville  for  two  years,  that  he 
might  look  after  its  interests.  After  a  visit  in 
1827  he  wrote: 

One  of  our  hoy^,  within  three  months  from  his  letters, 
has  learned  to  read  in  the  Testament.  It  would  not 
surprise  you  to  hear  that  the  hearts  of  these  children 
gently  opened  to  the  truths  of  religion.  On  Sabbath 
I  baptized  Mr.  Martin  (hired  to  manage  our  little  farm), 
and  administered  the  Lord's  Supper.  While  in  this 
moral  desert  we  were  thus  solitarily  employed,  our 
children,  bathed  in  tears,  bowed  at  their  seats,  and, 
sobbing  out  their  prayers,  gave  a  heart-cheering  ear- 
nest of  what  shall  be. 

These  bright  prospects,  however,  were  cloud- 
ed by  growing  opposition  among  the  Indians, 
which  was  stimulated  by  the  presence  and  in- 
fluence of  reckless  whites.     If  the  Agent  did 

Missions  in  the  South.  107 

not  foster  tliis  opposition,  he  made  no  efforts 
to  shield  the  missionary  and  to  encourage  his 
work.  Dr.  Capers  counseled  prudence  at  ev- 
ery step.  Mr.  Smith,  anxious  to  deliver  his 
message,  appealed  to  Mcintosh  for  permission 
to  preach.  It  was  granted,  and  preaching  to 
the  adults  was  commenced;  but  so  violent  was 
the  opposition  that  it  was  deemed  wise  to  sus- 
pend the  services  for  a  time. 

The  Conference  in  1823  sent  a  memorial  to 
the  Secretary  of  War,  Hon.  John  C.  Calhoun, 
setting  forth  the  facts,  and  claiming  the  pro- 
tection of  the  government.  An  investigation 
was  ordered;  and  when  the  report  was  made, 
Mr.  Calhoun  wrote  to  the  Agent,  saying:  "  You 
will  give  a  decided  countenance  and  support 
to  the  Methodist  Mission."  Though  restrained, 
the  opposition  to  preaching  was  not  subdued. 
The  heathen  party  among  the  Indians  clung 
tenaciously  to  the  customs  of  their  fathers. 
Abandoned  white  men  and  unprincipled  trad- 
ers excited  the  untutored  savages  against  their 
best  friends,  thus  preventing  access  on  the 
part  of  the  missionary  to  the  people.  In  the 
face  of  this  opposition  the  school  prospered, 
and  many  of  the  children  trained  at  "Asbury  " 
became  leaders  in  the  nation  and  leaders  in 
the  Church  when  the  tribe  was  moved  to  its 

108      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

new  home  west  of  the  Mississippi.  Bishop 
McTyeire  mentions  the  fact  that  Samuel  Che- 
cote,  three  times  elected  principal  chief  of  the 
Creek  Nation,  also  a  leading  member  of  the 
Indian  Mission  Conference,  and  several  times 
a  presiding  elder,  was  a  student  in  Fulton 
Smith's  school  at  "Asbury,"  and  held  him  in 
grateful  remembrance. 

Dr.  Eeid,  in  his  "  History  of  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Missions,"  refers  to  another  agency  that 
helped  to  plant  the  gospel  in  the  great  Creek 
nation  after  their  removal  to  the  West.  He 
says:  "  They  became  owners  of  slaves,  to  whom 
they  have  been  indebted  for  many  Christian- 
izing influences."  The  present  writer  was  im- 
pressed by  this  fact  a  few  years  ago,  while 
attending  a  camp-meeting  among  the  "full- 
bloods  "  of  the  Creek  Nation.  At  its  close  an 
"  all-night  meeting  "  was  held.  Their  fathers, 
at  the  "green  corn  dances,"  were  accustomed 
to  spend  a  night  in  wicked  revelry  in  honor 
of  their  heathen  religion.  Now  that  they  had 
learned  of  Christ,  they  esteemed  it  a  privilege 
to  spend  a  whole  night  that  closed  their  meet- 
ing in  preaching,  prayer,  and  songs  of  praise 
to  God.  Their  services,  conducted  by  native 
preachers,  were  in  their  native  language,  but 
their  tunes  were  almost  as  familiar  as  the  ne- 

Missions  in  the  South.  109 

gro  melodies  that  in  other  days  we  so  often 
heard  on  Methodist  camp  -  grounds  in  the 
South.  On  inquiring,  he  learned  that  these 
songs  and  tunes,  which  had  awakened  within 
him  such  sacred  memories,  had  been  preserved 
by  pious  slaves  whom  the  Creeks  had  brought 
with  them  from  the  East.  They  had  been  led 
to  Christ  by  Methodist  missionaries  in  Geor- 
gia and  Alabama,  and  had  brought  their  relig- 
ion and  their  songs  with  them  to  their  West- 
ern home.  When  the  missionary  resumed  his 
work  among  the  Creeks  in  the  Indian  Territo- 
ry, he  found  the  gospel  already  set  to  music; 
and  the  Christian  slaves,  by  their  simple  and 
sacjred  melodies,  opening  a  way  for  the  religion 
of  Christ  in  the  hearts  of  their  dusky  masters. 
God  knows  far  better  than  man  how  to  carry 
on  his  work. 

In  1822  Eichard  Neely,  a  young  preacher 
of  the  Tennessee  Conference,  was  traveling  a 
circuit  bordering  on  the  Tennessee  River,  to 
the  south  of  which  were  a  number  of  Cher- 
okee villages.  He  formed  the  acquaintance 
of  Richard  Riley,  an  intelligent  Cherokee, 
who  invited  the  young  preacher  to  visit 
and  preach  to  his  people.  Neely  gladly  com- 
plied, and  during  his  visit  thirty-three  In- 
dians were  converted  and  admitted  into  the 

110      Eayid  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Clmrch.  Among  them  were  Kiley  and  his  wife. 
The  following  year  Mr.  Neely  traveled  a  cir- 
cuit which  embraced  a  portion  of  the  Cher- 
okee country.  He  was  succeeded  by  I.  AV. 
Sullivan  and  A.  F.  Driskell,  who  visited  the 
infant  mission  and  confirmed  the  young  con- 
verts in  the  faith.  In  1824  Mr.  Driskell  had 
charge  of  the  mission,  and  greatly  enlarged 
the  work.  He  also  taught  a  school  of  Indian 
children.  Two  log  houses  for  preaching  and 
school  purposes  were  erected  within  the  mis- 
sion, and  flourishing  Churches  were  organized 
at  both  places.  There  were  many  conversions 
under  Mr.  Driskell's  labors,  and  among  them 
were  some  of  the  leading  men,  who,  with  their 
families,  became  influential  Christian  workers 
among  their  people.  The  most  noted  of  these 
converts  was  a  young  Indian  by  the  name  of 
Boot.  He  was  soon  licensed  to  preach,  was 
admitted  into  the  Tennessee  Conference,  and 
became  one  of  the  chief  evangelists  among 
the  Cherokees.  He  moved  with  his  tribe  to 
the  West;  and  in  their  new  home  continued  to 
labor  for  their  salvation  until  the  Master 
called  him  home. 

In  the  fall  of  1825  three  missions  were 
formed,  and  F.  A.  Owen,  A.  F.  Driskell,  and 
Richard  Neely  were  appointed  to  fill  them. 

Missions  in  tJie  South.  Ill 

In  1826  William  McMalion  was  Superintend- 
ent of  the  mission,  with  four  circuits  served 
by  four  missionaries.  This  was  a  year  of 
great  success.  Among  the  converts  was  Tur- 
tle Fields,  a  noted  Cherokee  brave.  He  had 
fought  with  General  Jackson  in  the  Creek 
War,  and  was  noted  for  physical  strength  and 
desperate  courage.  Returning  from  the  war, 
he  found  the  missionaries  among  his  people. 
He  was  powerfully  converted,  was  licensed  to 
preach,  and  became  instrumental  in  the  con- 
version of  many  of  his  tribe.  He  several  times 
visited  Annual  Conferences  in  the  adjoining 
States,  and  was  always  welcomed  by  his  white 
brethren,  who  rejoiced  over  the  power  of  grace 
that  could  transform  this  savage  warrior  into 
a  meek  yet  faithful  follower  of  Christ. 

In  1827  William  McMahon  was  again  Su- 
perintendent. The  mission  now  embraced 
seven  appointments,  one  of  which  was  sup- 
plied by  Turtle  Fields.  Among  the  missiona- 
ries appears  the  name  of  John  B.  McFerrin. 
Few  men  have  won  a  larger  place  in  the  hearts 
of  Southern  Methodists  than  Dr.  McFerrin; 
but  he  prized  it  among  his  highest  honors 
that  he  had  been  a  missionary  among  the  In- 
dians. The  mission  reported  at  the  close 
of  this  year  675  members, 

112     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

While  faithful  in  the  evangelization  of  the 
Indians,  the  missionaries  were  diligent  in  the 
instruction  of  the  children.  The  log  school- 
houses  in  which  they  preached  on  Sunday 
were  transformed  into  school-houses  dur- 
ing the  week,  and  Indian  boys  and  girls  were 
drilled  in  the  alphabet,  spelling-book,  arith- 
metic, and  geography  as  patiently  and  as 
prayerfully  as  when  the  preacher  stood  in  the 
pulpit  or  prayed  with  the  penitent  at  the  altar. 
Those  early  missionaries  among  the  Chero- 
kees  built  wisely,  and  the  superior  civilization 
of  this  nation  may  be  attributed  to  the  far- 
seeing  and  faithful  labors  of  the  men  who 
brought  to  their  villages  the  news  of  salvation; 

Another  agency  in  the  civilization  and 
Christianization  of  the  Cherokee  nation  came 
to  the  aid  of  the  missionaries  at  an  early  pe- 
riod of  their  labors.  In  1826  a  Cherokee  In- 
dian by  the  name  of  Guess  invented  an  alpha- 
bet, formed  mainly  after  the  fashion  of  our 
Koman  letters.  It  was  so  simple  that  the  stu- 
dent had  only  to  learn  the  names  and  sounds 
of  the  letters,  and  was  soon  able  to  read  in- 
telligently. It  was  said  that  Guess  devoted 
years  of  patient  study  to  its  perfection.  Like 
other  men  in  advance  of  their  generation,  his 
work  was   not   appreciated   by   his   friends. 

Missions  in  the  South.  113 

When  the  alphabet  was  nearly  complete,  his 
wife,  who  neither  understood  nor  cared  for 
his  invention,  one  day,  in  an  angry  fury, 
flung  the  result  of  his  labors  into  the  fire,  and 
soon  it  was  in  ashes.  With  a  patience  worthy 
of  Isaac  Newton,  Guess  resumed  his  work,  and 
persevered  until  his  alphabet  was  complete. 
It  was  published,  and  was  circulated  among 
the  people,  and  proved  a  wonderful  stimulant 
to  the  thought  and  aspirations  of  the  tribe. 
The  people,  old  and  young,  were  anxious  to 
learn  to  read.  The  laws  of  the  nation  were 
published  in  their  own  language;  and  ere- 
long a  newspaper  was  started,  which  brought 
them  in  contact  with  the  civilized  world.  The 
missionaries  promptly  availed  themselves  of 
the  alphabet,  and  soon  portions  of  the  New 
Testament  were  translated  into  the  Cherokee 
language.  Hymns  were  printed,  and  in  the 
congregation  the  worshipers,  with  book  in 
hand,  engaged  in  the  praise  of  God.  Lit- 
tle as  the  irate  wife  of  Guess  imagined,  her 
husband  was  one  of  the  greatest  benefactors 
of  his  tribe.  That  alphabet  proved  an  impor- 
tant factor  in  the  elevation  of  the  Cherokee 

From  a  brief  account  of  the  Cherokee  Mis- 
sion, furnished  the  writer  by  Dr.  J.  B.  McFer- 

114     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

rin  a  short  time  before  liis  death,  we  extract 
the  following,  which  will  enable  the  reader  to 
form  an  idea  of  mission  work  among  this  in- 
teresting people  in  that  day: 

In  the  fall  of  1828  the  following  missionaries  were 
appointed:  William  McMahon,  Superintendent;  Wills 
Valley  and  Oostaknahla,  John  B.  McFerrin;  Coosan- 
atee,  Turtle  Field;  Mount  Wesley  and  Asbury,  D.  C. 
McLeod  (school);  Charooga,  Greenbury  Garrett  (school) ; 
Sulakowa,  Nicholas  D.  Scales  (school) ;  Neely's  Grove, 
Allen  F.  Scruggs  (school) ;  Connesauga,  Thomas  J.  El- 
liott (school);  James  J.  Trott,  General  Missionary  to 
travel  through  the  Nation.  The  number  of  schools 
had  been  increased,  and  the  circuit  work  w^as  greatly 
enlarged.  The  writer  occupied  a  large  field.  It  was 
nearly  four  hundred  miles  in  circumference,  but  he 
passed  around  it  once  in  every  four  weeks.  He  had  as 
his  traveling  companion  and  interpreter  Joseph  Black- 
bird, a  young  Cherokee,  who  had  been  educated  among 
the  whites  and  taught  to  read  English  and  understood 
clearly  the  plain  discourses  as  they  were  delivered  by 
the  missionary.  This,  to  the  missionary,  was  an  in- 
teresting year.  He  witnessed  the  conversion  of  many 
of  the  Cherokees,  and  in  his  travels  was  permitted  to 
preach  in  native  villages  where  a  white  man  had  never 
before  delivered  the  message  of  salvation.  On  one  oc- 
casion he  preached  in  a  village  south  of  the  Coosa  Riv- 
er, when  an  aged  squaw,  said  to  have  been  nearly  one 
hundred  years  of  age,  with  hair  as  white  as  wool,  and 
deep  furrows  upon  her  cheeks,  received  with  gladness 
the  word  of  life,  and  at  once  sought  admission  into  the 
Church,    During  the  year  he  received  into  the  Church 

Missions  in  the  South.  115 

John  Ross,  the  principal  chief.  Mr.  Ross  was  well  ed- 
ucated, and  was  the  most  influential  man  in  the  Na- 
tion. We  preached  at  his  house  once  in  four  weeks 
but  he  was  generally  at  the  seat  of  government  en- 
gaged in  looking  after  the  afiairs  of  his  nation;  for, 
sustaining  the  relation  he  did  to  his  people,  he  had 
many  duties  devolving  upon  him.  Mr.  Ross  afterward 
moved  to  the  West,  where  he  long  lived  as  a  great  fac- 
tor in  the  work  of  civilization  among  his  people,  and 
died  honored  and  respected.  He  was  the  son  of  Dan- 
iel Ross,  a  Scotchman  whose  home  was  on  the  eastern 
slope  of  Lookout  Mountain,  in  full  view  of  where  Chat- 
tanooga now  stands.  There  was  much  good  accom- 
plished this  year  in  many  parts  of  the  Nation,  and  at 
the  end  the  membership  numbered  736.  This  year 
Rev.  Richard  Neely  died.  In  the  autumn  of  1829  the 
appointments  of  the  missionary  work  in  the  Cherokee 
Nation  was  separated  from  the  Huntsville  District,  and 
constituted  a  full  district  of  its  own.  Rev.  F.  A.  Owen 
was  appointed  Superintendent.  Mr.  Owen  was  then 
a  comparatively  young  man,  of  fine  address  and  good 
administrative  ability.  He  entered  on  his  work  with 
two  years'  experience  as  a  missionary  among  the  In- 
dians. He  was  well  qualified  to  take  charge  of  this 
important  field,  and  continued  in  this  office  for  two 
years,  wielding  a  fine  influence  throughout  the  entire 
Nation.  The  missionary  field  this  year  was  greatly 
enlarged  The  schools  were  kept  up,  the  missionaries 
penetrated  the  mountains  of  North  Carolina  and  plant- 
ed the  cross  among  the  uncivilized  inhabitants  of  this 
wild  region,  and  down  through  the  valleys  as  far  as 
the  Georgia  and  Alabama  lines  carried  the  gospel  to 
almost  every  part  of  the  Nation.  This  year  the  mern,- 
bership  reached  1,028, 

116     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

In  1830  Rev.  Dixon  C.  McLeod  was  Super- 
intendent of  the  mission,  wiiich  liad  ten  ap- 
pointments and  twelve  missionaries.  It  had 
extended  its  operations  to  every  part  of  the 
Cherokee  Nation.  A  number  of  revivals  were 
reported,  yet  only  855  members  were  enrolled 
at  the  close  of  the  year.  This  was  the  result 
of  the  immigration  to  the  West  which  had 
commenced,  which  carried  with  it  many  mem- 
bers of  the  Church,  who  bore  with  them  to 
their  new  home  the  gospel  that  they  had  re- 
ceived from  the  missionaries  in  the  East.  In 
1832  great  prosperity  was  reported,  notwith- 
standing the  drain  caused  by  the  Western 
movement,  and  the  membership  reached  939. 

About  this  time  the  question  of  the  removal 
of  the  Cherokees  to  the  West  caused  a  division 
of  the  nation  into  the  Ross  and  Ridge  parties. 
The  former  were  determined,  if  possible,  to  re- 
main in  the  land  of  their  fathers,  while  the 
latter  favored  their  removal  to  the  West.  The 
conflict  between  these  two  parties  was  bitter, 
and  often  resulted  in  bloodshed.  The  mis- 
sion work  was  greatly  disturbed.  The  Ridge 
party  removed  West.  The  Ross  party,  after 
clinging  to  their  homes  until  the  last  hope  of 
holding  them  was  gone,  followed  their  breth- 
ren to  their  new  home  in  the  West.     During 

Missions  in  the  South.  Il7 

the  later  years  of  their  stay  they  were  lim- 
ited to  lands  in  Alabama  and  East  Tennessee, 
and  were  supplied  by  missionaries  under  the 
leadership  of  Eev.  Andrew  Gumming.  When 
the  whole  tribe  removed  to  the  Indian  Ter- 
ritory, Gumming  and  a  few  faithful  preach- 
ers followed  them,  and  resumed  their  labors 
in  this  distant  field.  Gumming  continued  his 
labors  with  the  Indians  until  in  old  age  his 
Master  called  him  to  his  reward. 

The  missions  among  the  Ghoctaws  and  Chick- 
asaws — kindred  races,  who  occupied  lands  in 
the  States  of  Mississippi  and  Alabama — were 
remarkable  for  their  success.  Their  num- 
bers were  estimated  at  about  20,000.  In  1825 
the  Mississippi  Gonference  organized  a  mis- 
sion among  them,  with  Dr.  William  Winans  as 
Superintendent  and  Kev.  Wiley  Ledbetter  as 
missionary.  For  some  time  the  outlook  of  the 
mission  was  discouraging.  But  little  impres- 
sion seemed  to  be  made  on  the  minds  of  the 
savages.  In  1827  Eev.  Alexander  Talley  was 
appointed  missionary  to  the  Indians  in  North 
Mississippi,  and  with  his  tent  as  his  home  and 
an  interpreter  to  aid  him  in  reaching  the  peo- 
ple he  went  forth  on  his  mission.  The  inter- 
preter was  afraid  to  face  large  crowds,  and  the 
labors  of  the  missionary  for  a  time  were  lim- 

118      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ited  to  small  groups  in  their  tents,  or  around 
tlieir  camp-fires  in  the  forest.  His  preaching 
was  simple  and  direct.  He  told  them  of  the 
fall,  showed  them  their  sins,  and  pointed  to 
the  Saviour  who  died  as  well  for  the  Indian 
as  for  the  white  man.  The  principal  chief, 
Greenwood  Leflore,  invited  him  to  his  house, 
and  gave  him  a  cordial  welcome.  Leflore  was 
the  son  of  a  French  trader,  who  in  earlier  days 
had  settled  on  the  Natchez  trace,  married  an 
Indian  woman,  and  raised  a  large  family.  He 
was  prosperous  in  business ;  and  his  eldest  son, 
who  was  now  the  leading  man  in  the  nation, 
had  been  educated  amoug  the  whites.  The 
welcome  he  gave  the  missionary  indicated  the 
estimate  he  placed  on  the  religion  that  had 
done  so  much  for  the  whites.  He  never  fal- 
tered in  his  friendship  for  the  missionaries. 
He  was  an  eloquent  speaker,  and,  when  need 
required,  was  ready  to  act  as  interpreter  for 
the  missionary.  The  Leflore  family  were  thus 
brought  under  the  influence  of  the  gospel. 
Their  wealth  and  intelligence  gave  them  great 
influence  among  their  people,  and  opened  the 
way  for  the  missionary.  In  1828  a  camp-meet- 
ing was  held,  which  attracted  great  crowds. 
The  power  of  God  was  manifest.  The  people 
listened  with  wonder  to  the  story  of  redemp- 

Missions  in  the  South.  119 

tion,  and  many  were  converted  and  united  with 
the  Church.  Among  these  were  the  leading 
members  of  the  Leflore  family.  As  religion 
spread  the  people  became  more  industrious, 
and  their  homes  and  farms  showed  that  a 
large  step  had  been  taken  on  the  line  of  civil- 
ization. AYliisky,  sold  by  the  traders,  had  been 
the  chief  curse  of  the  tribe.  An  ordinance 
was  passed  by  the  Council  to  suppress  the 
traffic  with  the  penalty:  "  The  offender  will  be 
struck  a  hard  lick  on  the  head  with  a  stick, 
and  his  whisky  poured  out  on  the  ground." 
The  law  was  enforced.  A  brave  named  Offa- 
homa  defied  it,  but  his  sore  head  under  the  hard 
blow  with  a  stick  was  a  warning  to  others,  and 
the  law  was  henceforth  respected  by  all.  Eev. 
Isaac  Smith,  from  Asbury  School,  then  visited 
the  mission,  and  his  earnest  words  and  vener- 
able appearance  made  a  profound  impression 
on  the  people.  Leflore  was  his  interpreter, 
and  as  he  translated  the  wonderful  message 
from  God  to  the  congregation  the  interpreter 
wept  and  the  people  wept  with  him.  The  gos- 
pel again  demonstrated  itself  to  be  the  power 
of  God  to  save  the  savage  as  well  as  the  civ- 
ilized of  our  race.  Talley  well  merited  the 
name  of  "  The  Apostle  to  the  Choctaws."  He 
traveled   tirelessly  through   the  Nation,  and 

120     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

many  were  converted  and  joined  the  Church 
— among  them  four  captains.  At  a  second 
camp-meeting  held  in  1828  upward  of  six  hun- 
di'ed  Indians  were  converted  and  admitted 
into  the  Church. 

In  1828  Talley  took  a  delegation  of  Indian 
converts  to  the  Annual  Conference  that  met 
at  Tuscaloosa.  He  read  his  report,  showing 
the  wonderful  results  of  missionary  labor  in 
the  Choctaw  Nation.  The  Indians  were  then 
invited  to  give  an  account  of  the  work  of 
grace  among  them.  Captain  Washington  re- 
sponded through  an  interpreter.  In  his  "  His- 
tory of  Methodism''  Bishop  McTyeire  says: 
"The  Conference  was  powerfully  moved.  Bish- 
op Soule  rose  from  his  chair,  shook  the  hand 
of  the  chief,  welcomed  him  and  his  people  to 
the  Church,  and  exclaimed:  'Brethren,  the 
Choctaw  Nation  is  ours!  No,  I  mistake;  the 
Choctaw  Nation  is  Jesus  Christ's! ' " 

Eevs.  E.  D.  Smith  and  Moses  Perry  were 
sent  to  assist  Talley  in  the  great  work  the 
Master  had  opened  through  his  agency.  The 
mission  was  divided  into  circuits,  and  they 
continued  to  extend  and  prevail.  The  work 
of  grace  among  the  people  was  thorough  and 
deep.  Their  lives  demonstrated  the  mighty 
transformation  which  can  be  wrought  only  by 

Missions  in  the  SoutJi.  l2l 

the  power  of  the  Holy  Spirit.  lu  1830  be- 
tween three  and  four  thousand  members  were 
reported.  With  few  exceptions  the  leading 
men  of  the  nation — chiefs  and  captains — were 
brought  into  the  Church.  Three  missiona- 
ries, three  school-teachers,  and  three  inter- 
preters had  charge  of  the  mission. 

In  1830  the  nation  w^as  divided  over  the 
question  of  their  removal  to  the  West.  The 
gloom  resting  on  the  nation  greatly  dis- 
turbed the  work  of  the  mission.  When  the 
lands  were  sold  and  the  migration  to  the 
West  began,  the  devoted  Talley  accompanied 
the  first  company  to  their  Western  home. 
The  old  mission  was  gradually  broken  up;  but 
the  missionary  met  the  people  as  they  reached 
the  distant  territory,  and  labored  to  gather 
them  into  the  fold. 

In  1833  Talley  had  to  assist  him  two  native 
preachers  and  four  exhorters.  The  Mission 
Board  secured  the  translation  of  portions  of 
the  Bible,  wdiich  greatly  strengthened  the 
work.  In  1834  the  mission  reported  742  mem- 
bers. Talley,  broken  down  by  labor  and  expos- 
ure, surrendered  the  charge  of  the  mission,  and 
Rev.  R.  D.  Smith  was  sent  to  take  his  place. 
Fifteen  preaching-places  were  occupied,  at 
each  of  which   classes  were   organized.      In 

122     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

1836  an  Englisli  school,  ten  Sunday-schools 
taught  by  native  preachers  in  the  Choctaw 
language,  373  scholars,  and  a  Church-mem- 
bership of  960  were  rex^orted.  The  report 
also  showed  two  missionaries,  four  native 
preachers,  three  exhorters,  twenty  class-lead- 
ers, and  five  stewards.  Kevivals  were  report- 
ed in  1839.  In  1840  the  missi  on  was  included  in 
the  Arkansas  Conference,  and  reported  among 
the  Domestic  Missions.  In  1842  six  meeting- 
houses Avere  reported;  also  revivals  resulting 
in  200  conversions,  and  as  many  accessions  to 
the  Church. 

The  enforced  removal  of  these  Indian  tribes 
was  disastrous  to  the  missions  which  had  been 
opened  in  the  East  under  such  encouraging 
auspices.  Disheartened  by  the  ruin  of  their 
homes  and  embittered  by  their  wrongs,  many 
who  had  accepted  the  gospel  lost  faith  in  the 
white  man  and  in  the  white  man's  religion. 
But  God  had  not  forsaken  the  flock  gathered 
out  of  these  tribes.  Methodism  had  been 
planted  in  Missouri,  and  its  preachers  were 
at  hand  ready  to  gather  the  fragments  of  the 
scattered  Churches,  and  build  up  in  the  wil- 
derness the  walls  of  their  desolate  Zion. 

In  1830,  when  the  first  wave  of  Indian  im- 
migration was  pouring  into  the  Western  res- 

Missions  in  the  South.  123 

ervations,  we  find  in  the  Minutes  of  tlie  Mis- 
souri Conference  tiie  Cherokee  and  Creek 
Missions.  In  1831  the  name  of  John  Harrell 
appears  in  connection  with  the  Clierokee  Mis- 
sion. He  lived  to  see  the  gospel  firmly  es- 
tablished among  the  people  for  whom  lie  had 
consecrated  so  many  years  of  his  life. 

In  1836  the  General  Conference  set  apart 
the  Arkansas  Conference.  This  division  placed 
the  Choctaws,  whose  reservation  had  been  in 
the  Mississippi  Conference,  in  the  new  Con- 
ference. In  the  early  part  of  1837  the  Chick- 
asaws  bought  of  the  Choctaws  the  western 
part  of  their  reservation,  which  they  now  oc- 
cupy. This  has  been  one  of  our  most  success- 
ful mission  fields. 

In  1844  the  Indian  Mission  Conference  was 
organized.  It  included  the  Indian  Territory 
and  Indians  in  the  Missouri  Conference.  At  its 
first  session,  held  in  October  of  that  year,  the 
work  was  divided  into  three  districts,  with 
twenty-five  effective  men,  several  of  whom  were 
Indians,  with  85  white,  33  colored,  and  2,992 
Indian  members. 

In  the  division  of  the  Church  in  1844  the 
Indian  Mission  Conference  remained  with  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South.  How 
far  we  have  met  our  obligations  toward  this 

124     Hand  Book  of  3fethodist  Missions. 

mission  field  may  be  seen  from  the  following 
summary,  taken  from  the  records  of  the  board: 
In  1846  the  work  was  divided  into  the  Kan- 
sas River,  the  Cherokee,  and  the  Choctaw  Dis- 
tricts, with  22  missions,  32  missionaries,  3,404 
members,  9  churches,  18  Sunday-schools,  and 
7  literary  institutions.  The  work  also  included 
missions  among  the  Pottawattamie,  Chippewa, 
Peoria,  Wea,  Kansas,  Wyandotte,  Shawnee, 
Kickapoo,  Qaapaw,  Seneca,  and  other  tribes 
or  fragments  of  tribes  located  on  reservations 
in  the  Indian  Territory.  The  Indian  Manual 
Labor  School,  under  the  management  of  Rev. 
J.  C.  Berryman,  reported  137  scholars.  They 
were  instructed  daily  in  school,  the  larger 
boys  being  also  employed  in  the  various  de- 
partments of  agriculture,  or  in  acquiring  a 
knowledge  of  blacksmithing,  wagon-making, 
shoe-making,  and  other  mechanical  arts.  The 
girls,  when  not  in  school,  were  instructed  in 
various  branches  of  domestic  economy.  The 
improvement  of  the  scholars  made  a  favorable 
impression  on  all  the  tribes.  The  older  In- 
dians regretted  that  they  had  not  enjoyed 
these  advantages,  and  many  of  their  leading 
men  began  to  realize  that  with  the  coming  of 
the  missionary  a  new  era  was  opening  before 
their  race.    Rev.  John  T.  Peeiy,  who  had  charge 

Missions  in  the  South,  125 

of  the  Kansas  Mission,  reported  great  encour- 
agement. The  missionary,  having  acquired  a 
knowledge  of  the  language,  found  ready  ac- 
cess to  the  people,  who  were  anxious  for  the 
establishment  of  schools  for  their  children. 
The  AVyandotte  Indians,  of  Ohio,  among  whom 
the  first  Methodist  mission  among  the  Indians 
had  been  established,  had  emigrated  to  the 
Indian  Territory,  accompanied  by  their  mis- 
sionary, Bev.  James  Wheeler.  Among  their 
first  buildings  was  a  comfortable  hewed-log 
meeting-house.  One  of  the  Indians  w^as  asked 
why  he  was  "more  engaged  in  building  a  meet- 
ing-house than  a  dwelling-house."  He  replied: 
"  The  benefit  of  the  soul  is  of  more  importance 
than  the  accommodation  of  the  body.  When 
I  have  helped  to  build  a  house  for  the  Lord, 
I  will  then  build  one  for  myself."  A  mission- 
house  for  the  missionary  was  also  built  with  the 
funds  arising  from  the  sale  of  the  mission  im- 
provements in  Ohio.  Their  territory  was  di- 
vided into  three  school  districts,  in  which  two 
comfortable  school-houses  had  been  built  by 
labor  and  money  furnished  by  the  Indians. 
In  1846,  with  a  population  of  568,  this  tribe 
reported  186  members.  The  Shawnee  mission 
reported  53  members.  The  work  among  the 
Kickapoos  was  disturbed  by  one  of  the  con- 

126     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

verts,  wlio,  having  acquired  sorae  new  ideas 
about  doctrine,  announced  himself  as  a  proph- 
et sent  from  heaven  for  the  instruction  of  the 
Indians.  After  a  time  his  influence  waned, 
and  the  work  among  them  began  once  more  to 
prosper.  The  Cherokee  nation,  numbering 
more  than  18,000,  was  reported  as  moving 
rapidly  on  the  line  of  Christian  civilization. 
Our  mission  among  them  was  very  prosperous. 
Several  comfortable  meeting-houses  were  built. 
Our  membership  in  this  tribe  was  reported  at 
1,930.  The  Chickasaws,  who  numbered  about 
5,000,  were  very  friendly  to  the  missionaries, 
encouraged  them  in  their  school-work,  and 
were  attentive  to  preaching,  though  no  special 
revival  was  reported.  The  Choctaw  District 
reported  914  members.  In  portions  of  the 
Creek  nation,  which  numbered  about  16,000 
souls,  there  was  decided  opposition  to  the  mis- 
sion, led  by  some  of  the  principal  chiefs,  who 
were  firmly  attached  to  their  old  customs.  On 
the  Little  River  Mission,  under  the  charge  of 
Rev.  James  Essex,  the  organization  of  the 
Sunday-school  excited  great  interest,  and  old 
and  young  came  out  to  see  this  new  thing  the 
missionaries  had  established.  Some  of  the 
people  were  awakened,  but  the  heathen  party 
promptly  commenced  persecution.    A  "  Town- 

Missions  in  the  South.  127 

square  "  was  organized  and  laws  passed  to  sup- 
press the  gospel.  The  penalty  for  hearing  the 
missionary  preach  was  fifty  lashes  on  the  bare 
back;  and  if  any  one  embraced  the  religion  of 
Christ,  he  should  receive  fifty  lashes  and  have 
one  of  his  ears  cut  off.  The  missionary,  how- 
ever, held  his  ground,  organized  a  temperance 
society,  formed  a  Church,  and  carried  on  his 
Sunday-school.  The  Fort  Coffee  Manual  La- 
bor School  and  the  Morris  Seminary  in  the 
Choctaw  Nation  rendered  efficient  service  not 
only  in  instructing  the  children,  but  in  break- 
ing down  the  prejudices  of  the  adults.  The 
field  occupied  by  the  Indian  Mission  Confer- 
ence extended  at  this  time  from  the  Missouri 
River  on  the  north  to  the  Red  Eiver  on  the 
south,  and  westward  to  the  Rocky  Mountains. 

The  report  for  1847  indicated  a  decided  ad- 
vance in  every  department  of  mission  work. 
A  number  of  removals  were  reported,  and 
many  "  sons  of  the  forest "  were  gathered  into 
the  fold  of  Christ. 

The  Kansas  District,  with  missions  among 
the  Shawnees,  Delawares,  Kickapoos,  Wyan- 
dottes,  Chippewas,  Weas,  and  Sacs,  reported 
494  members,  6  Churches,  8  Sunday-schools, 
and  225  scholars.  The  Cherokee  District, 
which    also    embraced    missions    among    the 

128      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Quapaw  and  Seneca  tribes,  reported  2,031 
members,  13  Churches,  12  Sunday-schools, 
and  397  scholars.  The  Choctaw  District,  with 
appointments  among  the  Chickasaws^  reported 
1,107  members,  13  Churches,  12  schools,  and 
330  scholars.  This  gives  a  total  of  3,632 
members,  who  were  under  the  care  of  32  mis- 
sionaries and  native  preachers.  Some  litera- 
ry institutions  were  also  reported,  with  300 

An  arrangement  was  concluded  by  Rev.  J. 
C.  Berry  man,  the  Superintendent  of  the  mis- 
sion, and  the  Secretary  of  War  and  Commis- 
sioner of  Indian  Affairs,  at  Washington,  by 
which  the  Missionary  Society  of  the  Meth- 
odist Ei:>iscopal  Church,  South,  was  to  take 
under  its  superintendence  and  direction  three 
additional  academies  or  manual  labor  schools, 
to  be  established  in  the  Chickasaw,  Creek, 
and  Quapaw  nations.  While  the  government 
made  liberal  appropriations  for  buildings,  and 
for  the  support  of  the  schools,  the  terms  of 
the  agreement  demanded  large  expenditures 
every  year  on  the  part  of  the  Missionary  So- 
ciety. The  Board,  after  mature  deliberation, 
confirmed  the  arrangement,  relying  on  the 
liberality  of  the  Church  for  means  to  carry  it 
into  effect 

Missions  in  the  South.  129 

The  Annual  Eeport  of  May,  1848,  indicates 
•prosperity  iu  every  department  of  the  mis- 
sions. School  work  was  yielding  large  re- 
sults ;  "  converts  were  multiplied,  and  the  na- 
tive members  built  up  in  the  most  holy  faith." 
The  work  on  the  buildings  of  the  govern- 
ment schools  was  progressing,  and  the  Board 
made  ample  appropriations  to  meet  its  obli- 
gations under  the  contract  into  which  it  had 
entered  the  previous  year.  Tlie  opposition 
rej3orted  a  few  years  before  seems  to  have  dis- 
appeared, and  in  the  four  great  nations  and 
the  smaller  tribes  clustered  in  the  north-east- 
ern part  of  the  Territory,  and  in  those  located 
north  of  the  present  Territory  of  Oklahoma, 
the  way  for  the  gospel  was  fully  open. 

Four  districts — the  Kansas,  the  Cherokee, 
the  Muscogee,  and  the  Choctaw — now  appear 
on  the  Minutes  with  31  appointments,  5,829 
members,  28  Sunday-schools,  887  scholars,  6 
literary  institutions,  and  257  pupils.  In  many 
sections  the  congregations  were  so  large  that 
the  log  meeting-houses  would  not  hold  them, 
and  they  gathered  under  the  shade  of  the  trees. 
In  those  rnde  forest  temples  how  many  thou- 
sands of  souls  among  both  the  red  and  the 
white  men  have  been  led  to  Christ  on  that 
great  AYestern  border  that  during  the  present 

130      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

century  has  been  moving  to  the  west  until 
it  has  reached  the  shores  of  the  Pacific!  A* 
pulpit  with  a  puncheon  floor,  a  book  board 
sometimes  of  like  material,  seats  of  logs,  an 
altar  where  the  leaders  in  Israel  were  seat- 
ed, and  to  which  the  penitents  were  invited, 
became  a  sanctuary  where  the  gospel  was 
shown  to  be  the  power  of  God  unto  the  salva 
tion  of  the  hardy  pioneer  or  of  tlie  untutored 

In  1850  there  were  4  districts,  37  missiona- 
ries, 4,042  members,  25  Sunday-schools,  1,347 
scholars,  8  literary  institutions,  and  380  pu- 
pils. Tliis  year  the  missions  of  the  Kansas 
District  were  detached  from  the  Indian  Mis- 
sion Conference  and  attached  to  the  St.  Louis 
Conference.  School  work  had  been  pushed 
with  vigor,  and  revivals  were  reported  from 
many  portions  of  the  field.  The  Asbury  Man- 
ual Labor  School,  one  of  the  institutions  that 
was  established  under  the  contract  with  the 
government,  and  approved  by  the  Board  in 
1847,  after  many  delay s^  was  located  in  the 
Creek  Nation,  near  the  present  town  of  Eu- 
faula,  and  a  spacious  three-story  building, 
costing  nine  thousand  dollars,  was  completed* 
The  school  opened  with  as  many  scholars  as 
it  could  accommodate.     Many  of  the  leading 

Mlssmis  hi  the  South,  131 

men  in  the  Nation  have  been  educated  in  this 

The  report  of  1851,  including  the  work  in 
the  Kansas  District,  which  had  been  made  a 
part  of  the  St.  Louis  Conference,  embraces 
four  districts,  with  3,494  Indian  members,  177 
white,  587  colored,  27  Sunday-schools  with 
1,241  scholars,  and  8  literary  institutions 
with  395  pupils.  Three  manual  labor  schools 
were  now  in  operation.  The  Asbury  Manual 
Labor  School,  in  the  Creek  Nation,  was  in  full 
operation.  The  building  for  the  Chickasaw 
Manual  Labor  School  was  advancing  toward 
completion.  It  had  been  delayed  until  Broth- 
er Browning,  who  had  this  work  in  charge, 
could  improve  a  mill-seat  and  saw  the  lumber. 
This  fact  indicates  the  difficulties  under  which 
our  missionaries  labored.  The  saw-mill  cost 
money;  but  it  not  only  supplied  the  material 
for  the  building,  but  became  a  valuable  object 
lesson  to  the  Indians;  and,  by  encouraging 
them  to  exchange  their  rude  and  floorless  cab- 
ins for  comfortable  habitations,  helped  to  lift 
them  to  a  higher  plain  of  civilization.  The 
ChickasawR  were  now  waking  up  to  the  impor- 
tance of  education,  a  movement  that  was 
warmly  encouraged  by  the  missionaries.  They 
were    especially   interested    in   the    manual 

132      Hand  Book  of  Metliodist  Missions. 

labor  department  of  the  school.  They  ap- 
preciated its  importance  in  preparing  their 
people  for  self-support  as  the  basis  of  true 
indeijendence.  The  farmers  and  mechanics 
trained  in  this  school  have  been  important 
factors  ill  tiie  elevatioii  of  tl^is  tribe.  The 
Fort  Leavenworth  Manual  Labor  School  in 
Kansas  Distri-ct  reported  80  scholars.  In  all 
these  schools  tho  Bible  was  read,  Sunday- 
schools  conducted,  regular  religious  services 
observed  on  Sabbath,  with  family  worship, 
which  all  attended  twice  every  day. 

From  1852  to  1861  each  anjiual  report  showed 
a  steady  growth  in  all  departments  of  the  work. 
The  schools  were  well  sustained,  and  may  be 
ranked  among  the  leading  agencies  in  the  civ- 
ilization and  Christianization  of  these  leading 
tribes.  Evangelical  work  was  pressed  with 
vigor  until  every  community  was  brought  un- 
der its  influence.  Eevivals  at  different  times 
blessed  every  portion  of  the  field.  In  1861 
the  mission  reported  26  appointments,  29  mis- 
sionaries, 83  schools,  and  465  pupils. 

Then  the  cloud  of  war  settled  down  on  the 
mission.  The  work  of  the  missionaries  was 
arrested,  and  much  valuable  property  de- 
stroyed. When  the  war  ended,  the  Church, 
though  impoverished,  promptly  resumed  its 

Missions  in  tJie  South.  133 

mission  among  the  Indians.  In  18G6  Bishop 
Marvin  held  the  Annual  Conference,  and  sent 
out  15  white  and  Indian  preachers  to  gather 
their  scattered  members,  and  reorganize  the 
work.  In  1867  12  preachers  met  in  Annual 
Conference,  and  reported  1,764  memhers.  In 
1868  there  were  11  preachers  on  the  Confer- 
ence roll,  with  53  local  preachers,  and  a  mem- 
bership of  2,226. 

The  educational  work  was  resumed,  and  in 
a  few  years  the  whole  field  was  again  brought 
within  the  evangelical  operations  of  the 
Church.  Until  recently  the  schools  were  con- 
ducted under  contracts  with  the  several  na- 
tions, which  required  the  nations  to  furnish  a 
building  and  pay  a  certain  sum  annually  for 
the  support  of  the  children,  and  the  Board  to 
supply  the  teachers  and  maintain  the  school. 
To  this  system  there  were  serious  objections. 
It  gave  the  natives  a  control  over  the  school 
wdiich  did  not  allow  that  freedom  and  firmness 
of  discipline  that  is  essential  to  jjroper  man- 
agement. Again,  after  the  Board  had  ex- 
pended thousands  annually  for  the  support  of 
the  school  the  nations  could,  for  political  rea- 
sons, cancel  the  contract  and  transfer  the 
school  to  another  society.  We  are  now  mov- 
ing on  safer  and  more  permanent  lines.     The 

134     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Ililsslons. 

Board  owns  the  plant,  and  controls  tlie  school. 
Harrell  Institute,  at  Muskogee,  Creek  Nation, 
is  doing  a  noble  work  in  the  education  of  girls. 
We  are  laying  the  foundation  of  a  similar 
school  for  boys  at  Vinita,  Cherokee  Nation. 
The  Penn  Institute,  at  White  Bead  Hill,  among 
the  Chickasaws,  is  doing  efficient  work.  The 
Woman's  Board  has  a  school  among  the  wild 
tribes  at  the  agency  at  Anadarko,  which  has 
the  promise  of  great  usefulness. 

A  mission  was  opened  in  1887  under  charge 
of  Rev.  J.  J.  Methvin  among  the  Comanche, 
Apache,  Kiowa,  and  other  wild  tribes  in  the 
western  part  of  the  Territory.  These  were 
regarded  among  the  most  warlike  of  the  tribes, 
but  they  received  the  missionary  kindly,  and 
we  have  strong  assurances  that  the  good  seed 
will  yield  a  rich  harvest.  Already  evidence  is 
given  that  the  gospel  is  the  "power  of  God 
unto  salvation"  among  the  savage  tribes. 
Brother  Methvin  calls  earnestly  for  re-en- 

The  Annual  Report  for  1891  indicates  the 
prosperity  that  still  marks  the  operations  of 
our  Indian  Mission.  It  reported  8  districts, 
92  missionaries,  136  local  preachers,  9,669 
members,  152  Sunday-schools,  and  6,403  schol- 


Texas  Missions. 
God  sometimes  uses  strange  instrumentali- 
ties for  the  accomplisliment  of  his  designs. 
Movements  that  man  has  projected  with  no 
thought  of  God  are  often  the  agencies  for  the 
promotion  of  his  kingdom  among  the  nations; 
and  men  who  are  living  for  themselves  only- 
are  pioneering  the  way  for  the  gospel  among 
the  waste  places  of  the  earth.  No  more  merce- 
nary organization  ever  existed  than  the  East 
India  Company.  It  forbade  the  landing  of 
missionaries  within  its  jurisdiction,  yet  it  pre- 
pared the  way  for  the  establishment  of  Bri- 
tish power  in  India,  and  thus  opened  a  path- 
way for  the  missionaries  it  had  banished  from 
its  domains.  No  nation  has  less  sympathy 
with  the  Protestant  missionary  than  France; 
but  when  her  guns  commanded  treaty  privi- 
leges in  China  she  opened  a  pathway  for  the 
modern  missionary  among  over  300,000,000  of 
people.     Large  syndicates  are  planning  rail- 


i;-)6      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

way  lines  down  the  backbone  of  the  two 
American  Continents,  and  erelong  the  railway 
systems  of  Mexico  and  Brazil  will  be  locked 
together  by  bands  of  steel,  a  highway  for  the 
gospel  will  be  opened  to  all  the  races  that  live 
between  the  Rio  Grande  and  Terra  del  Fuego. 
In  the  early  part  of  tliis  century,  Texas,  a 
province  of  Mexico,  was  thrown  open  to 
Anglo-American  immigration.  Its  river  val- 
leys and  fertile  uj^lands  were  waiting  for  the 
coming  of  a  race  who  would  develop)  these 
vast  resources.  Before  the  first  quarter  of  a 
century  had  closed  settlements  from  the 
United  States  had  occupied  the  "  Red  Lands  " 
of  East  Texas,  and  large  colonies  were  being 
planted  between  the  Trinity  and  Guadalupe. 
These  hardy  pioneers  had  little  thought  that 
they  were  opening  a  mission  field  wdiich  would, 
before  the  century  closed,  embrace  every  por- 
tion of  that  province  and  extend  its  operations 
to  nearly  every  State  and  Territory  of  the 
Republic  of  Mexico.  They  were  there  on 
other  business:  they  were  after  rich  land, 
and  cared  but  little  for  a  better  inheritance. 
There  was  nothing  of  the  missionary  in  their 
language  or  pursuits,  and  yet  these  men  had 
brought  the  gospel  to  Texas,  and  were  pio- 
neering its  pathway  into  the  regions  beyond. 

Missions  in  the  South.  187 

No  one  would  have  suspected  the  fact  had  he 
seen  the  crowd  that  sometimes  gathered  into 
tiie  nearest   town   on   Sunday  morning   and, 
hitching  their  horses  near  the  open  saloon, 
spent  the  day  in  gambling  or  drunken  revelry. 
The  language  of  Canaan  was  not  on  their  lips. 
The  god  of   this  world  seemed  to  have  full 
sway  over   their  hearts.     Yet  some  of  these 
had  Bibles  in  their  homes.     It  was  a  forbid- 
den book  in  that   land  of  papal  intolerance, 
but   the  priest  would  have  had  on  hand  an 
ugly  task  had  he  dared  to  mutilate  one  of  its 
sacred  pages.     It  bore  in  its  family   record 
the  names  of  their  parents  now  in  the  grave. 
More  than  that,  it  told  of  the  Saviour  in  whom 
those  parents  trusted   as  they  walked  down 
into  the  valley  of  death.     There  was  dust  on 
its  lids,  but  it  would  be  opened  some  day  and 
fulfill  its  mission.     When  God,  by  any  agency, 
has  introduced  the  Bible  into  either  papal  or 
pagan  lands,  he  has  planted  the  gospel  there. 
Let  me  just  here  relate  an  incident  which 
illustrates  what  the  Bible  could  do  in  those 
days    among    the    most    desperate    of    men. 
When  the  Texas  forces,  while  retreating  be- 
fore the  army  of  Santa  Anna,  had  reached  the 
town  of  San  Felipe,  on  the  Brazos,  Gen.  Hous- 
ton ordered  the  town  to  be  burned  to  prevent 

138      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Misshns. 

the  supplies  it  contained  falling  into  the 
hands  of  the  enemy.  A  merchant,  seeing  no 
hope  of  saving  his  goods,  told  the  soldiers  to 
help  themselves.  Among  them  was  one  of 
Houston's  scouts,  known  for  his  reckless  dar- 
ing. On  the  counter  was  a  Bible  of  moderate 
size  which,  up  to  that  time,  had  found  no 
market.  The  scout  picked  it  up  with  the  re- 
mark: "  Boys,  I'll  take  this  for  my  share."  It 
was  a  rich  joke  for  that  Godless  crowd.  The 
book  was  an  awkward  addition  to  his  knap- 
sack, and  often  he  thought  of  tossing  it  into 
the  prairie,  but  for  some  cause  for  which  he 
could  not  account  he  clung  to  the  book.  The 
war  over,  he  returned  to  his  home.  The  book 
was  placed  on  a  high  shelf  and  orders  given 
to  his  children  that  no  one  should  take  it 
down.  Years  passed  on.  No  man  in  Col- 
orado was  more  familiar  with  the  gambling- 
table  and  race-track  than  that  noted  Texas 
scout.  One  day  time  hung  heavily  on  his 
hands,  and,  without  knowing  why,  the  Bible 
was  taken  down  and  its  pages  opened.  The 
first  verse  fastened  on  his  heart.  He  read  till 
his  soul  ached  out  its  sins.  He  read  until  the 
light  of  the  Saviour's  love  was  shed  abroad 
in  his  heart  by  the  Holy  Ghost.  His  last 
days  were  spent  in  hunting  up  his  old  com- 

Missions  in  tlie  Soutli.  139 

rades  in  sin  and  leading  them  to  Christ;  aiid 
when  death  came,  it  found  him  ready  to  an- 
swer the  Master's  call. 

Others  of  those  men  brought  the  gospel 
with  them  in  holy  memories  of  the  family  al- 
tar before  which  their  parents  bowed,  and  the 
house  of  prayer  in  which  their  fathers  wor- 
shiped. Sometimes  the  missionary  was  led  to 
wonder  at  some  unexpected  act  of  kindness 
from  men  of  desperate  character  and  life.  On 
one  occasion  an  a^opointment  for  a  two  days' 
meeting  was  announced  in  the  Red  Lands  of 
Eastern  Texas.  Some  lewd  fellows  of  the 
baser  sort  determined  to  break  it  up.  Col. 
James  Bowie,  a  man  known  throughout  the 
South-west  for  his  tried  courage,  went  on  the 
ground  and  declared  the  meeting  should  not 
be  disturbed.  No  one  was  ready  to  encounter 
this  unexpected  cham2:>ion  of  the  preachers, 
and  the  services  of  the  meetings  were  con- 
ducted in  peace.  The  mother  of  Bowie  was 
a  Methodist,  and  the  memory  of  her  pious 
life  made  him  the  defender  of  her  faith. 

Others  had  brought  the  gospel  with  them 
in  the  hearts  and  lives  of  their  devoted  wives. 
Often  the  preacher  met  an  unexpected  wel- 
come in  the  homes  of  men  noted  for  their 
abandoned  wickedness.     For  the  sake  of  his 

140      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

true-hearted  and  devoted  wife  his  house  was 
transformed  into  a  house  of  worship,  and  in 
many  instances  through  her  influence  he  was 
led  to  Christ. 

They  had  also  brought  to  this  land,  domi- 
nated by  priestly  intolerance,  that  love  for 
freedom  that  could  not  rest  until  every  man 
within  its  borders  possessed  the  right  to  wor- 
ship God  according  to  the  dictates  of  his  own 
conscience.  Other  questions  brought  on  the 
conflict  which  ended  in  the  independence  of 
Texas;  but  the  highest  boon  that  was  won  on 
the  field  of  San  Jacinto  was  that  of  religious 

After  the  pioneer  came  the  preacher.  The 
entrance  of  the  missionary  into  Texas  was 
the  result  of  a  singular  mistake.  In  that  day 
the  boundary  lines  between  the  United  States 
and  Mexico  were  not  clearly  defined,  and  a 
region  of  country  located  between  the  Ked 
River  and  the  Sulphur  Fork,  though  a  part  of 
Texas,  was  supposed  to  belong  to  Arkansas 
territory.  The  settlers  who  first  occupied 
this  region  were  not  aware  that  they  were 
making  their  homes  on  foreign  soil.  The 
Methodist  preacher,  pressing  his  way  into  the 
regions  beyond,  entered  this  new  and  inviting 
field  without  any  apprehension  of  interference 

Mist;i(jns  in  tlie  South.  141 

on  the  part  of  the  bigoted  priesthood  of  Mex- 
ico. As  early  as  1815,  Dr.  Thrall  informs  ns 
in  his  "  Methodism  in  Texas,"  William  Stev- 
enson preached  on  the  Texas  side  of  the  Red 
River.  In  .1818  he  held  a  camp-meeting  near 
the  place  where  he  preached  his  first  sermon. 
The  names  of  Henry  Stevenson  and  two 
brothers,  Washington  and  Green  Orr,  appear 
as  his  co-laborers.  In  1817  a  class  was  organ- 
ized at  a  place  called  Jonesboro,  on  Red  River, 
of  which  Brother  Tidwell  was  leader.  Par- 
ties converted  in  those  early  days  afterward 
moved  into  the  interior  of  Texas  and  helped  to 
establish  the  Church  in  their  new  homes.  In 
1835  Sulphur  Fort  appears  among  the  appoint- 
ments. In  1839  it  was  traveled  by  Rev.  J.  W. 
P.  McKenzie,  who  had  been  for  four  years  a 
missionary  among  the  Choctaws.  He  after- 
ward established  an  institution  of  learning  at 
Clarksville.  Many  of  the  leading  men  in 
Texas,  both  in  Church  and  in  State,  were  ed- 
ucated at  this  school.  In  1844  the  Red  Riv- 
er country  was  transferred  to  the  East  Texas 
Conference,  with  seven  hundred  and  seven 
white  and  sixty-four  colored  members. 

The  advantages  possessed  by  the  people 
north  of  the  Sulphur  Fork  were  not  enjoyed  in 
the  rest  of  Texas.  When  the  emigrant  crossed 

142     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

the  Sabine,  he  was  under  the  laws  of  Mex- 
ico. The  Catholic  Chnrch  was  the  religion 
of  the  State,  and  a  corrupt  and  intolerant 
priesthood  were  ready  to  enforce  its  claims. 

Henry  Stevenson  may  be  justly  entitled 
the  pioneer  missionary  in  Texas,  for  he  was 
first  to  cross  the  Sabine  and  plant  the  cross 
within  the  undisputed  boundaries  of  one  of 
the  provinces  of  Mexico.  In  1824  he  visited 
Austin  Colony,  and  preached  at  private  houses 
near  Washington;  also  at  Cumming's  Creek, 
in  Fayette  County;  at  Peach  Creek,  not  far 
from  Guadalupe ;  at  Morris  Settlement,  on  the 
Colorado;  at  Columbus  and  San  Felipe.  He 
afterward  revisited  these  points  in  1829  and 
1830.  In  1834  he  traveled  the  Sabine  Circuit, 
in  Louisiana.  During  the  year  he  visited  San 
Augustine  County,  preached  in  the  house  of 
George  Teel,  and  organized  a  Church  with  sev- 
eral members.  On  an  occasion  near  San  Au- 
gustine he  had  an  appointment  at  the  house  of 
Mr.  Stafford,  but  the  alcalde  forbade  the  serv- 
ices. Two  days  later  he  preached  at  the  house 
of  Mr.  Thomas,  on  Atoyac  Creek.  In  July  he 
held  a  camp-meeting  at  Col.  Lawrence  B.  Mc- 
Mahan's,  a  prominent  citizen  and  devout 
Methodist.  In  the  war  with  Mexico  CoL 
McMahan  commanded  a  battalion  in  the  fight 

Missions  in  the  South,  148 

with  Pieclras  at  Nacogdoclies.  He  had  been 
a  seeker  of  religion  in  Tennessee,  and  was 
converted  after  he  reached  Texas  while  en- 
gaged in  secret  prayer.  His  house  became 
one  of  the  centers  of  religious  influence 
throughout  the  Red  Lands  of  East  Texas. 
The  pioneer  preachers  found  a  welcome  in  his 
home  and  in  himself  and  family  willing  co- 
laborers  at  the  class-meeting  or  camp-meeting 
altar.  It  was  said  that  no  young  man  ever 
lived  in  his  family  without  being  converted. 

In  the  fall  Stevenson  attended  the  Missis- 
sippi Conference,  and  offered  himself  as  a  mis- 
sionary to  Texas.  He  encountered  decided 
opposition,  but  his  plea  at  last  prevailed,  and 
among  the  appointments  of  the  Mississippi 
Conference  for  1835  is  the  record:  "Texas 
Mission,  Henry  Stevenson." 

Though  the  Church  of  Rome  was  the  relig- 
ion of  the  State  and  its  priests  were  support- 
ed by  the  government,  yet  it  was  even  at  that 
day  losing  its  power  over  the  leading  minds 
of  Mexico.  Many  of  the  Mexican  officials  in 
Texas  were  not  zealous  in  enforcing  the  au- 
thority of  a  religion  which  has  ceased  to 
command  their  respect.  A  local  Methodist 
preacher  named  Alford  and  a  Cumberland 
Presbyterian  preacher  named  Bacon  had  an- 

144     Hand  Book  of  Method  id  Missions. 

nounced  a  meeting  in  Sabine  County.  The  al- 
calde pronounced  against  it.  When  the  hour 
for  preaching  arrived,  a  Mr.  Johnson  appeared 
and  declared  that  he  would  horsewhip  any 
man  who  entered  the  stand.  Alford,  who  had 
just  reached  the  ground,  took  his  place  in  the 
stand,  and  quietly  remarked:  "I  am  as  able  to 
take  a  whipping  as  any  man  on  this  ground." 
Johnson  looked  at  the  brawny  form  and  reso- 
lute face  of  the  preacher,  and  retired.  These 
facts  were  reported  to  the  Mexican  comman- 
der at  Nacogdoches.  He  asked:  "Are  they 
stealing  horses?  "  "  No."  "Are  they  killing 
anybody?"  "No."  "Are  they  doing  any 
thing  bad?"  "No."  "Then  let  them  alone." 
That  is  all  that  Protestant  Christianity  de- 

Another  agency  that  was  preparing  the  way 
for  the  regular  missionaries  was  the  local 
preachers  who  had  sought  homes  in  this  new 
land,  and  who  endeavored,  while  providing  for 
their  families,  to  preach  the  gospel  to  their 
neighbors.  Among  those  who  labored  in  the 
Eed  Eiver  region  was  John  B.  Denton,  a  man 
of  remarkable  ability.  He  was  killed  by  the 
Indians  in  1839.  Two  of  his  sons  are  in  the 
West  Texas  Conference.  Among  the  local 
preachers   of   the    Red    Lands,    east  of   the 

Missions  in  the  South.  145 

Trinity,  none  was  more  noted  than  William  C. 
Crawford.  He  had  been  compelled  to  locate 
in  Alabama  on  account  of  feeble  health,  and 
reached  Texas  in  1835.  He  held  high  posi- 
tion as  lawyer  and  statesman;  but  amid  his 
cares  and  duties  was  ever  a  man  of  power  in 
the  pulpit  and  successful  in  winning  souls  for 
Christ.  At  a  series  of  meetings  held  in  and 
near  Shelbyville,  in  which  he  took  an  active 
part,  over  two  hundred  were  added  to  the 

The  name  of  John  W.  Kinney  was  a  house- 
hold word  among  the  early  Methodists  west 
of  the  Trinity  River.  He  commenced  preach- 
ing as  an  itinerant  in  1820,  and  filled  impor- 
tant stations  in  Ohio,  Kentucky,  Virginia, 
and  Tennessee.  After  traveling  eight  years 
he  located.  He  raised  a  company  which  he 
commanded  during  the  Black  Hawk  war. 
The  cholera  appeared  in  camp,  and  he  faith- 
fully visited  the  sick  and  dying.  At  the  close 
of  the  war  he  removed  to  Texas,  and  preached 
his  first  sermon  near  Washington  in  March, 
1834.  The  next  month  he  held  a  two  days* 
meeting  on  New  Years  Creek.  Though  busy 
during  the  week  upon  his  farm,  the  Sabbath 
usually  found  him  preaching  to  the  people. 
His  appointments  soon  extended  to  the  lea4- 

146     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  llissions. 

ing  settlements  in  what  is  now  Washington, 
Austin,  Fort  Bend,  and  Brazoria  Counties.  He 
was  a  man  of  remarkable  pulpit  power,  while 
his  wide  range  of  information,  sterling  integ- 
rity, and  sound  judgment  gave  him  great  in- 
fluence among  all  classes  of  society. 

During  the  summer  of  1834  Henry  Stev- 
enson again  visited  Western  Texas,  preaching 
wherever  he  went.  He  was  warmly  welcomed 
by  Brother  Kinney,  and  the  wants  of  the  work 
opening  so  encouragingly  were  fully  discussed. 
It  was  decided  to  hold  a  camp-meeting  near 
Brother  Kinney's  house.  An  Indian  raid  into 
the  Kerr  settlement  near  the  present  town  of 
Burton  reduced  the  congregation,  yet  the 
meeting  yielded  large  results.  At  the  close 
of  the  meeting,  after  an  earnest  appeal  from 
Brother  Kinney,  thirty-eight  united  with  the 
Church.  Some  had  been  members  before 
they  came  to  Texas;  others  were  recent  con- 

Among  the  latter  was  John  Rabb,  who  filled 
an  important  part  in  the  history  of  Method- 
ism in  Western  Texas.  He  had  been  convert- 
ed two  months  before  in  a  grove  near  his 
home,  on  the  Colorado,  while  engaged  in  se- 
cret prayer.  He  came  fifty  miles  to  attend 
the  meeting,  and  was,  possibly,  the  first  con- 

Missions  in  the  South.  147 

vert  west  of  the  Trinity  to  acknowledge  Christ.* 
He  kept  up  secret  prayer  as  long  as  he  lived. 
His  favorite  place  was  a  live  oak  grove  near 
his  home.  When  his  heart  was  drawn  out  in 
behalf  of  sinners,  the  whole  neighborhood 
knew  that  John  Eabb  was  at  secret  prayer. 
Often  at  midnight  the  writer  has  been  awak- 
ened by  his  voice  coming  from  his  closet  in 
the  grove.  We  knew  he  was  praying  for  sin- 
ners. We  knew  the  Church  and  the  preacher 
would  not  be  forgotten.  We  could  not  distin- 
guish his  words,  but  we  would  say  "Amen," 
for  we  were  sure  that  John  Eabb's  prayer 
would  be  heard  at  the  mercy-seat.  He  owned 
a  saw-mill.  One  Sunday  afternoon  while 
reading  his  Bible  he  heard  the  cry  of  fire,  and 
on  looking  up  he  saw  the  flames  driven  up  a 
little  valley  below  his  mill  by  a  strong  wind. 
Before  he  could  call  the  hands,  it  was  in  an 
immense  pile  of  rich  pine  lumber.  With  all 
his  force  he  fought  the  flames;  but  his  men 
were  driven  back,  and  soon  the  mill  itself 
would  be  on  fire.  The  loss  of  the  lumber  was 
serious,  but  the  loss  of  the  mill  meant  ruin  to 
himself  and  others.  He  fell  on  his  knees,  told 
God  that  he  held  the  wind  in  his  fists  and 
could  save  his  mill.  As  he  wrestled  in  prayer, 
the  strong  south  wind  was  arrested,  and  be- 

148      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

fore  lie  rose  from  his  knees  the  wind  was  beat- 
ing back  the  flames  and  the  mill  was  saved. 

A  preacher  who  had  heard  of  this  incident 
but  was  somewhat  skeptical,  conversed  soon 
afterward  with  the  engineer  of  the  mill,  an 
avowed  infidel,  who  was  present  and  heard 
Eabb's  prayer.  He  told  the  same  story,  and 
added:  "  When  the  old  man  dropped  on  his 
knees  and  commenced  praying,  I  thought  he 
had  gone  crazy.  I  was  looking  him  in  the 
face  when  he  rose,  shouting:  '  Scatter  the  lum- 
ber, boys,  God  has  answered  my  prayer,  and 
the  wind  is  changing! '  I  looked  up  and  saw 
the  tall  flames  driven  back  by  the  north  wind. 
I  don't  know  much  about  religion,  but  of  one 
thing  I  am  sure:  I  don't  want  the  old  man  to 
pray  against  me.'^  Among  the  agencies  which 
helped  to  give  such  wonderful  success  to  the 
early  missionaries  of  Texas,  we  count  John 
Rabb's  prayers  not  the  least. 

Another  camp-meeting  was  held  by  Brother 
Kinney  on  the  same  ground  in  1835.  It  was 
decided  during  the  meeting  that  the  time  had 
come  for  the.  Church  to  organize,  and  a  Quar- 
terly Conference,  to  be  composed  of  all  who 
had  been  official  members  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  in  the  United  States,  was 
assembled.     Alexander  Thomson  was  chosen 

Missions  in  the  South  149 

Chairman.  He  had  43eeii  a  class-leader  and 
steward  in  the  Church  in  Tennessee.  On  his 
arrival  at  his  new  home  on  Yegua  Creek, 
Texas,  he  at  once  built  his  family  altar.  On 
each  Sunday  morning  it  was  his  custom  to  as- 
semble his  family  and  that  of  his  sister,  Mrs. 
Kerr,  and  some  others  and  hold  prayer-meet- 
ing with  them.  The  Secretary  was  David 
Ayers,  the  father  of  Mrs.  Park,  now  an  active 
member  of  the  Woman's  Board  in,  the  Texas 
Annual  Conference.  W.  P.  Smith,  M.D.,  for- 
merly a  Protestant  Methodist  preacher,  united 
with  the  little  band,  and  continued  until  his 
death  a  useful  local  preacher.  All  felt  the 
need  of  pastoral  oversight,  and  the  lot  fell  on 
Brother  Kinney.  Some  of  these  proceedings 
may  not  have  been  precisely  regular;  but  one 
act  of  the  Conference,  under  Methodist  usage, 
will  remain  unchallenged:  they  took  up  a 
collection.  Brother  Kinney  was  a  poor  man. 
He  had  been  giving  a  good  measure  of  his 
time  to  his  appointments,  but  the  members 
now  assumed  a  share  of  the  burden. 

These  proceedings  were  unauthorized  by 
Mexican  law,  and  some  were  apprehensive  of 
interference  on  the  part  of  the  government. 
Brother  Thomson  submitted  the  matter  to  Dr. 
Miller,  who,  in  the  absence  of  Col.  Austin,  was 

150     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

the  political  head  of  the  colony.  Dr.  Miller 
promptly  approved  the  action  of  the  Confer- 
ence, and  subscribed  twenty  dollars  for  the 
support  of  the  preacher. 

The  members  returned  to  their  homes  full 
of  hope,  but  a  cloud  was  rising.  The  Mexican 
army  under  Santa  Anna  was  on  its  march  to 
expel  the  foreigners  from  Texas.  Then  came 
the  war.  All  who  could  secure  arms  were 
summoned,  to  the  battle-field,  while  others 
were  preparing  to  retreat,  if  necessary,  beyond 
the  Mexican  border.  The  conflict  closed  at 
San  Jacinto.  The  people  returned  to  their 
homes  sadly  impoverished  by  the  invasion, 
and  could  do  but  little  toward  the  support  of 
the  preacher;  but  he  promptly  resumed  his 
appointments^  sometimes  walking  many  miles 
to  the  place  of  worship  when  no  horse  could 
be  obtained.  Another  meeting  was  held  at 
the  Kinney  Camp-ground  in  the  fall  of  1836, 
which  reunited  and  greatly  strengthened  the 
scattered  members.  Some  who  were  camped 
with  their  families  on  the  ground  had  come 
from  the  different  settlements  on  the  Colorado 
eighty  miles  distant,  to  share  in  the  worship 
of  God.  These  annual  meetings  on  the  fron- 
tier were  like  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles  among 
the  ancient  Israelites. 

Missions  in  the  South.  151 

It  was  now  evident  to  that  little  band  that 
the  time  had  come  when  the  regular  mission- 
ary should  be  summoned  to  the  field.  The 
independence  of  Texas  had  brought  to  its 
citizens  the  boon  of  religious  freedom.  Every 
one  could  now  worship  God  without  molesta- 
tion under  his  own  vine  and  fig  tree.  Mr. 
David  Ayers  and  Miss  L.  H.  McHenry,  the 
sister-in-law  of  Brother  Kinney,  opened  cor- 
respondence with  the  bishops  of  our  Church 
and  the  Missionary  Society,  setting  forth  the 
wants  of  this  new  field  and  urging  that  it 
should  be  occupied  without  delay.  After  ma- 
ture deliberation  the  bishops  and  Board  de- 
cided to  open  the  mission  and  prosecute  it 
with  vigor.  In  1837  Bishop  Hedding  notified 
Rev.  Martin  Enter,  D.D.,  that  he  was  appoint- 
ed Superintendent  of  the  Texas  Mission,  with 
Revs.  Littleton  Fowler  and  Robert  Alexan- 
der as  assistants. 

Robert  Alexander,  who,  at  the  time  of  his 
appointment,  was  in  Natchez  Station,  on  the 
Mississippi  River,  lost  no  time  after  receiving 
his  credentials,  but  started  on  horseback  to 
his  distant  field.  He  crossed  the  Sabine  Riv- 
er at  Gaines's  Ferry,  and  entered  at  once  on  his 
work.  The  people  had  learned  of  his  arrival, 
and  a  large  congregation  met  in  the  house  of 

152     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

a  Mr.  Walker.  The  missionary  preached  and 
closed  the  service  in  the  usual  form.  Weary 
with  travel,  he  retired  to  a  private  room  to  rest. 
He  had  rested  about  an  hour  when  Mr.  Walk- 
er entered  the  room  and  said  that  the  people 
were  unwilling  to  return  to  their  homes  with- 
out another  sermon.  This  brought  the  mis- 
sionary to  his  feet.  The  people  were  hungry 
for  the  gospel.  Again  his  Bible  was  opened, 
and  another  message  delivered  to  the  waiting 
congregation.  A  few  days  later  he  reached 
the  home  of  Col.  McMahan,  where  he  held  a 
camp-meeting,  organized  a  circuit,  and  held 
Quarterly  Conference.  During  the  sermon  on 
Sunday  it  began  to  rain.  As  the  congregation 
had  no  protection  but  a  brush  arbor,  the 
preacher  paused;  but  the  people  retained  their 
seats,  and  the  preacher  went  on  with  the  ser- 
mon. The  missionary  remained  a  month  in 
the  Red  Lands,  visiting  the  different  appoint- 
ments, perfecting  the  organizations  of  the  So- 
cieties, and  preaching  on  Sundays  to  congre- 
gations assembled  usually  in  a  private  house. 
The  little  band  at  Washington  gave  the  mis- 
sionary a  cordial  welcome.  After  counseling 
with  Brother  Kinney  and  others,  it  was  decid- 
ed to  hold  a  camp-meeting  near  Sempronius, 
not  far  from  where  the  former  meetings  were 

Missmis  in  the  SoutJu  153 

held.  The  missionary,  who  had  been  raided 
on  a  farm  and  knew  how  to  handle  an  ax,  took 
a  leading  part  in  clearing  the  ground,  building 
the  arbor,  and  preparing  the  seats  and  stand. 
The  meeting  was  of  great  interest  and  profit 
to  the  little  band  that  had  been  waiting  and 
praying  for  the  arrival  of  the  preacher  and 
the  opening  of  aggressive  evangelical  work  in 
this  newly  opened  field.  As  a  token  of  grati- 
tude they  organized  a  Missionary  Society,  and 
their  first  collection  amounted  to  a  thousand 
dollars.  It  is  not  strange  that  Texas  Method- 
ism prospered.  It  was  opened  on  apostolic 

Littleton  Fowler  reached  Texas  by  way  of 
Eed  River,  visited  and  preached  at  Nacogdo- 
ches, and  came  on  to  Washington,  where  he 
met  Alexander,  who  had  just  closed  the  camp- 
meeting  at  Sempronius.  After  the  colleagues 
had  conferred  with  regard  to  the  work  before 
them,  Alexander  started  to  attend  the  Mis- 
sissippi Conference,  which  met  at  Natchez. 
He  had  before  him  a  horseback  journey 
equal  in  distance  to  that  from  Charleston  to 

Leaving  Washington,  Fowler  proceeded  to 
Brazoria,  near  the  coast,  where  he  organized 
a  Church.     He  next  visited  Houston,  where 

154     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

the  Texas  Congress  was  in  session,  and  was 
elected  Cliaplain  of  the  Senate.  While  in 
Houston  he  secured  the  half- block  of  ground 
on  which  the  parsonage  and  leading  church  of 
Houston  now  stand.  His  duties  at  Houston 
ended,  he  passed  on  to  Chappell  Hill.  Here 
he  found  at  the  home  of  William  Kesee  a 
young  school-teacher  whose  confidence  he 
was  soon  able  to  win.  Converted  in  early  life, 
the  young  man  had  felt  called  to  preach;  but 
unwilling  to  answer,  had  wandered  out  into 
Texas.  The  presence  and  piety  of  the  preach- 
er roused  his  slumbering  convictions,  and  one 
rainy  day  he  invited  Fowler  to  the  corn-crib, 
the  only  private  place  in  sight,  and  then  told 
the  story  of  the  conflict  within  his  heart.  He 
had  found  a  faithful  friend,  who  placed  before 
him  the  responsibilities  a  man  assumes  who 
dares  to  disobey  the  call  of  God.  That  inter- 
view determined  the  future  of  that  young 
man.  Two  years  later  the  name  of  Daniel 
Carl  appeared  on  the  Minutes  of  the  Confer- 
ence in  connection  with  tlie  Jasper  Circuit. 
The  Texas  Mission  was  beginning  to  provide 
its  own  preachers. 

The  Church  is  wise  when  it  places  its  best 
•men  in  the  mission  fields.  There  were  no 
better  preachers  in  Antioch  than  Barnabas 

Missions  in  the  South.  155 

and  Saul,  and  they  were  chosen  by  the  Holy 
Spirit  as  missionaries  to  the  Gentiles.  Dr. 
Enter,  who  had  been  appointed  Superintend- 
ent of  the  Texas  Mission,  was  one  of  the  lead- 
ers of  our  Methodist  Israel  in  her  day.  He 
had  filled  some  of  the  most  important  ap- 
pointments in  the  Church.  As  pastor.  Book 
Agent,  and  College  President  he  held  high 

He  was  President  of  Alleghany  College 
when  summoned  to  the  mission  field.  He 
conferred  not  with  flesh  and  blood.  The  Ohio 
E-iver  being  to  low  for  steam-boats,  he  put  his 
family  in  a  small  boat  and  rowed  it  with  his 
own  hands  from  Pittsburg  to  Marietta.  He  left 
his  family  with  his  relatives  at  New  Albany, 
Ind.,  and  proceeded  by  steam-boat  to  Kodney, 
on  the  Mississippi  River.  From  this  point  he 
traveled  on  horseback  to  Gaines's  Ferry,  on  the 
Sabine,  which  he  reached  November  21,  1837. 
Here  he  met  Mr.  Alexander,  who  was  on  his 
way  to  the  Mississippi  Conference.  After 
spending  the  night  together,  maturing  plans 
for  the  future,,  they  parted  in  the  morning. 
The  doctor  reached  San  Augustine  that  day, 
and  preached  at  night  in  a  school-house. 
The  next  Sunday  he  preached  to  large  con- 
gregations   at    Nacogdoches.     Crossing    the 

156     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Trinity,  he  spent  the  night  at  the  house  of 
James  Mitchel.  Learning  from  Mrs.  Mitchel 
that  she  had  not  heard  a  sermon  in  Texas,  he 
requested  her  to  collect  her  family  after  sup- 
per and  he  would  preach.  She  did  so,  and  he 
preached  a  sermon  that  was  long  remembered 
in  that  household.  Reaching  Washington,  he 
preached  on  Friday,  Saturday,  and  Sunday. 
Passing  down  the  country,  he  called  on  Mr. 
Kinney,  who  accompanied  him  to  San  Felipe 
and  Egypt,  on  the  Colorado.  At  the  latter 
point  he  held  class-meeting  and  organized  a 
class  with  nine  members.  From  Egypt  he 
visited  Houston,  when  he  met  Mr.  Fowler. 
He  was  invited  to  preach  before  Congress, 
and  his  sermon  made  a  deep  impression  on 
the  large  and  attentive  congregation.  He  en- 
listed a  number  of  leading  men  of  the  young 
republic  in  his  plans  for  the  establishment  of 
an  educational  institution.  Though  he  did 
not  live  to  carry  out  his  plans,  the  interest  he 
awakened  on  the  subject  during  this  visit  pre- 
pared the  way  for  those  educational  enterpris- 
es of  our  Church  which  have  accomplished 
such  large  results  for  the  Church  and  State 
of  Texas. 

Leaving  Houston  late  in  January,  Dr.  Ruter 
visited  Center   Hill,  Washington,  Independ- 

Missions  in  the  Sotif/i.  157 

ence,  Gay  Hill,  the  Kerr  settlement,  and  Bas- 
trop. At  Bastrop  he  organized  a  Church  of 
fifteen  members.  He  passed  on  to  the  upper 
settlements  on  the  Colorado,  preaching  at 
Morris  Fort  in  February.  During  this  time 
he  had  visited  nearly  all  the  settled  parts  of 
Texas,  and  had  taken  the  names  of  three  hun- 
dred persons  who  were  members  of  the  Meth- 
odist Church  before  they  came  to  Texas.  His 
conclusion  was  that  twelve  additional  mission- 
aries were  needed  in  the  mission.  He  decided, 
after  visiting  East  Texas,  to  attend  the  meet- 
ing of  the  bishops  and  Mission  Board  in  New 
York,  and  secure,  if  possible,  the  re-enforce- 
ments the  field  demanded.  He  started  East, 
and  had  crossed  the  Brazos  when  he  was  tak- 
en sick  and  compelled  to  return  to  Washing- 
ton for  medical  attention.  It  was  now  evident 
that  during  his  few  months  in  Texas  he  had 
overtaxed  his  strength.  The  fierce  northers, 
the  beating  rains,  the  swollen  streams  i^ever 
arrested  his  travel.  To  his  friends  who 
warned  him  against  exposure  he  replied: 
*'The  King's  business  requireth  haste."  All 
was  done  for  him  that  medical  skill  and  lov- 
ing hearts  could  supply,  but  his  work  was 
done.  He  died  in  Washington  May  16,  1838. 
Saddened  by  the  loss  of  their  leader.  Fowler 

158      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

and  Alexander  continued  their  labors  through 

1838.  No  definite  work  had  been  assigned 
then,  and  they  labored  wherever  an  opening 
was  presented.  During  the  year  three  small 
church-buildings  had  been  erected — one  at  San 
Augustine,  one  at  the  McMahan  settlement, 
and  another  at  Washington — while  450  mem- 
bers were  gathered  into  the  Church. 

The  Texas  Mission  District  was  attached 
to  the  Mississippi  Conference.  At  the  ses- 
sion held  December  3, 1838,  L.  Fowler  was  ap- 
pointed presiding  elder  and  Superintendent, 
and  Jesse  Hord,  S.  A.  Williams,  J.  P.  Sneed, 
and  I.  L.  G.  Strickland  were  added  to  the 
preaching  force.  A  meeting  was  held  in  a  log 
cabin  in  San  Augustine,  and  the  work  re-ar- 
ranged as  follows:  L.  Fowler,  presiding  elder 
and  Superintendent;  San  Augustine,  S.  A. 
Williams;  Montgomery,  I.  L.  G.  Strickland; 
Washington,  R.  Alexander;  Houston,  Jesse 
Har^.     J.  P.  Sneed  reached  the  field  in  March, 

1839,  and  took  charge  of  Montgomery  Circuit, 
while  Mr.  Strickland  was  sent  to  assist  Mr. 
Hard.  I.  L.  G.  Strickland  was  a  young  man 
of  devout  piety  and  unusual  ability;  but  was 
soon  stricken  down  with  congestive  fever. 
When  assured  his  end  was  near,  he  said, 
"Can  this  be   death?"  and  then   added,    *'I 

Missions  in  the  Sontli.  159 

shall  soon  be  m  heaven."  This  earnest,  Ibv- 
ing  spirit  had  won  the  love  of  saint  and  sinner. 

The  year  was  marked  by  a  number  of  re- 
vivals. One  in  the  bounds  of  Mr.  Alexander's 
circuit  resulted  in  over  one  hundred  conver- 
sions. In  January  of  this  year  Dr.  Abel 
Stevens  visited  Texas  and  preached  at  differ- 
ent points  wnth  great  acceptability,  and  re- 
turned to  the  North.  The  year  1839  closed 
with  750  white  and  43  colored  members. 

At  the  Mississippi  Conference,  held  Decem- 
ber 4, 1839,  two  districts  were  formed  in  Texas. 
Littleton  Fowler  had  charge  of  the  East  Texas 
District,  with  six  preachers  and  seven  pastoral 
charges.  Eobert  Alexander  had  charge  of  the 
West  Texas  District,  with  nine  preachers  and 
nine  pastoral  charges.  Abel  Stevens,  who  was 
assigned  to  Brazoria  Circuit,  having  returned 
North,  his  place  was  filled  by  O.  Fisher,  a  man 
of  remarkable  pulpit  power.  T.  O.  Summers, 
then  in  the  seventh  year  of  his  ministry,  was 
sent  to  Galveston.  During  the  year  the 
membership  was  more  than  doubled.  The  re- 
port showed  25  local  preachers,  1,623  white 
members,  and  230  colored  members. 

At  the  General  Conference  of  1840  provis- 
ion was  made  for  an  Annual  Conference  in 
Texas.     It  was  organized  by  Bishop  AVaugh, 

160      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

at  Entersville,  December  25,  1840.  T.  O. 
Summers  was  Secretary.  The  Conference  con- 
sisted of  nine  members  and  ten  on  trial.  It 
had  more  probationers  than  full-grown  preach- 
ers. This  revealed  vigorous  and  healthy- 
growth.  Four  districts  were  formed  and 
manned  with  eighteen  men.  Their  field  em- 
braced all  the  settlements  from  Marshall  on 
Upper  Eed  Eiver  to  the  valley  of  the  Guada- 
lupe. T.  O.  Summers  was  sent  to  Galveston 
and  Houston. 

Bishop  Morris  held  the  next  Conference. 
He  brought  with  him  John  Clark  and  J.  W. 
Whipple.  They  left  St.  Louis  October  18 
by  private  conveyance,  and  reached  San  Au- 
gustine December  23,  1841.  Brother  Whip- 
ple was  sent  to  Austin.  The  frontier  was  at 
that  time  infested  by  Indians,  and  the  men 
who  carried  the  gospel  to  its  scattered  settle- 
ments needed  no  small  share  of  native  cour- 
age and  the  grace  of  God.  Every  man  was 
considered  a  part  of  the  frontier  defense,  and 
the  preacher  who  shared  the  dangers  of  trail 
and  camp  when  the  Indians  were  on  the  war- 
path and  the  women  and  children  were  in 
danger  was  sure  of  a  congregation  and  a  re- 
spectful hearing  when  he  reached  his  month- 
ly  appointment    or    met   ih.Q  people   on    tb© 

Missions  in  the  South.  161 

camp-ground.  Few  men  in  Western  Texas 
won  a  larger  place  in  the  confidence  of  its 
early  pioneers  than  Josiali  Whipple.  Preach- 
ing on  circuits,  presiding  over  districts,  con- 
ducting camp  or  protracted  meetings,  plan- 
ning new  fields,  working  and  giving  for  the 
erection  of  churches  and  schools,  he  accom- 
plished a  mission  in  the  Colorado  Valley  that 
will  yiel^  results  when  the  present  generation 
is  in  the  grave. 

In  1842  Brother  Fowler  visited  several 
Northern  Conferences  calling  for  volunteers 
for  the  Texas  Mission.  In  answer  to  the  ap- 
peal before  the  Ohio  Conference  five  young 
men  responded.  Texas  at  that  day  was  a  far 
country,  and  the  question  was  raised  as  to  the 
best  route  to  the  field.  The  veteran  Daniel 
Poe,  who  had  visited  Texas,  gave  the  informa- 
tion. J.  B.  Finley,  the  "old  chief"  of  the 
Conference,  moved  that  Brother  Poe  be  sent 
along  to  take  care  of  the  boys.  Some  one 
asked  if  Sister  Poe  would  be  willing  to  go. 
Brother  Poe  replied  that  when  he  first  saw 
her  she  was  teaching  the  Indians  at  the  head 
of  Lake  Superior,  and  would  go  to  any  field  to 
which  the  Church  would  call  her  husband. 
They  all  reached  Texas.  In  two  years  their 
leader,  Daniel  Poe,  and  his  heroic  wife  died 

162      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

witliin  an  hour  of  each  other,  and  were  buried 
side  by  side  beneath  the  altar  of  the  church 
in  San  Augustine,  where  he  had  so  often 
preached  the  word  of  life.  J.  W.  Devilbiss, 
another  of  that  band,  after  preaching  on  cir- 
cuit and  district  from  the  Brazos  to  the  Kio 
Grande,  closed  his  labors  in  1885.  His  me- 
morial window  in  our  church  at  San  Antonio 
expresses  the  veneration  of  our  people  there 
for  the  man  who  planted  the  cross  in  that  city 
nearly  half  a  century  ago.  H.  S.  Thrall  is 
the  only  one  of  that  little  company  who  re- 
mains among  us.  He  shared  the  trials  and 
dangers  of  that  early  day,  and  still  leads  as  an 
effective  preacher  the  van  of  our  army  on  the 
banks  of  the  Kio  Grande. 

Bishop  Andrew  held  the  Conference  of  1843 
at  Kobinson's  settlement,  near  the  present 
town  of  Huntsville.  He  was  told  on  reaching 
Houston  that,  owing  to  excessive  rains,  which 
had  flooded  every  stream,  it  would  be  impos- 
sible to  proceed.  He  replied  that  it  was  time 
for  a  Methodist  preacher  to  stop  when  he 
could  go  no  farther.  He  started  w^tli  Broth- 
er Summers,  and  by  the  help  of  deep  fords, 
rafts,  and  swimming  of  horses,  they  were  in 
time  when  Conference  convened. 

The  Conference   reported   1,200   members. 

Missions  in  the  South.  163 

It  had  inaugurated  two  colleges:  one  at 
Enters ville,  the  other  at  San  Augustine. 
These  institutions  have  given  place  to  others 
of  later  growth,  but  they  fulfilled  an  impor- 
tant mission  in  their  day. 

In  1844  the  Church  was  divided,  and  the 
Texas  Conference  took  its  place  among  its 
sister  Conferences  of  the  South.  Owing  to 
its  immense  territory  provision  had  been 
made  for  its  division  into  two  Conferences. 
The  Eastern  Conference  was  organized  with 
four  districts,  seventeen  pastoral  charges,  and 
twenty-eight  preachers.  The  Western  Con- 
ference had  three  districts,  sixteen  charges, 
and  twenty-three  preachers.  This  gave  for 
the  republic  51  itinerants,  with  about  5,000 
white  and  1,000  colored  members. 

Although  the  w^ork  in  many  portions  of 
these  new  Conferences  was  now  self-sustain- 
ing, yet  on  the  frontier  and  border  it  was  en- 
larging every  year.  As  the  frontier  receded 
before  the  growing  settlements  it  continued 
to  stretch  from  Red  River  on  the  North  and 
East  for  a  thousand  miles  to  the  Rio  Grande 
and  Gulf  on  the  West  and  South.  Into  this 
vast  extent  of  territory  the  tide  of  immigra- 
tion was  beginning  to  pour  by  the  hundred 
thousand  every  year.     To  supply  this  incom- 

164     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ing  population  with  the  gospel  was  beyond 
the  ability  of  the  older  charges,  and  hence  the 
constant  call  for  men  and  money  to  meet  the 
demands  of  this  rapidly  growing  field.  Had 
it  not  been  for  the  re-enforcements  sent  by  the 
older  Conferences  and  the  missionary  aid 
rendered  by  the  Parent  Board,  this  great  mis- 
sion field  could  never  have  been  occupied  by 
our  Church.  Texas  can  only  pay  this  debt 
by  its  offerings  of  men  and  money  to  send  the 
gosi^el  to  the  regions  beyond. 

Few  mission  fields  have  yielded  larger  re- 
sults. In  early  days  its  boundaries  were 
sometimes  given  thus:  "On  the  North  by  the 
Indian  nations,  on  the  East  by  Louisiana,  on 
the  South  by  the  Gulf,  on  the  West  by  the 
providence  of  God."  Were  these  words  pro- 
phetic? During  the  year  1891  nine  Annual 
Conferences  will  hold  their  sessions  on  Texas 
soil.  In  1890  these  Conferences  reported  696 
effective  preachers  and  138,372  members. 


MISSIONS  OF  THE  M.  E.  C,  S. 

China  Mission. 

No.  1. 
Many  complain  that  missions  in  China  do 
not  compare  favorably  with  those  in  other 
lands.  While  missionary  operations  were 
opened  among  the  Chinese  early  in  the  pres- 
ent century,  the  results  have  been  far  less 
than  those  reported  from  India  and  the  South 
Sea  Islands.  There  are  causes  for  these  re- 
sults. It  will  be  conceded  by  all  familiar  with 
modern  Missions  that  China  is  one  of  the 
most  difficult  of  all  the  foreign  fields.  As  a 
people  the  Chinese  are  intensely  conservative. 
Their  profound  veneration  for  their  ancestral 
customs  and  religion  leads  them  to  regard 
with  suspicion  and  contempt  the  institutions 
and  innovations  of  other  and  younger  nations. 
Their  religions  have  degenerated  into  de- 
basing superstitions,  from  which  all  true  con- 
ceptions of  God  and  immortality  have  been 

blotted  out;  hence  they  turn  to  this  life  as 


166      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

their  highest  good.  China  may  be  considered 
the  stronghold  of  the  "  God  of  this  world." 
It  may  be  the  last  battle-field  between  the 
true  faith  and  false  religions. 

Their  resistance  to  Christianity  has  been 
strengthened  by  their  deep  sense  of  the 
wrongs  they  have  suffered  from  leading  Chris- 
tian powers.  Many  years  of  missionary  toil 
and  sacrifice  will  be  needed  to  efface  from  the 
Chinese  mind  the  impressions  made  by  the 
iniquitous  policy  of  England  with  reference 
to  the  opium  trade. 

Again,  in  estimating  the  results  of  mission- 
ary ofjerations  in  China,  we  must  bear  in  mind 
the  fact  that  prior  to  1844  the  empire  was 
sealed  against  labors  of  the  missionary.  Dur- 
ing that  year  the  imperial  decrees  prohibiting, 
under  heavy  penalties^  the  profession  of  Chris- 
tianity by  the  natives  were  partially  removed, 
and  the  missionary  allowed  to  prosecute  his 
work  in  the  five  ports  of  Canton,  Amoy,  Foo- 
chow,  Ningpo,  and  Shanghai.  They  were 
still  "  prohibited  from  going  into  the  interior 
to  propagate  religion."  It  was  not  until  1858 
that  these  restrictions  were  removed  and 
China  opened  to  the  gospel.  In  1860  there 
were  about  1,600  converts;  in  1890  there 
were  upward  of  38,000. 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S.  167 

Previous  to  the  division  of  Episcopal  Meth- 
odism in  1844,  the  thoughts  of  leading  minis- 
ters and  members  in  the  Southern  Confer- 
ences were  drawn  toward  China  as  a  mission 
field.  In  1843  Kev.  Charles  Taylor,  then  in 
his  first  year  in  the  South  Carolina  Conference, 
informed  his  presiding  elder,  Dr.  William  Ca- 
pers, that  if  the  Church  decided  to  open  a  Mis- 
sion in  China,  he  was  ready  to  go.  The  division 
of  the  Church  for  a  time  diverted  attention 
from  the  movement;  but  the  Louisville  Conven- 
tion having  fully  committed  Southern  Method- 
ism to  the  caitse  of  Foreign  Missions,  the  sub- 
ject was  promptly  revived.  The  Church  press, 
led  by  the  Southern  Christian  Advocate,  warmly 
advocated  the  Mission;  it  became  the  chief 
topic  at  Annual  Conference  missionary  anni- 
versaries; preachers  echoed  the  call  in  behalf 
of  China  from  their  pulpits,  and  the  Church 
began  to  respond  with  donations  and  pledges 
for  its  support.  The  General  Conference  that 
met  in  1846,  without  a  dissenting  voice,  gave 
the  Mission  its  indorsement,  and  the  Board 
and  the  bishops  at  once  decided  to  carry  out 
the  manifest  wish  of  the  Church. 

Revs.  Charles  Taylor  and  Benjamin  Jen- 
kins, both  of  the  South  Carolina  Conference, 
were  appointed  to  the  China  Mission,  and  or- 

168      Hand  Book  of  MetJiodlsf  Missions. 

dained  elders  by  Bishop  Andrew,  in  Norfolk, 
Va.,  February  27, 1848.  Closing  his  sermon  on 
the  occasion,  the  bishop  expressed  his  regret 
that,  "instead  of  a  forlorn  hope  of  two  mis- 
sionaries to  be  sent  from  the  Southern  Meth- 
odist Church,  it  was  not  in  his  power  to  send  a 
band  of  fifty  faithful  men  to  the  benighted 
millions  of  the  Flowery  Kingdom."  When 
shall  the  Avish  of  the  bishop  find  fulfillment? 

Eeferring  to  the  appointment  of  Taylor  and 
Jenkins  to  their  distant  field,  the  Southern 
Christian  Advocate  styled  the  South  Carolina 
Conference  the  "Old  Missionary  Conference.'' 
The  claim  was  just.  Having  pioneered  the 
missions  among  the  Southern  Indians  and 
slaves,  two  of  her  sons  had  consented  to  go 
forth  as  the  first  standard-bearers  of  the  cross 
from  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South, 
in  foreign  lands. 

April  24,  1848,  the  two  missionaries  and 
their  wives  stood  on  the  deck  of  the  little  ship 
"Cleone,"  in  Boston  Harbor.  A  little  group 
of  Methodists  of  that  city  joined  with  them 
in  singing  the  missionary  hymn,  a  prayer  was 
offered  in  their  behalf,  and  they  sailed  on  a 
mission  from  which  one  of  their  company 
would  never  return  to  her  native  land.  A 
voyage  to  China  in  the  slow  sailing  vessels  of 

Missions  of  the  31.  E.  C,  S.  169 

that  day  was  a  diiferent  affair  from  the  elegant 
cars  and  first-class  steamers  that  now  bear 
them  swiftly  across  continent  and  ocean.  The 
cabin  of  the  *'  Cleone"  was  ten  by  fourteen  feet 
in  size  and  seven  feet  in  height.  The  state- 
rooms were  six  feet  by  four,  with  berths  two 
feet  in  width,  leaving  the  same  space  for 
washing  and  dressing.  They  attempted  relig- 
ious services  for  several  Sabbaths,  but  the 
officers  of  the  ship  made  their  efforts  so  un- 
pleasant that  they  were  discontinued. 
•  August  12,  1848,  after  a  voyage  of  one  hun- 
dred and  sixteen  days,  they  anchored  at  Hong 
Kong.  Owing  to  the  illness  of  his  wife.  Dr. 
Jenkins  was  detained  here  until  the  following 
May.  Dr.  Taylor  and  his  wife  proceeded  up 
the  coast  to  Shanghai,  which  had  been  select- 
ed as  their  field.  He  reached  his  destination 
in  September,  1848.  After  a  diligent  search 
of  two  weeks,  a  native  residence  was  secured, 
which  they  rendered  as  habitable  as  their 
means  allowed.  Dr.  Jenkins  joined  his  col- 
league in  May,  1849.  He  had  made  two  at- 
tempts to  come  up  the  coast,  but  had  encoun- 
tered heavy  typhoons  and  narrowly  escaped 

Their  report  for  1849  shows  them  diligently 
studying  the  language  and  engaged  in  the  dis- 

170      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missiom. 

tribution  of  such  tracts  and  books  in  the 
Chinese  language  as  their  means  enabled  them 
to  obtain.  Dr.  Taylor  succeeded  in  purchas- 
ing a  plat  of  ground  a  third  of  an  acre  in  ex- 
tent on  the  bank  of  the  Yang-king-pang,  near 
a  narrow  wooden  bridge,  and  built  on  it  a 
temporary  dwelling.  Though  small,  it  was 
more  convenient  and  healthy  than  the  Chi- 
nese house  they  had  occupied.  The  next  year 
he  managed  to  purchase  a  small  addition  to 
the  lot,  and  with  assistance  from  the  Church 
at  home  was  able  to  enlarge  the  mission  house 
and  build  a  chapel  that  would  seat  150  Chi- 
nese. The  first  service  in  it  was  held  by  Dr. 
Taylor  in  January,  1850.  The  stream  near  the 
house  was  usually  alive  with  boats  and  the 
bridge  often  thronged  with  people.  Every 
day  the  door  of  the  chapel  was  opened  and 
passers-by  invited  to  come  in  and  hear  the 
"  Jesus  doctrines."  The  location  being  out- 
side the  city  walls,  our  brethren  did  not  pos- 
sess the  advantages  enjoyed  by  other  mission- 
aries whose  Boards  had  been  able  to  provide 
for  them  commodious  chapels  in  the  city. 
They  were  glad  to  be  permitted  to  preach  for 
their  missionary  brethren  when  ill  or  absent, 
and  to  address  large  crowds  in  the  temples  or 
other   places   of    public    resort.     They   were 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  171 

greatly  encouraged  by  the  interest  manifest 
on  such  occasions.  Two  schools  established 
by  Dr.  Taylor  the  previous  year  were  still 
prospering,  though  interrupted  by  small-pox. 
They  contained  together  thirty  scholars. 
Both  teachers  and  scholars  were  assembled 
every  Sabbath  in  the  chapel  for  religious  serv- 
ice and  instruction.  Preaching  trips  were 
made  to  adjoining  towns  and  cities.  Among 
these  they  mention  Soochow,  ninety  miles 
north-west  of  Shanghai.  In  the  midst  of 
other  duties,  Dr.  Taylor  found  time  to  answer 
calls  for  medical  attention,  which  opened  the 
way  for  religious  instruction. 

In  1851  the  hearts  of  the  missionaries  re- 
joiced over  the  first  fruits  of  their  toil.  Liew- 
sien-sang.  Dr.  Jenkins'  teacher,  and  his  wife 
renounced  Buddhism  and  accepted  the  religion 
of  Christ.  He  had  applied  for  baptism  six 
months  before,  but  was  held  on  probation  un- 
til the  missionaries  were  fully  satisfied  as  to 
the  sincerity  of  his  change  of  faith  and  life. 
A  large  company  of  Chinese  filled  the  chapel 
when  he  and  his  wife  were  baptized.  At  the 
end  of  the  service  Liew  ascended  the  pulpit 
and  addressed  the  congregation,  setting  forth 
his  reasons  for  abandoning  idolatry  and  em- 
bracing Christ.     He  soon  commenced  preach- 

172     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ing  on  Sundays  in  the  cliapel,  and  during  the 
week  "in  the  large  inclosure  of  the  temple 
dedicated  to  the  tutelary  guardian  of  the  city." 
Often  hundreds  listened  to  his  message.  Dr. 
Cunningham  thus  mentions  our  first  native 
preacher:  "He  possessed  a  vigorous  mind, 
quick  apprehension,  ready  and  fluent  utter- 
ance, with  a  warm  and  noble  heart.  His  min- 
istry was  greatly  blessed.  His  death,  which 
occurred  in  1866,  was  mourned  by  mission- 
aries and  native  Christians  as  a  great  loss  to 
the  general  cause  of  Christ." 

Both  the  missionary  families  were  called 
to  bury  a  little  babe.  They  sleep  near  to- 
gether in  the  British  cemetery. 

The  work  was  greatly  embarrassed  by  lack 
of  proper  facilities  for  mission  w^ork.  Dr. 
Taylor,  having  exhausted  his  stock  of  med- 
icines, was  obliged  to  send  his  patients  to  the 
hospital  of  the  London  Missionary  Society. 
Not  being  able  to  sustain  his  two  schools,  one 
was  closed.  Among  the  trials  of  the  mission- 
ary, few  are  more  painful  than  the  absence  of 
means  with  which  to  sustain  a  prosperous 
work,  or  to  avail  himself  of  opportunities  for 
enlargement  which  are  so  often  presented. 
Among  other  plans  Dr.  Taylor  proposed  at 
that  period   was  a  boarding-school  for  boys 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  173 

and  another  for  girls.  He  also  suggested  the 
employment  of  single  ladies  as  teachers,  being 
sure  that  the  children  would  be  easily  con- 
trolled by  them. 

On  the  12th  of  May,  1852,  Eev.  W.  G.  E. 
Cunnyngham  and  wife  sailed  for  China.  They 
reached  their  destination  October  18.  Their 
arrival  was  timely.  The  health  of  Mrs.  Tay- 
lor had  failed.  She  w^as  unwilling  to  recall 
her  husband  from  his  great  work,  but  her 
physicians  said  she  must  return  home  if  she 
would  prolong  her  life.  She  sailed  with  her 
children,  hoping  some  day  to  return  to  the 
Mission,  and  her  husband  in  his  loneliness  re- 
sumed his  burden.  Later  in  the  year  the 
health  of  Mrs.  Jenkins  yielded  to  the  climate. 
Dr.  Jenkins,  with  his  family,  sailed  for  the 
United  States  some  two  weeks  after  the  ar- 
rival of  Brother  Cunnyngham.  They  had 
waited  too  long.  Mrs.  Jenkins  died  on  the 
voyage,  and  sleeps  in  the  sea.  As  Brother 
Cunnyngham  was  engaged  in  acquiring  the 
language,  the  chief  burden  of  the  mission  for 
a  time  rested  on  Dr.  Taylor.  Very  earnestly 
he  appealed  to  the  Board  for  means  with 
which  to  place  the  Mission  in  position  for  per- 
manent and  effective  work.  A  well-appointed 
chapel  within  the  walls  of  the  city  was  of  spe- 

174     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

cial  importance.  Dr.  Taylor  mentions  the 
fact  that  (luring  the  four  years  he  had  been  in 
China  five  other  Boards  had  bought  lots  and 
built  churches  within  the  city,  while  our  little 
chapel  outside  the  walls  was  wholly  inad- 
equate to  the  wants  of  the  growing  w^ork. 
This  brief  statement  may  furnish  another  rea- 
son why  the  Mission  in  China  has  not  meas- 
ured up  to  the  expectations  of  many  Chris- 
tians at  home.  Though  their  ranks  had  been 
thinued,  the  missionaries  worked  bravely  on. 
Dr.  Cunnyngham  wrote:  "  AVe  see  enough 
around  us  to  awaken  the  deepest  sympathies 
of  our  hearts.  Could  Christians  at  home 
spend  the  day  with  us  in  this  pagan  land,  no 
sermon  or  missionary  address  would  be  need- 
ed to  induce  them  to  do  their  duty  in  giving  of 
the  abundance  with  which  God  has  blessed 
them  to  support  the  missionary  or  distribute 
the  word  of  life." 

The  year  1853  brought  unexpected  troubles 
to  the  Mission.  The  empire  was  convulsed 
by  the  Taiping  rebellion.  Nanking  and  Chin- 
kiang  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  insur- 
gents. While  at  the  latter  place  they  were 
visited  by  Dr.  Taylor,  wdio  had  several  inter- 
views with  one  of  their  leaders.  They  had 
portions  of  the  Bible,  and  some  knowledge  of 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  175 

Christ,  and  were  opposed  to  idol  worship. 
These  facts  led  the  missionaries  to  hope  that 
the  revolution  would  result  in  the  overthrow 
of  idolatry  and  the  early  establishment  of 
Christianity.  These  hopes  were  not  realized. 
The  leader  in  the  outset  of  the  movement, 
with  defective  views  of  the  gospel,  may  have 
been  sincere  in  his  earlier  teachings;  but  the 
movement  soon  fell  under  the  control  of  am- 
bitious men  who  sought  to  use  it  for  the  ov- 
erthrow of  the  government  and  the  establish- 
ment of  a  new  dynasty.  During  the  year  a 
band  of  insurgents,  professing  to  be  acting  in 
concert  with  Taiping,  captured  Shanghai. 
The  mayor  of  the  city  was  killed,  the  public 
officers  seized,  the  records  destroyed,  and  a 
sort  of  military  government  established.  All 
business  was  suspended  and  all  missionary 
work,  except  the  distribution  of  books,  was 
broken  up. 

About  the  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  insur- 
gents in  Shanghai,  Dr.  Taylor,  learning  that 
the  continued  ill  health  of  his  wife  left  no 
hope  of  her  return  to  China,  very  reluctantly 
sailed  for  the  United  States.  Brother  Cun- 
nyngham,  who  had  by  this  time  acquired  the 
language  and  was  well  qualified  to  manage  the 
affairs  of  the  Mission,  soon  found  himself  in 

176     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  3Iissio7is. 

the  midst  of  formidable  difficulties.     The  im- 
perial troops  charged  with  the  task  of  retak- 
ing Shanghai  were  soon  before  its  walls.     On 
the  29th  of  September  the  first  attack  was 
made  in  full  view  from  his  house,  and  within 
three  hundred   yards  of  his  fence.     Battles 
were  now  a  daily   occurrence.     On   the    ap- 
proach of  the  imperial  army  the  missionary 
ladies  in  the  neighborhood  of  our  mission, 
and  those  within  the  city,  were  removed  across 
the  canal,  where  Brother  Cunnyngham  and 
family  found  a  welcome  in  the  house  of  Mr. 
Nelson,  of  the  Episcopal  Mission.     For  three 
weeks  Brother  Cunnyngham  remained  at  home, 
in  the  midst  of  the  fighting,  to  gnard  the  house 
and  property  of  the  Mission.     He  was  often  in 
great  danger.     The  house  was  seriously  in- 
jured by  the  cannonading  from  the  city  walls. 
The  roof  was  shattered  and  the  wall  pierced 
by   balls.     One   day   Brother    Cunnyingham 
was  suffering  from    a   severe  headache,  and 
to  secure  quiet  and  relief  he  went  over  the 
canal  to  the  house  of  his  friend,   Mr.   Nel- 
son,   where    his    family    had    found    refuge. 
He   was   too   ill   to   return   that   night.       In 
the  morning  when  he  reached  home  he  found 
that    the    wall    of    the    building    had    been 
pierced  by  a   cannon-ball,   his   bed   covered 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  C,  S.  177 

with  mortar  and  brick,  and  a  twelve-pound 
cannon-ball  lying  within  a  few  inches  of  the 
pillow  on  which  his  ht^ad  usually  rested.  It 
had  buried  itself  about  half  its  diameter  in 
the  wall  and  rebounded  back  on  the  bed. 
Had  Brother  Cunnyngham  been  in  his  usual 
place,  the  messenger  of  death  would  have 
plowed  through  the  length  of  his  body.  On 
another  occasion  when  closing  the  gates  of  the 
mission  premises  at  night  he  felt  on  his  cheek 
the  wind  of  a  two-ounce  ball  from  a  "gingal," 
a  long-range  gun  used  by  the  Chinese.  It 
cut  down  a  bamboo  a  few  feet  from  his  face. 
God  holds  his  servants  in  the  palm  of  his 

Liew,  the  native  preacher,  had  to  fly  from 
the  city,  leaving  his  little  property,  wliicli  was 
all  destroyed.  Speaking  of  these  times,  Broth- 
er Cunnyngham  wrote:  "But  little  mission 
work  could  be  done  while  hostile  armies  were 
struggling  for  the  city.  The  country  for 
miles  was  devastated;  villages,  towns,  and 
hamlets  laid  in  ashes;  and  Shanghai  crowded 
with  soldiers  and  refugees.  Two  of  our  mis- 
sion houses  and  our  only  chapel  were  burned 
to  the  ground."  Dark  as  were  these  days,  the 
faith  of  our  solitary  sentinel  did  not  falter. 
Writing  to  the  Board  in  the  midst  of  these 

178      Rand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

troubles,  he  said:  "When  peace  returns,  we 
hope  to  redouble  our  diligence  and  by  the 
blessing  of  God  to  do  something  for  the  mul- 
titudes around  us.  We  feel  alone  in  this 
vast  wilderness.  Do  send  us  help.  We  will 
not  always  be  in  war." 

In  the  autumn  of  1854  Brother  Cunnyng- 
ham  and  wife,  who  had  held  their  ground  "  in 
the  midst  of  alarms,"  were  rejoiced  by  the  ar- 
rival of  Dr.  Jenkins,  accompanied  by  Revs. 
D.  C.  Kelley,  M.D.,  J.  W.  Lambuth,  and  J.  L. 
Belton  and  their  wives.  Brother  Cunnyngham 
had  been  made  Superintendent  of  the  Mission. 
Vigorous  efforts  were  made  to  repair  the  in- 
juries the  property  had  suffered  during  the 
war,  and  to  organize  on  a  broader  scale  the 
general  work  of  the  Mission.  The  new  mis- 
sionaries entered  diligently  on  the  study  of  the 
language.  All  were  hopeful  that  the  war 
would  soon  end,  and  the  operations  of  the 
Mission  could  be  carried  into  the  interior. 
But  the  clouds  had  not  all  cleared  away. 

The  fatal  climate  again  began  its  deadly 
work.  In  1855  the  health  of  Brother  Belton 
failed  so  rapidly  that  his  return  home  was 
necessary  if  his  life  was  prolonged.  He 
sailed  in  November  with  his  wife,  and  reached 
Kew  York  in  time  to  die  and  be  buried  in  his 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  G.,  S.  179 

native  soil.  Our  brethren  of  the  Northern 
Church  ministered  tenderly  at  his  bedside, 
and  laid  him,  as  a  brother  beloved,  in  his  fi- 
nal resting-place. 

Early  in  October,  embracing  the  first  Sab- 
bath of  the  month,  the  brethren  engaged  in 
the  services  of  the  first  Quarterly  Conference 
ever  held  by  our  Church  in  Asia.  Brother 
Cunnyngham  preached  on.  Friday,  Saturday, 
and  on  Sunday  morning.  In  the  afternoon  he 
baptized  a  woman  who  had  long  been  a  serv- 
ant in  his  family,  and  in  whose  sincerity  he 
had  implicit  faith. 

It  became  evident  in  1856  that  the  delicate 
health  of  Mrs.  Kelley  was  yielding  under  the 
trying  climate  of  Shanghai,  and  she  must  re- 
turn home  or  be  buried  in  that  distant  land. 
Dr.  Kelley  felt  constrained  to  return  home 
with  his  family.  Their  little  daughter  died 
on  the  voyage,  and  was  buried  in  the  sea.  The 
three  remaining  missionaries  averaged  sixty 
sermons  a  month  at  their  three  small  chapels, 
besides  distributing  books  and  itinerating 
through  the  adjacent  country.  Three  schools 
were  maintained:  a  male  school  in  charge  of 
Brother  Cunnyngham,  and  two  female  schools, 
one  under  charge  of  Mrs.  Cunnyngham  and 
the  other  of  Mrs.  Lambuth.     Brother  Lam- 

180     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

butli  erected  a  small  school-house  near  his 
dwelling,  with  accommodations  for  ten  or 
twelve  boarders,  and  soon  Mrs.  Lambuth  had 
eight  little  girls  living  with  her.  Brother  Cuu- 
nyngliam,  in  his  report,  calls  special  attention 
to  the  importance  of  female  schools.  "Indi- 
viduals," he  said,  "may  become  converts  to 
Christianity,  but  until  the  mothers  become 
Christians  the  homes  must  remain  pagan." 
During  the  year  Brother  Lambuth  made  a 
twelve  days'  tour  in  the  interior,  preaching 
daily,  distributing  Testaments  and  tracts,  find- 
ing an  open  door  in  all  the  villages  and  towns. 

The  reports  for  1857  tell  of  good  congrega- 
tions, while  the  schools  were  increasing  in 
number,  and  several  applications  for  admis- 
sion into  the  Church  were  received.  Dr. 
Cunnyngham  and  family,  in  company  with 
two  other  missionary  families,  made  a  trip  of 
some  two  hundred  miles  into  the  interior,  vis- 
iting among  other  places  the  ancient  city  of 
Hangchow,  one  of  the  strongholds  of  Bud- 
dhism. They  preached,  distributed  books, 
and  conversed  with  priest  and  people  without 
let  or  hinderance.  The  barriers  in  China  were 
breaking  down. 

The  treaty  of  1858  having  provided  that 
Christianity,   whether  Protestant  or   Eoman 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  181 

Catholic,  should  be  tolerated  throughout  the 
empire,  our  missionaries  began  to  push  out 
into  the  regions  beyond.  They  were  now  free 
not  only  to  preach  the  gospel,  but  establish 
mission  homes.  Churches,  and  schools.  A 
new  era  had,  under  the  hand  of  God,  opened 
to  the  laborers  in  this  vast  empire.  Dr.  Cun- 
nyngham  again  calls  attention  to  the  city  of 
Hangchow,  and  urges  the  early  extension  of 
our  lines.  Brother  Lambuth  reports  encour- 
agingly of  evangelical  work.  His  teacher, 
Shu,  and  his  wife  were  baptized.  The  Mis- 
sion now  reported  ten  native  members,  with  sev- 
eral on  trial.  Some  of  the  native  converts  were 
active  in  seeking  out  those  who  were  inter- 
ested respecting  the  *' Jesus  doctrine,"  and 
bringing  them  to  Church.  Brother  Cunnyng- 
ham  and  family  were  much  hindered  in  their 
work  by  sickness.  He  wrote:  "More  than 
six  years'  residence  in  this  wretched  climate 
has  greatly  tried  our  physical  constitutions. 
We  have  seen  thirty-seven  missionaries  sail 
from  Shanghai  for  their  native  land,  only 
eight  of  whom  had  been  in  the  field  as  long  as 
we  have.  We  have  much  cause  for  thankful- 
ness to  God." 

In  1859  it  was  decided  to  open  a  mission  in 
Soochow,  about  ninety  miles  north-west  from 

182     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Shanghai.  Its  position  as  a  commercial  and 
literary  emporium  suggested  its  importance  as 
a  missionary  center.  The  dialects  of  Soochow 
and  Shanghai  were  so  nearly  the  same  that 
our  missionaries  would  lose  no  time  in  pre- 
paring for  work.  As  the  prejudices  of  the 
people  of  Soochow  were  at  this  time  so  strong 
that  no  foreigner  could  rent  a  house,  it  was 
decided  to  send  the  native  preacher,  Liew,  to 
pioneer  the  work.  Although  the  Chinese 
world  was  still  full  of  "  wars  and  rumors  of 
wars,"  the  work  went  on.  Brother  Lambuth 
opened  a  Sunday-school  with  from  twenty- 
five  to  thirty  scholars.  They  found  the  class- 
meeting  admirably  suited  to  the  wants  of  the 
Chinese  converts.  A  weekly  prayer-meeting 
was  commenced.  The  brethren  were  encour- 
aged by  the  readiness  with  which  the  converts 
took  up  the  cross  and  prayed  without  hesita- 
tion when  called  on.  They  reported  eleven 
members  this  year,  including  the  native 
preacher.  Some  of  the  other  missions  had 
been  greatly  damaged  by  their  haste  in  ad- 
mitting members.  Numbers  could  not  be  re- 
lied on  as  the  criterion  of  success.  Careful  in 
the  admission  of  members,  our  Mission  seldom 
lost  one. 
•Our  little  band  were  greatly  cheered  by  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  183 

arrival,  on  July  IB,  1860,  of  Eevs.  Y.  J.  Allen 
and  M.  L.  Wood,  after  a  voyage  of  one  hun- 
dred and  seventy-five  days  from  New  York 
to  Hong  Kong.  Hangchow  liad  been  fixed 
upon  as  their  field  of  labor,  but  affairs  in 
China  were  so  unsettled  that  it  was  deemed 
wise  for  them  to  remain  for  a  time  at  least  in 
Shanghai,  and  commence  the  study  of  the  lan- 
guage. The  Taiping  insurgents  had  taken 
Chang-chow  a^id  Soochow,  and  in  July  they 
visited  Shanghai.  ''They  approached  us," 
wrote  Dr.  Cunnyngham,  "  through  the  flames 
and  smoke  of  burning  villages  and  hamlets, 
laden  with  spoil,  and  stained  with  the  blood 
of  innocent  men,  women,  and  children;  their 
retreat  was  marked  by  the  most  revolting 
scenes  of  cruelty  and  beastly  outrage  upon  the 
helpless  towns  through  which  they  passed." 
They  found  the  city  in  the  possession  of  the 
English  and  French,  and  after  a  sharp  collis- 
ion retired  "with  the  promise  to  return  and 
drive  the  foreigners  into  the  sea."  The  treaty 
between  the  allied  powers  and  China  in  Octo- 
ber ended  the  seclusion  of  China,  and  it  is 
hoped  prepared  the  way  for  the  final  estab- 
lishment of  Christianity  in  that  land.  Before 
affairs  quieted  down  and  plans  for  the  exten- 
sion of  the  work  into  the  interior  could  be  put 

184     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

in  operation  still  darker  clouds  gathered  over 
the  Mission. 

After  spending  nine  years  in  that  unhealthy 
climate,  Dr.  Cunnyngham  and  wife  were  as- 
sured by  their  physicians  that  they  could  not 
survive  another  season  in  Shanghai.  They 
left  for  the  United  States  on  October  5,  1861. 
Dr.  Lambuth  and  family  visited  home  in  1861, 
but  returned  to  China  in  1864  In  1862  Dr. 
Jenkins  withdrew  from  the  Mission.  In  1864 
Mrs.  Wood  died  in  Shanghai,  and  in  1866 
Brother  Wood  brought  his  children  home. 

During  these  years  the  Civil  War  in  the 
United  States  had  cut  ofp  all  communications 
between  the  Church  at  home  and  its  Mission 
on  the  other  side  of  the  globe.  Drafts  which 
were  in  their  hands  were  generously  honored 
by  our  brethren  of  the  Northern  Church, 
affording,  however,  only  temporary  relief. 
They  were  soon  thrown  on  their  own  resourc- 
es. Bishop  McTyeire,  in  his  "History  of 
Methodism,"  thus  spoke  of  the  brave  spirit 
with  which  our  missionaries  in  China  met 
this  emergency:  *'Dr.  Allen  found  employ- 
ment in  the  service  of  the  Chinese  Govern- 
ment, in  its  translation  and  editorial  depart- 
ment, which  gave  him  access  to  the  higher 
classes,  the  educated  Chinese,  and  opened  for 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  185 

him  the  opportunity  of  far  diffusing  Chris- 
tian thought  and  truth  through  native  chan- 
nels. Along  with  this  work  he  continued  the 
ministry  of  the  word  as  he  was  able.  Both 
he  and  Dr.  Lambuth  supported  themselves 
during  those  trying  years,  and  carried  on  the 
mission  work  until  supplies  in  small  amounts 
began  to  reach  them — at  once  a  relief  and  an 
assurance  that  the  Church  had  no  purpose  of 
abandoning  her  plans,  though  not  in  the  con- 
dition to  enlarge  them." 

During  the  quadrennium  ending  in  1870 
the  office  of  the  Board  of  Missions  was  located 
in  Baltimore.  Though  diligent  search  has 
been  made,  the  records  from  1866  to  1870 
have  not  been  found.  The  following  extract 
from  a  paper  furnished  Dr.  Munsey  by  Dr. 
Cunnyngham  in  1870  supplies  a  brief  account 
of  the  conditions  and  operations  of  the  Mis- 
sion up  to  that  date: 

The  China  Mission  has  been  in  existence  twenty-one 
years.  During  this  time  eight  missionaries,  with  their 
families,  have  been  sent  out.  Two  female  members  of 
the  Mission  have  died,  and  one  of  the  missionaries. 
One  has  withdrawn  from  the  work,  four  returned,  and 
tw^o  remain  in  the  field.  Between  fifty  and  sixty  na- 
tives have  been  baptized  and  admitted  to  full  member- 
ship in  the  M.  E.  Church,  South ;  of  these,  six  have  died 

186     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

in  the  faith.  Two  native  preachers  of  great  gifts  and 
usefulness  have  finished  their  course  with  joy. 

The  mission  now  occupies  three  stations :  Slianghai, 
Soochow,  and  Nantziang.  The  principal  station,  and 
that  at  which  both  Brothers  Allen  and  Lambuth  reside, 
is  Shanghai.  The  property  belonging  to  the  Board  is 
chiefly  at  this  point.  It  consists  of  dwelling-houses, 
chapels,  and  school-houses.  What  is  its  present  value 
I  cannot  state  (the  value  of  real  estate  fluctuates  great- 
ly at  Shanghai)— I  would  suppose  between  $15,000  and 
$20,000.  Brother  Allen  reports  the  "properly  intact, 
and  as  valuable  for  missionary  purposes  as  at  any  pre- 
vious period."  It  has  not  been  neglected  or  suflered  to 
fall  into  decay.  It  is  amply  sufficient,  I  understand,  to 
accommodate  one  or  two  more  mission  families.  If 
more  missionaries  are  sent  out,  no  additional  expense 
for  houses  w^ould  be  incurred.  A  larger  house  for 
preaching  purposes  at  Shanghai  has  always  been  need- 
ed. There  are  only  two  small  chapels — one  in  the  city, 
the  other  outside  the  city  walls.  The  mission  is  out  of 
debt,  and  with  its  "property  intact,"  is  financially  in 
as  sound  a  condition  as  before  the  war — thanks  to  the 
energy,  fidelity,  and  good  management  of  our  mission- 

Of  the  general  state  of  the  Mission,  Brother  Allen 
says,  in  a  communication  to  the  Georgia  Conference ; 
"  With  the  history  and  statistics  of  otlier  Missions  be- 
fore me,  I  do  not  hesitate  to  say  that  the  influence  of 
the  China  Mission  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South,  is  in- 
creasing as  steadily  and  in  as  great  ratio  as  that  of  any 
other  Church  represented  here,  and  that  it  has  every 
opportunity  and  assurance,  if  properly  sustained  in  the 
future,  of  becoming  as  aggressive  and  useful  in  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  187 

East  as  the  Church  that  planted  it  is  in  the  West."  He 
says,  in  a  letter  dated  December  14,  1869 :  "  The  present 
year  has  been  one  of  great  encouragement  even  in  our 
own  Mis^sion.  Our  work  has  been  extended  and  op- 
erated successfully,  thougli  we  are  still  comparatively 
bound  to  Shanghai.  The  prospect  is  good,  therefore,  for 
a  cheering  report  by  the  next  mail,  which  I  hope  will 
be  in  time  for  the  meeting  of  the  Board  in  March." 

Rev.  J.  W.  Lambuth  is  now  devoting  all  his  time  to 
regular  itinerant  missionary  labor.  He  travels  and 
preaches  through  the  country,  visiting  the  stations  at 
Soochow  and  Nantziang  and  other  cities  in  the  province. 
This  he  is  able  to  do  because  Brother  Allen  sur- 
renders his  part  of  the  appropriation  sent  by  the  Board 
to  him.  Brother  Allen's  Anglo-Chinese  school  furnish- 
ing him  the  means  of  support.  Brother  Lambuth  has 
associated  with  him  in  his  itinerant  work  a  native 
Chinaman,  who  was  for  some  time  in  this  country  with 
Dr.  Kelley,  known  as  C.  K.  Marshall.  He  is  a  young 
man  of  promise,  and  we  hope  will  make  an  efficient 
helper.  He  is  supported  by  Dr.  Deems's  Church  in  New 
York.  Mrs.  Lambuth  has  a  girls'  school  of  twelve  pu- 
pils under  her  care,  to  which  she  gives  much  of  her 
time,  and  from  which  good  fruit  may  be  expected  in 
due  time.  Brother  and  Sister  Lambuth  are  deeply 
pious,  earnest,  fiiithful,  efficient  missionaries. 

Rev.  Young  J.  Allen  has  charge  of  an  Anglo-Chinese 
school,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Chinese  Govern- 
ment, in  connection  with  the  native  college  at  Shang- 
hai. This  school  not  only  furnishes  him  the  means 
of  support,  but  an  opportunity  of  doing  much  good  as 
a  missionary.  No  position  attainable  by  a  missionary 
in  the  empire  affords  greater  facilities  for  usefulness 

188      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

than  this.  He  is  also  editing  and  pubUshing  two  news- 
papers in  Chinese — one  a  religious  paper,  the  other 
literary  and  scientific.  Both  papers  have  a  wide  cir- 
culation and  are  doing  good.  The  Church  paper — Mis- 
sionary Christian  Advocate — is  a  beautiful  weekly  publi- 
cation of  sixteen  pages,  illustrated  by  neat  engravings 
of  Scripture  scenes,  etc.  I  cannot  speak  too  highly  of 
this  paper  and  of  the  enterprise  and  taste  with  which 
it  is  conducted.  It  is  patronized  by  missionaries  and 
native  Christians  of  all  denominations.  Among  the 
most  frequent  and  able  contributors  to  its  columns  are 
the  native  preachers  of  China.  Notwithstanding  Broth- 
er Allen's  hands  are  thus  full,  he  preaches  regularly  in 
Chinese  and  x)erforms  his  part  of  regular  mission  work. 

The  native  Church  is  growing  steadily,  though  slow- 
ly, in  numbers.  Our  missionaries  are  exceedingly  cau- 
tious in  receiving  candidates.  It  would  be  an  easy 
matter  to  swell  the  list  of  Church-members  rapidly,  and 
they  could  soon  astonish  the  anxious  doubters  at  home 
by  "great  successes,"  if  not  strictly  conscientious  in  ad- 
mitting none  to  membership  but  those  who  give  satis- 
factory proof  of  their  sincerity.  The  native  members 
are  active  in  their  efforts  to  build  up  the  Church,  and 
liberal  with  their  means  in  its  support.  The  Chinese 
Christians  contribute  more  per  member  for  the  support 
of  the  gospel  than  the  Christians  in  this  country. 

Among  those  most  active  and  useful  in  the  Church 
at  Shanghai  is  a  widow  woman  by  the  name  of  Quay. 
She  is'known  as  the  "Bible-woman."  She  spends  her 
time  in  distributing  Bibles  and  tracts,  praying  with  and 
exhorting  her  neighbors.  I  baptized  her  and  knew 
her  well  for  years,  and  do  not  hesitate  to  say  that 
a  more  consistent  Christian  I  never  knew  at  home  or 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  189 

abroad.    Many  will  rise  up  at  the  last  day  and  call  her 

As  the  year  1870  drew  to  a  close  Eev.  Y.  J. 
Allen  wrote:  "We  review  the  year  with  pro- 
foand  gratitude  to  God,  whose  providence 
hath  shielded  us  and  our  work  during  its 
eventful  passage.  Rumors,  alarms,  and  dan- 
gers have  threatened  us  all  this  year,  and  in 
some  places  have  actually  culminated  in  real 
violence.  But  none  of  these  things  have 
moved  us,  except  it  be  to  renewed  devotion 
and  a  more  entire  devotion  of  ourselves  to  the 
Lord  of  glory.  We  hope  to  date  from  this 
period  a  turning  point  in  the  history  of  Mis- 
sions in  China,  and  have  no  doubt  the  crisis 
through  which  we  are>  passing  will  accomplish 
that  long  desired  object,  to  wit:  the  arrest  of 
the  Chinese  mind,  and  the  wider  diffusion  of 
missionary  influence.  Our  own  Mission  work 
is  still  contracted,  and  comparatively  meager 
of  results,  from  lack  of  sufficient  re-enforce- 
ments and  qualified  native  help,  but  it  is  not 
without  encouragement."  We  mention  the 
two  native  helpers,  Dzau  (C.  K.  Marshall) 
and  Yung,  as  having  rendered  efficient  service. 
Dzau  was  stationed  at  Soochow,  which  had 
been  visited  by  Liew  in  1859.  At  that  place 
five  had  been  baptized  and  eight  were  on  pro- 

190      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

bation.  Ying  bad  extended  his  labor  from 
Shanghai  to  the  Great  Lake,  and  had  also  vis- 
ited Nantsiang,  when  two  persons  had  been 
baptized.  The  two  Bible-v/omen  were  active- 
ly at  work  visiting  the  homes  of  all  who  would 
receive  them,  and  exhorting  and  praying  with 
all  who  were  seeking  the  truth  as  it  is  in  Je- 
sus. Several  of  the  probationers  had  been 
brought  into  that  relation  by  the  labors  of  the 
Bible- women.  One  of  these  Bible-women  was 
Quay,  who  had  been  baptized  by  Dr.  Cun- 
nyngham  at  the  first  Quarterly  Conference  in 
1855.  The  two  boarding-schools  had  22 
boarders  and  10  day  scholars.  The  Chinese 
Christian  Advocate,  published  by  Brother  Al- 
len, was  now  in  its  third  year.  Though  not 
exclusively  religious,  it  was  open  to  the  dis- 
cussion of  all  questions  pertinent  to  mission- 
ary work.  Its  circulation  extended  from 
Shanghai  and  the  regions  round  about  to  For- 
mosa, Hong  Kong,  Singapore,  Mongolia,  and 
Japan.  It  had  the  sanction  of  more  than 
twenty  Missions,  was  subscribed  for  and 
read  by  a  large  number  of  the  literati  and 
mandarins  and  sold  in  the  streets  of  Peking. 
It  enabled  the  missionary  to  confront,  among 
the  higher  classes,  the  errors  that  prevailed 
among  them.     It  is  not  every  one  who   can 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  191 

make  a  paper  or  magazine  a  success  either  at 
home  or  in  the  mission  field.  The  man  who 
achieves  the  success  has  multiplied  his  influ- 
ence many  fold.  The  "Preachers'  Text  Book," 
sent  out  by  Dr.  Summers  for  that  purpose, 
was  translated  and  ready  for  press.  The 
status  of  the  work  was  shown  by  the  following 
figures.  Two  foreign  missionaries  with  their 
families,  two  student  native  helpers,  two 
Bible-women,  fifty-six  native  members,  four- 
teen probationers. 

The  following  extract  from  a  letter  written 
January  29,  1871,  from  Brother  Allen  to  W. 
H.  Foster,  superintendent  of  the  Felicity 
Street  Sunday-school,  N.  O.,  indicates  the 
character  and  results  of  Sunday-school  work 
in  Shanghai: 

I  have  previously  had  occasion  to  mention  to  you 
the  great  interest  the  school  seemed  to  take  in  being 
instructed,  and  how  hopeful  the  indications  that  before 
long  signal  results  might  be  expected;  but  even  my 
fondest  anticipations  had  not  foreseen  the  pleasure  of 
this  day.  'Twas  in  the  Sabbath-school,  and  during  the 
closing  exercises,  about  half-  past  4  o'clock  p.m.,  that 
Pay  Yoong-Tsung,  a  boy  of  fourteen  years,  the  son  of  a 
military  officer,  and  a  most  serious,  thoughtful  youth, 
arose  from  his  seat,  and,  addressing  me,  said:  "  I  would 
like  to  join  the  Church."  His  modest  manner  and  the 
tremulousness  of  his  voice  attested  his  sincerity,  and  I 
was  surprised  to  find  that  a  similar  feeling  and  a  like 

192      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

earnestness  on  the  subject  characterized  the  other  mem- 
bers of  the  school. 

When  he  sat  down,  Yang  Tub  Kwe  arose  and  urged 
a  like  request,  and  thus  did  they  all.  I  was  astonished; 
the  scene  took  me  unawares.  I  could  but  pray :  "  Lord, 
increase  my  faith! "  The  children  wept.  I  wept  too. 
Then  we  sung,  "Happy  day,  0  happy  day,  that  fixed  my 
choice/^  and  knelt  together,  as  we  never  knelt  before,  to 
pray  for  pardon,  forgiveness,  and  acceptance.  My  soul 
yearned  for  them  as  we  drew  nearer  and  nearer  to  God 
in  prayer.  Our  hearts  were  softened,  melted,  as  we 
bowed  together.  The  children  dedicated  themselves 
voluntarily  to  God.  We  arose,  and  I  received  them  in 
the  name  of  the  Saviour,  and  placed  their  names  on  the 
list  of  probationers.  Thank  God  for  the  scene  of  this 
day!  thank  God  for  the  kind  friends  of  Felicity  Street, 
New  Orleans !  A  good  work  is  begun ;  the  Lord  is  with 
us,  and  it  shall  go  on.  Who  shall  hinder  it?  Pray  for 
us,  my  brother.  Tell  your  school  to  praise  God  for  his 
blessings  on  their  gifts,  and  pray  for  yet  a  larger  mani- 
festation, both  among  themselves  and  us. 

The  labors  of  our  two  faithful  missionaries 
in  1871  were  still  confined  to  Shanghai  and 
its  vicinity,  with  Dzau  at  Soochow  and  Yung 
in  Shanghai  and  interior  towns  and  cities. 
In  addition  to  the  chapel  at  Shanghai  there 
was  one  at  Soochow  and  another  at  Nantziang. 
The  last-named  place  is  mentioned  as  "a  large 
village  of  thirty  thousand  inhabitants,  about 
fifteen  miles  from  Shanghai."  They  were  anx- 
ious to  occupy  Kading,  a  walled  town  eight 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  193 

miles  from  Nantziang,  where  a  lot  had  been 
secured.  The  religious  interest  in  the  Sun- 
day-school was  continued.  A  house  was  pre- 
pared for  the  girls'  boarding-school  at  a  cost 
of  $300,  which  was  contributed  by  friends  in 
Shanghai.  Brother  Dzau  had  charge  of  a 
day-school  in  Soochow,  with  eight  scholars. 
60,000  copies  of  the  Chinese  Christian  Advo- 
cate were  printed  during  the  year;  and  of 
these,  50,000  were  sold.  The  membership  re- 
ported in  1871  was  68. 

The  following  extract  from  a  letter  from 
Brother  Lambuth,  published  in  the  annual 
report,  exhibits  the  condition  of  the  work  in 

The  number  of  additions  to  the  Church  the  past 
year,  ending  1872,  has  been  eleven.  Three  have  died, 
and  two  have  been  excluded  from  the  Church.  One 
man  has  withdrawn  his  membership  and  returned  to 
the  London  Mission.  There  were  eleven  probationers, 
at  the  close  of  the  year,  in  Shanghai,  and  three  in  Soo- 
chow. Number  of  churches,  three — one  at  Shanghai, 
one  at  Nantziang,  and  one  at  Soochow.  In  Shanghai  there 
are  two  boarding-schools  for  boys,  numbering  twenty- 
one  boarders  and  eight  day  scholars.  In  Shanghai, 
boarding-school  for  girls,  one;  number  of  boarders, 
nine,  and  three  day  scholars.  One  day-school  in  Soo- 
chow of  twelve  boys.  Two  Bible-women  engaged  in 
the  work  in  Shanghai ;  two  Sabbath-schools  of  about 
forty  persons. 

194     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

The  work  among  the  women  in  Shanghai  the  past 
year  has  given  us  great  encouragement,  and  we  trust 
that  the  coming  year  this  work  of  grace  may  be  more 
abundantly  manifest,  and  that  many  souls  may  be  con- 
verted to  God.  Our  congregations  in  the  city  of  Shang- 
hai have  been,  for  the  most  part,  large  and  attentive. 
During  the  year  almost  daily  services  have  been  kept 
up  each  day  of  the  week,  and  three  services  on  the 
Sabbath,  in  and  out  of  the  city. 


M/SS/OJ\/S  OF  THE  M.  E.  C,  S. 

China  Mission. 

No.  2. 
The  report  of  Brother  Lambuth,  Superin- 
tendent of  the  Mission  for  1873,  informs  us  of 
an  addition  to  the  native  force:  Brother  Tsu, 
who  was  stationed  at  Chang-chow,  150  miles 
from  Shanghai.  Brother  Allen  was  still  in 
the  service  of  the  Chinese  Government,  though 
preaching  on  Sunday  and  editing  the  Chinese 
Church  paper.  Two  native  preachers  preached 
daily,  conducted  prayer-meetings,  visited  the 
sick  and  Church-members,  and  sold  Bibles  and 
tracts.  A  young  man  by  the  name  of  AVong 
was  teaching  at  Soochow  and  preparing  to 
preach.  A  colporter  was  at  work  in  Shanghai 
and  another  at  Nantziang.  Brother  Lambuth 
was  absent  from  Shanghai  two  weeks  in  each 
month,  visiting  the  out-statious.  He  traveled 
by  boat  or  w^ieelbarrow.  There  were  eight 
baptisms  during  the  year.  Four  Bible-women 
w^ere  employed.  Their  work  increased  in  in- 
terest and  importance.     Upward  of  300  cop- 


196      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ies  of  the  Gospels  were  sold,  and  about  35,000 
tracts.  The  mission  in  Shanghai  greatly 
needed  a  new  chapel.  The  building  in  which 
they  worshiped  had  been  erected  by  Brother 
Lambuth  in  1856  at  his  own  expense. 

The  native  force  in  1875  was  increased  to 
five  by  the  addition  of  two  men,  who  had  en- 
tered the  service  and  were  preparing  for  the 
ministry.  Brother  Fong  was  placed  at  Nant- 
ziang  and  Brother  Tsung  at  Kading.  These 
young  men,  with  Brothers  Dzau,  Yung,  and 
Tsu,  came  to  Shanghai  once  a  month  to  read 
the  Scriptures  and  undergo  examination.  A 
woman's  reading-room  was  erected  in  the  mis- 
sion premises  at  a  cost  of  $80.  In  this  room 
two  Bible-women  met  from  fifteen  to  twenty 
Chinese  women  three  times  a  week,  to  read 
the  Bible  and  engage  in  religious  conversa- 
tion and  prayer.  The  Mission  was  greatly 
strengthened  by  the  erection  of  a  new  church 
on  the  mission  lot.  It  was  called  the  "  Church 
of  the  Good  News."  One  man  had  come  six- 
teen miles  to  be  baptized  and  received  into 
the  Church.  About  forty  native  Christians 
met  around  the  table  of  our  Lord,  some  of 
whom  had  come  eighty  and  a  hundred  miles 
to  be  present  at  the  dedication. 

The  annual  report  for  1875  mentions  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  197 

great  value  of  tlie  Chinese  Globe  Magazine,  the 
religious  paper  conducted  by  Brother  Allen. 
He  gives  in  a  letter  the  following  account  of 
its  origin: 

The  Magazine  was  com  men  cod  in  September,  18G8. 
It  was  originated  at  a  Mif^sionary  Conference  held  at 
my  house.  The  subject  of  discussion  on  that  occasion 
was  as  to  the  best  means  ol"  extending  missionary  in- 
fluence so  as  to  reacli  the  government,  the  officials,  and 
the  literati,  all  of  whom  are  absolutely  beyond  the 
reach  of  our  ordinary  influences.  Many  suggestions 
and  proposals  were  made  by  the  different  brethren, 
and  among  them  I  suggested  the  establishment  of  a 
newspaper,  which,  while  not  being  entirely  devoted  to 
religious  subjects,  should  nevertheless  have  a  decided 
religious  character.  The  suggestion  was  adopted,  and 
unanimously  approved;  but  the  question  was  as  to  who 
should  take  charge  of  the  enterprise,  and,  as  no  one 
present  seemed  disposed  to  be  responsible  for  it,  I  be- 
came personally  responsible  for  its  establishment ;  and 
from  that  time  till  now,  while  it  has  the  unqualified 
indorsement  of  all  the  Missions  and  missionaries,  I 
alone  and  unaided  have  had  the  whole  burden  of  its 
success  or  failure  thrown  upon  me.  All  the  editor's 
duties,  the  correspondence,  accounts,  mail  distribution, 
etc.,  I  have  to  perform. 

The  Magazine  contained  36  pages.  Its  cir- 
culation had  increased  from  30,000  to  96,000 
copies  per  annum.  It  had  received  cordial 
commendations  from  the  leading  missionaries 
in  China, 

198      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

In  every  mission  field  years  are  required  to 
select  the  best  locations  and  properly  to  or- 
ganize tlie  work.  Our  work  in  China  was 
passing  tlirough  that  period,  and  its  work 
was  assuming  an  organized  form.  The  mis- 
sionaries, after  waiting  sixteen  years,  were 
cheered  by  the  arrival  of  Eev.  Alvin  P.  Park- 
er, of  the  Missouri  Conference.  He  reached 
China  in  December,  1875,  and  January  1, 1876, 
entered  on  his  work  at  Soochow.  The  Mission 
now  reported  six  native  preachers.  Work 
was  opened  at  Wangdoo  and  Woosung.  Mrs. 
J.W.  Lambuth  had  the  care  of  the  girls'  board- 
ing-scliool  at  Shanghai,  and  the  oversight  of 
the  four  Bible-women.  In  his  report  Brother 
Allen  stated  that  in  the  government  school  he 
had  taught  some  300  young  men  wdio  were 
prepared  to  take  government  appointments 
under  various  capacities.  In  the  translation 
department  he  had  furnished  the  government 
with  a  general  survey  of  the  political  history 
of  the  world  in  20  volumes  (Chinese),  besides 
other  important  works — such  as  "Chronolo- 
gy," 4  volumes;  the  "History  of  India,"  2  vol- 
umes; the  "Statesman's  Year  Book,"  8  vol- 
umes; and  was  engaged  on  a  large  work  of 
several  hundred  pages  entitled  "  British  Na- 
val Regulations,"  to  be  followed  by  "Instruc- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  199 

tions  for  the  Guidance  of  Embassadors  and 
Consuls  to  Foreign  Countries."  Referring  to 
the  Chinese  Globe  Magazine  and  other  work,  he 
wrote:  "From  first  to  last  I  have  distributed 
ten  million  pages  of  reading-matter  through 
the  press."  The  seed-sower  does  not  always 
behold  the  harvest.  "One  soweth,  and  an- 
other reapeth."  But  the  Master  has  said: 
"Both  he  that  soweth  and  he  that  reapeth 
may  rejoice  together." 

In  1876  a  fresh  impulse  was  given  to  our 
Mission  in  China  by  the  visit  of  Bishop  Mar- 
vin, accompanied  by  Eev.  E.  E.  Hendrix. 
Their  letters  greatly  stirred  the  Church  re- 
specting its  duty  to  this  long  neglected  field. 
Another  result  of  equal,  if  not  greater,  im- 
portance was  accomplished.  The  presence 
and  administration  of  Bishop  Marvin  in  the 
China  Mission  demonstrated  the  peculiar 
adaptation  of  our  ecclesiastical  economy  to 
the  wants  and  work  of  the  foreign  field.  Un- 
der congregational  forms  of  government,  con- 
flicts were  liable  to  arise  between  the  boards 
of  management  and  the  missionaries  at  the 
front  respecting  the  proper  administration  of 
the  work  in  the  field.  The  boards  claim  that 
they  are  intrusted  with  the  contributions  of 
the  Church  at  home  for  the  support  of  the 

200      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

work  abroad;  hence  they  must  so  direct  the 
operations  in  the  field  that  they  can  render  a 
faithful  account  of  their  work  to  those  from 
whom  they  have  received  the  trust.  The  mis- 
sionaries claim  that,  being  on  the  ground,  they 
are  better  able  to  plan  the  work  than  a  com- 
pany of  gentlemen  five  or  ten  thousand  miles 
from  the  field.  Viewing  the  matter  from  these 
opposite  stand-points,  both  claims  are  just; 
but  out  of  their  assertion  conflicts  have  arisen 
under  some  organizations  which  have  dam- 
aged the  work  both  at  home  and  abroad.  Our 
economy  supplies  a  safeguard  against  these 
results.  Instead  of  holding  the  operations  of 
its  Missions  under  the  sole  control  of  a  com- 
pany of  men  on  the  other  side  of  the  globe, 
our  Church  extends  its  government  into  the 
mission  field,  and  secures  to  the  missionary 
the  same  Conference  rights  and  the  same 
episcopal  supervision  that  is  enjoyed  by  the 
Church  at  home.  The  mission  field  is  not 
dealt  with  as  a  mere  appendage  of  the  home 
Church,  but  is  considered  as  part  of  the 
Church,  and  entitled  to  all  its  rights  and 
privileges.  Its  work  being  arranged  and  its 
appointments  being  made  by  the  same  au- 
thorities that  supervise  the  home  administra- 
tion, we  escape,  in  a  large  measure,  the  fric- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  201 

tion  and  conflict  that  has  disturbed  the  work 
of  some  of  our  sister  organizations. 

Again,  as  meml)ers  of  the  Board,  the  bishops 
are  in  x^osition  fully  to  comprehend  its  embar- 
rassments when  ijlaced  between  the  upper  and 
nether  millstones  of  limited  collections,  and 
urgent  calls  from  the  mission  field.  As  chief 
pastor  among  the  missionaries  in  a  mission 
field,  the  bishop  can  sympathize  with  their 
trials,  appreciate  the  pressing  demands  of 
their  w^ork,  and  intelligently  represent  their 
claims  before  the  Board  and  the  Church. 
Our  Missions  in  China,  Mexico,  Brazil,  and 
Japan  furnish  abundant  illustrations  of  the 
advantages  which  have  followed  faithful  epis- 
copal supervision. 

Bishop  Marvin  presided  over  a  Conference 
held  in  Shanghai  December  22,  1876.  Dsau- 
tse-zeh  (C.  K.  Marshall),  Dzung- Yung-Chung, 
Yung- Kin-San,  and  Sz  -  tsz  -  kia  were  elected 
and  ordained  deacons;  and  the  first  two,  Dsau 
and  Dzung,  were  elected  and  ordained  elders. 
Two  traveling  preachers  remained  on  trial, 
Fong  -kwung-hoong  and  Tsung  -  san  -  tsung. 
Dsau  was  with  Brother  Parker  at  Soochow. 
He  had  been  preaching  some  six  years;  was 
a  good  preacher,  and  useful  in  many  ways. 
He  was  supported  in  part  by  the  Church  of 

202      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

the  Strangers,  New  York.  That  Church  had 
also  sent  the  funds  with  which  the  land  and 
house  in  which  Dsau  lived  had  been  pur- 
chased. Dsung  had  worked  for  five  years  in 
connection  with  the  Presbyterian  Mission  at 
Hangchow  and  Soochow  without  severing  his 
connection  with  our  Church.  Letters  from 
that  Mission  commended  him  highly  as  a 
preacher.  He  was  now  supported  with  funds 
sent  out  by  a  minister  of  the  North  Carolina 
Conference.  He  preached  in  the  city  of 
Shanghai  at  the  East  Gate  Chapel  in  our 
church  on  the  lot  first  purchased  by  Dr. 
Taylor,  and  at  two  places  in  the  country. 
Yung  preached  in  the  city  at  East  Gate  and 
the  chapel  in  the  mission  lot.  He  was  a  car- 
penter by  trade;  had  been  in  the  Church 
eighteen  years.  He  was  a  good  and  earnest 
preacher.  See  was  a  graduate  of  the  Presby- 
terian mission-school  at  Neungchow.  He  had 
been  properly  transferred  to  our  Church,  with 
warm  recommendations  from  the  Presbyterian 
brethren.  He  had  a  fine  knowledge  of  the 
classical  language,  as  well  as  the  Shanghai 
and  Ningpo  colloquial.  He  was  assisting  the 
committee'  in  the  revision  of  the  Shanghai 
colloquial  Testament.  He  preached  at  various 
chapels  and  at  a  point  six  miles  from  Shang- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  b,  203 

hai.  He  was  useful  both  in  Sunday  and  day 
schools.  Fong  had  been  two  years  at  Nant- 
ziang.  He  had  unusual  gifts  in  teaching  the 
young,  and  reaching  the  people.  He  had 
brought  a  number  into  the  Church.  He  had  a 
boys'  school  of  eighteen  scholars,  and  a  girls' 
school  of  eight.  He  preached  botli  at  Nant- 
ziang  and  Wongdoo.  Tsung  had  been  a  year 
and  a  half  in  the  w^ork.  He  preached  well, 
and  was  improving.  He  preached  in  Kading 
and  the  country  around. 

Brother  Lambuth,  as  Superintendent,  vis- 
ited all  the  stations  and  appointments.  He 
"was  supported  by  the  Board  of  Missions. 
Brother  Allen  w^as  still  in  government  service, 
from  which  he  derived  his  support.  His  Sab- 
baths were  devoted  to  the  Mission.  Brother 
Parker  was  at  Soochow,  and  received  his  sup- 
port from  the  Missouri  Conference.  These 
facts  are  suggestive.  Only  one  of  the  mission- 
aries w^as  at  that  time  supported  by  the  Board. 
The  Church  at  home  was  but  partially  alive 
to  its  duty  to  "  China's  millions." 

The  Mission  had  just  completed  and  printed 
500  copies  of  their  new  hymn  and  tune  book. 
It  contained  150  hymns.  One  hundred  cop- 
ies of  the  translated  Discipline  had  been 
printed  on  their  parlor  press.     Translations 

204     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

of  Catechisms  1,  2,  and  3  had  been  printed; 
also  a  catechism  with  scripture  references. 
A  chikl's  pictorial  Bible  history  was  in  press. 

A  very  thorough  examination  was.  made  re- 
specting the  value  to  mission  work  of  the 
magazine  published  by  Brother  Allen.  Let- 
ters from  competent  sources  in  China  were 
fully  satisfactory,  giving  to  the  Church  at 
large  hope  of  usefulness  in  that  direction. 

At  Soochow  there  was  a  boarding-school 
under  the  supervision  of  Brothers  Parker  and 
Dsau.  In  Shanghai  the  Clopton  School,  in 
charge  of  Mrs.  Lambuth,  was  doing  efficient 
service.  From  small  beginnings  it  had  been 
enlarged  until  it  now  had  a  study  and  class- 
room, and  a  dormitory  large  enough  for  twen- 
ty-five children;  also  a  Bible-womau's  hall, 
opening  by  folding  doors  into  the  school. 
The  annual  expenditure  per  pupil  was  about 
$40.  The  interest  manifested  by  friends  in 
the  home  field  had  brought  up  the  list  of  pu- 
pils to  fifteen.  The  course  of  study  was 
largely  a  religious  one. 

From  the  statistical  report  we  gather  the 
following  items:  Property — two  residences  in 
Shanghai  with  attached  buildings,  $18,000 
(this  value  is  given  by  the  great  advance  in 
property  since  they  were  built) ;  one  church  on 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  205 

mission  lot,  Shanghai,  5t?l,000;  one  church  in 
city,  Shanghai,  $1,400;  one  church  on  mission 
lot,  west,  $400;  one  church  in  Nantziang,  $500; 
one  church  and  parsonage  in  Soochow,  $800; 
one  parsonage  in  Shanghai,  $202;  new  school- 
building,  Shanghai,  $1,050;  new  school-house 
and  Bible-woman's  rooms  in  Nantziang,  includ- 
ing land,  $349.  Five  rented  preaching-places. 
Native  preachers,  6;  other  native  helpers,  6; 
members,  104;  Sunday-school  scholars,  141. 

The  leading  event  of  1877  was  the  arrival,  in 
November,  of  Eev.  W.  K.  Lambuth,  M.D.,  and 
the  opening  of  a  medical  department  in  the 
Mission.  He  made  several  visits  to  the  inte- 
rior, preaching  and  dispensing  medicine  to 
those  who  applied  for  relief.  These  visits 
demonstrated  the  great  value  of  medical  work 
in  connection  with  the  preaching  of  the  word 
among  the  Chinese.  The  people  have  great 
confidence  in  the  medicines  of  the  foreign 
physician,  and  the  relief  which  the  medical 
missionary  is  able  to  afford  gives  him  access 
to  multitudes  who  cannot  be  reached  through 
any  otlier  agency.  Dr.  Lambuth's  plan  was 
to  have  medicines  dispensed  at  all  the  sta- 
tions, except  the  most  distant,  and  these  he 
hoped  to  reacli  once  in  two  months.  He  be- 
gan regular  work  December  8,  extending  liig 

206     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

visits  from  Shanghai  and  Nantziang  to  other 
accessible  jDoints.  In  some  cases  peopha  cam^e 
five  miles  to  be  treated.  One  woman  was 
brought  on  a  wheelbarrow.  One  poor  woman 
asked  for  some  "heart  medicine."  She  said: 
"I  get  excited  sometimes,  and  my  heart  gets 
very  mad,  for  my  relations  treat  me  cruelly. 
I  want  to  scratch  their  faces  and  say  bad 
things.  Can't  you  give  me  something  for  my 
heart?"  Some  will  smile  at  the  request. 
Christ  would  have  wept.  It  was  the  cry  of  a 
soul  conscious  of  its  greatest  need.  The  mis- 
sionary wrote:  "How  my  soul  went  up  to 
God  for  wisdom  to  enable  me  to  point  to  the 
Great  Physician  and  the  only  remedy! "  The 
profound  sympathy  these  words  express  for 
that  poor  heathen  woman  is  the  missionary 
spirit  so  much  needed  by  the  Church.  When 
will  the  cry  for  "heart  medicine,"  coming 
from  our  heathen  sisters,  stir,  with  equal 
power,  the  heart  of  the  Church  at  home? 
Speaking  of  one  visit.  Dr.  Lambuth  says; 
"We  had  to  tear  ourselves  away  from  the 
applicants  for  medicine  at  Chingpoo.  The 
church  was  crowded  during  service  on  three 
successive  days,  many  of  the  congregation  be- 
ing patients."  Again  he  writes:  "One  month 
I  am  for  one  week  on  a  circuit  of  104  miles, 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  207 

dispensing  medicine  and  preaching  at  six 
towns  and  cities;  the  next  month  am  gone  two 
weeks  on  a  circuit  of  200  miles,  visiting  some 
twelve  towns  and  cities."  He  began  to  train 
two  exhorters  for  the  medical  work,  hoping 
that  in  two  years  they  would  be  able  to  dis- 
pense medicine  as  well  as  preach.  He  was  of 
the  opinion  that  to  combine  the  two,  making 
medicine  the  auxiliary,  was  the  plan  on  which 
to  move.  The  reports  from  the  general  work 
indicate  a  steady  advance  this  year.  There 
were  29  baptisms  and  24  on  probation. 

In  1878  Dr.  Allen,  after  remaining  in  the 
field  eighteen  years,  visited  the  United  States 
as  a  delegate  to  the  General  Conference.  His 
representations  of  the  work  and  his  earnest 
appeals  for  re-enforcements  greatly  strength- 
ened the  confidence  of  the  Church  in  its  suc- 
cess, and  quickened  its  conscience  respecting 
its  obligations  to  the  millions  on  the  other 
side  of  the  world.  The  work  was  divided  into 
six  districts,  Rev.  J.  W.  Lambuth  having 
charge  of  the  Shanghai  District;  Dr.  W.  R. 
Lambuth,  of  the  Nantziang,  Kading,  and 
Tsingpu  Districts;  and  Rev.  A.  P.  Parker,  of 
the  Kwunsau  and  Soochow  Districts.  At 
the  annual  meeting  Fong  and  Dsung  were 
elected  to  deacon's  orders,  and  the  two  dea- 

208     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

cons,  Yung  and  See  were  elected  to  elder's 
orders.  There  were  26  adults  baptized  dur- 
ing tlie  year.  Many  of  those  who  had  been 
baptized  in  other  years  had  disappeared.  The 
population  was  constantly  changing,  causing 
by  removal  frequent  loss  of  members.  Only 
those  known  to  the  preachers  were  reported. 
The  meml)ership  was  97;  with  17  probation- 
ers; chapels,  13;  boarding-schools,  2;  pupils, 
35 ;  day-schools,  7 ;  pupils,  91 ;  Sunday-schools, 
10;  scholars,  172.  A  neat,  commodious  chapel 
outside  of  the  south  gate  of  the  walled  city  of 
Kading  was  built  with  funds  raised  by  the 
Kentucky  Conference,  and  called  Taylor 
Chapel,  after  our  first  missionary  in  the  field. 
It  was  opened  with  appropriate  services 
December  29. 

On  September  8  Marvin  Chapel,  at  Kwung 
San,  was  dedicated.  It  was  built  with  money 
sent  by  Eev.  W.  L  C.  Hunnicutt,  of  the  Missis- 
sippi Conference,  chiefly  the  gift  of  his  wife 
and  her  sister-in-law.  The  occasion  was  one 
of  great  interest.  This  was  not  the  first  aid 
received  from  Brother  Hunnicutt.  The  chapel 
at  Nantziang  in  which  the  Mission  was  then 
holding  four  weekly  services  was  the  gift  of 
of  Brother  H.  and  his  brother. 

The   medical   report  showed   that  766   pa- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.      ,      209 

tients  had  been  treated  in  the  six  districts. 
Dr.  Lambuth  sought  to  bring  all  his  patients 
under  the  influence  of  the  public  ministry. 
About  500  of  them  were  also  approached  per- 
sonally on  the  subject  of  their  soul's  salvation. 
While  he  was  prescribing  and  preparing  the 
medicine,  the  native  preacher  in  charge  of 
the  station  talked  to  and  prayed  with  the 
patients.  The  missionary  had  occasion  to  re- 
joice that  his  work  was  not  in  vain. 

June  20,  1879,  the  Mission  mourned'  the 
death  of  Sister  Quay,  their  first  and  most  de- 
vout Bible-woman.  She  died  at  Nantziang  in 
great  peace.  October  16,  the  Mission  was 
greatly  rejoiced  over  the  arrival  of  Eev.  C.  F. 
Reid  and  his  wife,  who  entered  zealously  on 
the  study  of  the  language  and  such  work  as 
they  could  perform. 

The  arrangement  of  the  work  for  the  year 
ending  September  30,  1879,  was:  Shanghai 
District  and  Circuit,  Dr.  Y.  J.  Allen  and 
W.  R.  Lambuth,  M.D.;  Foreign  Mission- 
aries, Shanghai  Station,  Dsau  -  tsz  -  zeh 
(C.  K.  Marshall);  Shanghai  Circuit,  Fong- 
Kwung-Hoong;  Nantziang  District  and  Cir- 
cuit, J.  W.  Lambuth  and  C.  F.  Reid,  foreign 
missionaries;  Nantziang  Circuit,  Dzung-Yung- 
Chung,  Medical  Student  and  Exhorter,  Tser- 

210     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Tsing  Gee;  Kading  Circuit,  Lee-Tsz-Nye; 
Tsiiigpii  Circuit,  Dsung-Saw  Tsuiig;  Soo- 
chow  District  and  Circuit,  A.  P.  Parker, 
Foreign  Missionary;  Soochow  Station,  Sz-Tsz- 
Kia;  Soochow  Circuit,  Tsa-Voong- Tsang; 
Kwunsan  Circuit,  Yung-Kiung-San. 

It  is  proper  here  to  state  that  in  1878  the 
Mission  was  re-enforced  by  the  marriage  o£ 
Brother  Parker  to  Miss  Cooley,  of  the  North- 
ern Presbyterian  Mission.  Having  had  much 
experience  in  mission  work,  Mrs.  Parker  be- 
came a  most  valuable  addition  to  our  mission 
force.  As  our  five  missionaries  w^ere  married 
men,  we  may  count  their  number  ten. 

The  Mission  gratefully  reported  the  com- 
pletion of  the  new  school-building  at  Soochow, 
which  has  since  been  known  as  Bufiington  In- 
stitute. The  money,  six  thousand  dollars,  to 
build  a  church  and  boarding-school,  was  the 
gift  of  Brother  Bu£S.ngton,  of  Covington,  Ky. 
Eternity  alone  will  reveal  the  benefits  con- 
ferred on  China  by  this  generous  donation. 
The  report  of  the  school  for  the  year  ending 
September  30, 1879,  showed  some  17  students  in 
attendance.  In  the  advantages  of  the  new 
building  a  much  larger  attendance  was  ex- 

The  annual  meeting  was  held  in  Nantziang 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  21i 

October  8.  All  the  preachers  were  present, 
and  all  were  full  of  faith  and  hope.  The 
native  preachers  were  examined  on  these 
courses  of  study — viz.,  "Evidences  of  Chris- 
tianity," Ealston's  "Elements  of  Divinity," 
Binney's  "  Theological  Compend,"  the  Gos- 
pels of  Matthew  and  Mark,  the  "  Character  of 
Christ,"  the  Discipline,  andother  studies.  Ar- 
rangements were  made  for  lectures  on  various 
subjects  by  the  missionaries  for  the  benefit  of 
the  native  preachers. 

The  statistics  furnish  the  following: 
Churches  and  chapels,  17;  sittings,  1,110; 
average  attendance,  460;  sermons  preached, 
2,158;  number  of  preachers,  12;  members,  97; 
probationers,  54;  Sunday-schools,  13;  scholars, 
186;  boarding-schools,  2;  pupils,  42;  day- 
schools,  9;  pupils,  105;  patients  treated,  731. 

The  year  1880  opened  joyfully  with  a  meet- 
ing of  unusual  interest  in  Dr.  Allen's  new 
church  in  Shanghai.  It  had  been  built  at  a 
total  cost  of  $3,594.96,  and  with  the  exception 
of  $165  and  $389.52  paid  by  Dr.  Allen  was 
the  gift  of  a  brother  in  Georgia.  The  house 
was  designed  to  seat  200  persons,  but  on  this 
occasion  it  was  packed  as  only  Chinese  can 
pack.  Upward  of  400  crowded  into  the 
house.     On   Christmas  the  house  was  aoain 

212     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

packed,  and  Dr.  Allen  preached.  A  few  came 
forward  to  seek  information,  and  forty  or  fifty- 
followed  to  liear  what  was  said.  On  Sunday  a 
Sunday-school  was  founded  and  eighteen 
names  enrolled.  The  interest  of  the  meetings 
was  so  great  that  Dr.  Allen  decided  to  renew 
the  service  New  -  year's  -  night.  They  were 
continued  several  days.  On  Sunday,  January 
4,  when  the  •children's  hour  came,  the  house 
was  full,  with  125  children  on  the  front  seats. 
After  explaining  the  object  of  the  Sunday- 
school,  thirty-two  names  were  enrolled,  making 
fifty  in  all.  The  list  included  only  boys  who 
had  been  in  Chinese  schools  and  could  read. 
Some  sixteen  persons  desired  to  join  the 
Church,  and  were  held  on  probation.  The 
presence  of  an  unusual  number  of  women  in 
the  congregation  was  a  matter  of  special  note. 
Special  provision  was  made  for  them.  The 
results  greatly  cheered  the  missionaries.  The 
Church  is  called  in  Chinese  San  Yih  Dang, 
which  means  in  English  Trinity  Church. 

Brother  Lambuth  reported  an  interesting 
meeting  in  Kading  at  Taylor's  Chapel,  that 
continued  six  days.  It  was  conducted  by 
Brother  Lee,  the  pastor.  Many  women  at- 
tended, and  several  persons  came  forward  for 
prayers  and  instruction. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  213 

Brother  Parker  reported  good  congreg'a- 
tions  at  Soochow  in  the  chapels  that  were 
opened  every  day  for  preaching.  Frequently 
persons  remained  for  religious  instruction.  A 
number  of  women  called  nearly  every  day  on 
Mrs.  Parker,  and  she  and  the  wife  of  the  na- 
tive preacher,  Tu,  talked  with  them  about  the 
way  of  salvation.  Brother  Parker  made  a  trip 
of  four  days  to  nine  towns,  during  which  time 
he  preached  fifteen  times  to  about  seven  hun- 
dred people. 

The  failing  health  of  Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth 
constrained  him  to  ask  for  a  vacation,  and  the 
Board  at  its  meeting  in  May,  1879,  authorized 
his  return.  He  and  Mrs.  Lambuth  arrived  in 
this  country  in  June,  1880.  Soon  the  health 
of  Mrs.  W.  E.  Lambuth  became  so  critical  that 
her  departure  to  the  United  States  was  imper- 
ative. She  returned  in  1880,  accompanied 
only  by  her  little  boy  of  two  years,  while  her 
husband  remained  at  his  post.  Brother  Beid, 
at  Nantziang,  was  worn  down  with  malarial 
fever,  while  Miss  Lochie  and  Miss  Dora  Ean- 
kin,  of  the  Woman's  Board,  were  suffering 
from  the  same  influence,  and  nervous  prostra- 
tion. They  visited  Kobe,  Japan,  and  under 
its  bracing  climate  were  able  to  return,  during 
the  first  quarter  of  the  mission  year,  to  their 

214      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

work.  Brother  Parker,  burdened  with  toil  and 
many  cares  at  8oochow,  also  suffered  greatly 
from  malarial  fever,  which  greatly  reduced 
his  strength  and  interrupted  his  work.  These 
were  dark  days;  but  there  was  sunshine  as  well 
as  cloud.  The  work  of  the  Master  was  heavy 
on  Dr.  Allen.     Writing  August  24,  he  says: 

Trinity  Church,  which  at  the  close  of  last  year  was 
opened  without  a  single  member,  now  numbers  fifty- 
one  adherents.  The  congrej^^ations  are  still  large,  and 
the  evidences  of  a  widening  influence  are  manifest. 
Two  day-schools,  one  Sunday-school,  a  prayer-meet- 
ing, and  a  probationers'  meeting  are  now  organized  and 
well  attended.  Two  of  the  three  men  baptized  re- 
cently are  most  zealous  co-laborers.  They  have  volun- 
tarily undertaken  to  divide  the  neighborhood  between 
them  for  purposes  of  visitation.  It  is  their  object  to 
follow  up  the  impressions  made  at  the  church,  and 
speak  privately  with  the  people  who  may  have  been 
affected.  This  has  already  resulted  in  a  grand  surprise 
to  the  circuit  preacher.  He  was  unaware  of  their 
method  of  proceeding,  and  at  the  conclusion  of  his 
sermon  on  the  night  of  the  12th  instant  was  hardly 
prepared  for  the  response  made  to  his  offer  of  Christ 
as  the  Great  Physician,  when  six  young  men  arose 
from  the  congregation,  and  came  forward,  professing 
their  faith  in,  and  acceptance  of,  Christ.  Several  of 
them  had  already  applied  privately  to  be  accepted; 
but  it  is  our  rule  to  have  all  make  a  public  profession. 
An  opening  among  the  women  in  the  neighborhood  is 
now  thoroughly  effected,  and  at  least  one-quarter  of  the 
regular  congregation  at  church  is  composed  of  females. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  215 

In  October  he  writes: 

Here,  from  the  very  first,  the  blessing  of  God  seemed 
to  rest  upon  lis.  The  congregations  were  always  large, 
the  capacity  of  the  church  (two  hundred  and  fifty)  be- 
ing hardly  equal  to  the  demand.  Women  attended  in 
large  numbers,  sometimes  as  many  as  sixty  being  pres- 
ent. The  awakening  which  began  the  first  week  has 
continued  in  almost  unbroken  interest,  resulting,  so  far 
as  yet  declared,  in  62  accessions,  of  which  49  still  re- 
main on  probation,  while  13  have  been  received  into 
full  membership.  The  interest  still  continues,  and  as 
several  of  those  already  admitted  to  baptism  are  zeal- 
ous workers,  it  is  expected  that  a  fresh  ingathering 
wall  soon  take  place. 

There  were  usually  about  100  at  Sunday- 
school,  though  from  lack  of  teachers  they  were 
able  to  supply  only  about  70  or  80  with  in- 
struction. The  two  day-schools  on  the  prem- 
ises adjoining  the  church  had  36  scholars.  A 
school  was  opened  for  the  benefit  of  the  wom- 
en, who  attended  Church  in  large  numbers.  It 
was  placed  in  charge  of  Miss  Allen. 

During  the  year  Dr.  Allen  translated  the 
following  works  for  the  Chinese  Government: 
"  The  Eastern  Question,  or  Turkey  and  the 
European  States,"  "  The  Afghanistan  Ques- 
tion, or  the  Relations  of  England  and  Russia 
in  Central  Asia,''  "The  Future  of  China,"  by 
gir  Walter  Medhurst,  and  had  in  hand  when 

216      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

he  made  his  report,  "The  Armies  of  Asia  and 
Europe."  He  was  still  connected  with  the 
Foreign  News  Gazette,  issued  in  Shanghai  by 
and  for  the  use  of  the  government  and  offi- 
cials. The  Chinese  Globe  Magazi}ie  had  now 
entered  on  its  thirteenth  year. 

At  Christmas  Chapel,  Shanghai,  the  work 
prospered  under  the  charge  of  Brother  Mar- 
shall. He  had  full  congregations  and  a  live, 
worki]ig  Church.  He  reported  4  additions  to 
the  Church,  10  probationers,  and  20  inquirers. 
This  charge  was  nearly  up  on  the  line  of  self- 
support.  It  paid  $86  for  the  support  of  the 
ministry,  $18  for  the  poor,  and  $41  for  mis- 
sions. Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth,  in  reporting  this 
work,  says: 

Woman's  work  is  the  most  live  and  interesting  feat- 
ure of  all.  The  majority  of  the  communicants  at 
Christmas  Chapel  are  women;  and  the  gladdest  sight 
of  the  week  is  to  watch  them  coming  in,  one  by  one, 
leading  or  carrying  their  children  with  them.  It  is 
then  of  all  times  that  our  hearts  throb  exultantly  at 
the  thought  of  these  regenerated  mothers  leading  Chi- 
na's rising  millions  to  Christ.  May  Almighty  God 
speed  the  day  when  Christian  mothers  shall  be  found 
in  every  province,  village,  and  hamlet  of  this,  the  great- 
est of  all  heathen  empires! 

On  May  1  Dr.  W.  K.  Lambuth  opened  an 
opium  hospital  within  the  walls  of  Shanghai 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  217 

near  the  Tea  Garden.  Among  other  regula- 
tions, he  required  the  patients  to  abandon  the 
use  of  the  drug  at  once  and  entirely.  They 
were  to  be  confined  in  their  rooms  under  lock 
and  key  three  days,  and  in  the  hospital  yard 
two  weeks.  They  were  to  pay  a  fee  of  f2, 
covering  all  expenses.  It  was  also  arranged 
that  prayers  should  be  held  morning  and  ev- 
ening, and  one  daily  sermon,  to  all  of  which 
the  inmates  were  cordially  invited.  By  July 
he  had  forty  patients,  three  of  whom  were 
women.  They  were  of  all  grades  of  consum- 
ers of  from  57.98  grains  up  to  289.9  grains, 
apothecaries*  weight.  The  treatment  was  he- 
roic, and  Dr.  Lambuth  says  that  he  was  not 
without  grave  apprehensions  when  the  door  of 
the  ward  was  padlocked.  He  says  that  for  three 
days  the  unnatural  appetite  asserted  its  sav- 
age claims;  but  in  nearly  every  case  the  fourth 
day  found  the  patient  free  from  its  thralls, 
but  weakened  by  the  struggle.  On  the  fifth 
day  a  normal  appetite  set  in,  and  they  im- 
proved rapidly. 

At  Soochow  Brother  Parker  reported  five 
received  into  the  Chiirch,  and  ten  on  proba- 
tion. The  boys'  school  had  22  pupils  in  at- 
tendance. There  were  in  Soochow  3  day- 
schools,   1   at   Kwun   San,    1   at   Tong  Tseu 

218     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

numbering  in  all  45  pupils.  Mrs.  Parker 
was  able  to  do  mucli  work  among  the  women 
who  visited  her  home,  and  those  to  whose 
homes  she  was  invited.  The  Sunday-school 
numbered  55  persons. 

Brother  Eeid,  of  the  Nantziang  District,  re- 
ported regular  preaching-places,  7;  Sunday- 
schools,  3;  scholars,  92;  native  preachers,  4; 
adults  baptized,  4;  received  into  the  Church, 
3.  The  membership  of  the  Mission  was  113, 
and  the  probationers  87. 

On  December  8,  1880,  Kev.  W.  W.  Koyall, 
of  Virginia,  Rev.  K.  H.  McLain,  of  Georgia, 
and  their  wives,  and  Rev.  G.  R.  Loehr,  of 
Georgia,  landed  at  Shanghai.  They  met  a 
warm  welcome,  and  entered  hopefully  on  the 
work  of  preparation  for  the  great  business  be- 
fore them.  None  gave  brighter  promise  than 
Mrs.  McLain,  but  in  a  few  weeks  a  light  fever 
developed  latent  tendencies  which  ended  in 
mental  derangement.  After  consulting  the 
best  physicians  the  Mission  unanimously  re- 
quested Dr.  W.  R.  Lambuth  to  accompany 
her  and  her  husband  on  their  sad  journey  to 
their  home.  They  reached  Atlanta  April  2, 

The  annual  report  for  1881-82  opens  with 
the  following  statement: 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  -219 

In  the  beginning  of  the  year  now  closing  the  Eev. 
Y.  J.  Allen,  D.D.,  was  appointed  Superintendent  of  this 
Mission.  He  had  been  for  nearly  eighteen  years  in 
the  employ  of  the  Chinese  Government,  and  had  ac- 
quired a  familiarity  with  Chinese  language  and  affairs, 
and  an  intimacy  of  association  with  the  better  classes 
of  the  people,  which,  it  was  thought,  might  be  used  to 
great  advantage  in  the  more  immediate  work  of  the 
Mission.  It  was  left  to  his  own  judgment  to  make 
such  adjustment  of  his  former  labors  to  his  new  posi- 
tion as  would  best  serve  ail  interests.  Deeming  it  nec- 
essary, in  this  new  relation,  to  devote  his  entire  time 
and  service  to  the  Mission,  immediately  upon  the  re- 
ceipt of  his  appointment,  he  sent  in  his  resignation  to 
the  government.  By  the  terms  of  his  engagement  he 
was  required  to  give  six  months'  notice  of  his  retire- 
ment, and  accordingly  his  resignation  could  not  take 
effect  until  the  month  of  November.  He  did  not  fail, 
however,  to  use  such  opportunities  as  he  could  com- 
mand, and  in  the  latter  part  of  May  and  the  beginning 
of  June  he  visited  the  various  stations,  Nantziang,  Ka- 
ding,  and  Soochow,  preaching,  inquiring  into  the  con- 
ditions of  the  work,  and  preparing  to  assume  the  charge 
with  full  understanding  of  its  requirements. 

Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth,  having  in  a  good  meas- 
ure recovered  his  health,  after  visiting  the 
Missionary  Conference  in  London,  reached 
Shanghai  November  24,  1881. 

The  annual  meeting  was  held  in  Shanghai 
September  24.  In  his  personal  report  Dr. 
Allen  stated  that  the  interest  that  had  been 

220     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

awakened  in  Trinity  Churcli  the  preceding 
year  was  still  manifest  in  the  large  attendance, 
especially  at  night,  while  the  attendance  at 
Sunday-school  was  larger  than  they  could 
provide  for  with  teachers.  Among  the  mem- 
bers received  was  a  man  about  thirty  years  of 
age  who  was  engaged  as  a  teacher  in  one  of 
tlie  day-schools.  He  was  desirous  of  prepar- 
ing to  preach,  and  was  studying  with  great 
diligence  that  he  might  be  qualified  for  the 
work.  The  Chinese  Magazine,  now  in  its  four- 
teenth year,  still  received  marked  encourage- 
ment. The  Religious  Tract  Society  had  made 
a  grant  sufficient  to  provide  for  800  copies 
weekly  to  be  distributed,  through  the  assist- 
ance of  the  missionaries,  throughout  the  em- 
pire, exclusively  among  the  higher  officials. 
By  this  means  religious  truth  was  brought  to 
bear  on  elements  in  Chinese  society  that  were 
reached  by  no  other  agency. 

The  report  of  the  Trinity  schools  indicated 
the  importance  and  efficiency  of  this  depart- 
ment of  mission  work.  They  had  been  opened 
in  1879  on  the  lower  floor  of  a  building  ad- 
joining the  church.  The  teacher  was  one  of 
the  first  converts  baptized  in  the  church.  The 
increase  in  pupils  required  another  teacher 
and  larger  rooms.     Miss  Allen  was  in  charge. 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  0.,  S.  221 

The  report  for  1881  shows  over  60  in  attend- 
ance, ten  of  whom  were  girls.  In  visiting  the 
families  of  the  children  Miss  Allen  w^as  al- 
ways kindly  received. 

The  list  of  books  translated  by  Dr.  Allen 
during  his  twelve  years  in  the  department  of 
government  service  embraced  90  volumes, 
besides  maps  for  a  complete  atlas  in  Chinese. 
The  notice  of  his  withdrawal  from  the  educa- 
tional, editorial,  and  translation  departments 
of  the  government  was  met  by  earnest  pro- 
tests, and  offers  of  additional  emoluments  and 
privileges,  all  of  which  he  declined  that  he 
might  "  give  the  remaining  years  of  his  life 
directly  and  undivided  to  the  interests  of  the 
Church  in  China."  Eeferring  to  this  de- 
cision he  wrote:-  "At  any  other  time  than  the 
present  I  might  have  hesitated  to  take  this 
step;  but,  being  profoundly  impressed  with 
the  opportunities  now  open  to  our  Mission  to 
establish  itself  here  on  a  broad,  enduring,  and 
successful  basis,  and  believing  that  the  Church 
at  home  will  strongly  sustain  me  in  the  efforts 
necessary  to  achieve  such  a  result,  I  have 
resigned,  and  do  forego  all  other  considera- 
tions that  it  may  (D.  Y.)  be  accomplished." 

"When  Dr.  W.  E.  Laml)uth  left  for  America, 
Brother  Parker  took  his  place  in  Shanghai. 

222     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

He  reported  good  attendance  at  Christmas 
Chapel,  with  four  ba]3tisms  and  five  probation- 
ers. He  opened  a  station  in  the  town  of  Tsih 
Pan  and  the  village  of  Sing  Chang,  and  sent 
to  them  a  native  assistant  named  Dzung- 
Dzing  San.  At  Tsih  Pan  they  had  four  proba- 
tioners and  two  day-schools.  In  August 
Brother  Parker  returned  to  Soochow  and 
took  charge  of  the  boys'  boarding-school. 
His  report  at  the  annual  meeting  was  very 
encouraging.  The  boys  were  making  fine 
progress,  and  he  expected  two  would  soon  be 
ready  to  assist  as  teachers.  By  the  erection 
of  the  new  church  on  the  same  lot  with  the 
parsonage,  he  could  use  the  chapel  built  in 
connection  with  the  school  as  a  school-room 
and  accommodate  more  scholars.  He  re- 
ported 32  in  attendance.  He  had  rented  and 
fitted  up  a  room  near  where  he  lived  for  a 
street  chapel  and  day-school.  Here  he  had 
good  congregations  and  17  pupils,  who  re- 
ceived daily  religious  instruction,  and  at- 
tended Sunday-school  on  Sunday.  The  new 
parsonage  occupied  by  Brother  Eeid,  and  the 
new  church,  capable  of  seating  300  persons, 
greatly  promoted  the  interest  of  the  work. 
Referring  to  the  dedication  of  this  church, 
Dr.  Allen  wrote:  ^^The  occasion  was  one  of 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  223 

rare  interest;  every  one  was  delighted,  partic- 
ularly to  witness  the  steady  advance  of  our 
Mission  in  this  great  city,  culminating  in  the 
erection  of  a  large  and  beautiful  church.  Too 
much  praise  cannot  be  accorded  to  our  breth- 
ren, Parker  and  Reid,  for  thus  solving  the 
vexed  question  as  to  the  peaceable  occupation 
of  Soochow.  The  providence  of  God  has 
opened  the  way  for  us,  and  the  great  pru- 
dence of  the  brethren  has  so  far  secured  to 
our  cause  both  force  and  footing." 

Brother  Eeid  in  his  report  states  that  it 
had  been  decided,  after  consultation  with  Dr. 
Allen,  to  concentrate  our  efforts  in  the  south- 
eastern part  of  the  city,  leaving  other  quarters 
to  be  worked  by  the  missionaries  of  the  two 
Presbyterian  Boards.  In  the  early  part  of  the 
year  Brother  Parker  had  opened  a  preaching- 
place  at  Tong  Tsing,  some  twelve  miles  from 
Soochow.  It  now  reported  two  members  and 
six  probationers.  He  also  reported  three 
chapels  in  Soochow.  The  Sunday-school  was 
constantly  increasing,  a  result  largely  due  to 
the  improvements  made  by  Brother  Parker 
in  Sunday-school  literature. 

The  return  of  Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth  and  wife, 
accompanied  by  W.  H.  Park,  M.D.,  and  the 
arrival   of   Revs,  D.  L.  Anderson  and  O.  G. 

224      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Mingledorf,  greatly  strengthened  the  confi- 
dence of  the  Mission.  Dr.  Lambnth  and  his 
medical  colleague  entered  vigorously  upon 
that  department  of  the  work. 

The  annual  meeting  was  of  special  interest 
and  great  harmony.  During  the  discussion 
of  "  the  extension  of  work  and  the  use  of  na- 
tive agency,"  prominence  was  given  to  the 
following  points: 

1.  It  is  very  important  that  we  show  the  native 
preachers  that  we  trust  them,  and  seek  to  cultivate  in 
them  a  sense  of  honor  and  self-respect.  2.  That  special 
effort  is  necessary  to  assist  them  in  their  studies  and 
to  lead  them  in  the  prosecution  of  the  work.  3.  That 
we  ought  to  try  to  get  nearer  to  them,  gaining  their 
sympathy  and  confidence.  4.  That  the  extension  of 
our  work  contemplates  the  occupation  of  Southern 
Kiang-Su,  its  cities  and  towns  and  villages,  seeking  to 
go  where  the  Lord  seems  to  have  opened  the  way ;  also 
to  try  and  reach  the  higher  and  literary  classes  by  of- 
fering them  certain  benefits,  which  can  only  come 
through  a  Christian  civilization,  such  as  medicine  to 
heal  their  bodies  and  higher  education  for  their  minds, 
and  thus  prove  to  them  that  we  are  equal  and  superior 
to  them  in  every  department  of  life. 

The  following  extract  from  Dr.  Allen's  re- 
port will  present  to  the  reader  the  condition 
and  demands  of  the  Mission  at  that  period: 

We  have  chosen  the  southern  half  of  the  large  and 
populous  province  of  Kiang-Su  as  the  basis  of  our  op- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  225 

erations,  and  here  it  is  proposed  to  concentrate  our 
labors  and  organize  a  Conference.  This  territory  is  in 
tlie  form  of  a  parallelogram,  being  about  120  miles  long 
by  100  miles  broad,  and  comprises  one  of  the  most  fer- 
tile, thrifty,  and  intelligent  sections  to  be  found  in 
China.  It  is  also  very  populous,  being  dotted  all  over 
with  towns  and  villages,  in  the  midst  of  which  are  up- 
ward of  twenty  large  walled  cities,  ranging  from  twenty 
thousand  to  half  a  million  inhabitants.  The  country 
is  also  intersected  everywhere  by  canals — every  city, 
town,  and  village  being  so  connected.  A  location  more 
compact,  more  populous,  or  more  accessible  could  not 
invite  us  or  be  more  conspicuously  adapted  to  the  in- 
troduction of  our  Methodist  system  of  work.  The  spe- 
cial feature,  however,  which  has  been  consulted  in 
determining  the  boundaries  of  our  projected  Confer- 
ence is  that  of  the  language,  or  dialect,  spoken  in  all 
this  section.  This  is  uniform,  with  slight  modifications 
throughout  the  whole  territory,  and  thus  adds  com- 
pleteness to  its  qualifications  to  receive  our  methods. 

The  plan  of  occupation,  projected  and  already  partly 
carried  out,  contemplates  the  division  of  this  territory 
into  large  districts,  each  with  a  central  head-quarters 
where  the  foreign  missionaries  will  live,  and  where 
will  be  concentrated  for  the  most  part  our  educational, 
medical,  and  other  work  of  a  permanent  or  general 
nature.  These  large  districts  will  also  be  subdivided 
into  smaller  ones,  each  requiring  the  oversight  of  a  for- 
eign missionary,  who  will  also  have  his  residence  at 
the  central  head-quarters.  The  advantages  of  such  a 
system  are  many,  but  such  as  can  be  appreciated  thor- 
oughly only  by  those  who  have  had  experience  of  mis- 
sionary life  in  China,  particularly  in  the  interior,  as  (1) 
it  prevents  the  isolation  and  consequent  diijabilities  of 

226      Hand  Booh  of  MefJiodist  Missions. 

mission  families ;  (2)  promotes  their  health  and  mutu- 
al helpfulness ;  (3)  combines,  while  at  the  same  time  it 
diffuses  their  influence.  Again,  it  makes  it  possible  to 
occupy  the  field  with  fewer  foreigners,  while  at  the 
same  time  it  will  promote  the  raising  up,  practical 
training,  and  much  wider  and  more  efiective  use  of 
native  agency,  etc. 

Of  the  larger  districts,  we  now  have  three  with  cen- 
tral head-quarters  established— viz.,  Soochow,  Nantzi- 
ang,  and  Shanghai — wdiile  a  fourth — to  wit,  Soong  Kong 
— is  under  projection.  These  are,  all  of  them,  selected 
with  special  reference,  (1)  to  the  importance  of  the 
central  position  of  each,  and  (2)  the  facilities  they  af- 
ford for  reaching  and  occupying  the  smaller  districts 
into  which  the  territory  surrounding  will  be  subdi- 
vided. A  clearer  idea  of  the  location  and  relation  of 
the  above  centers  will  be  obtained  from  the  map  sent 
herewith,  which  please  see. 

Referring  now  to  the  progress  of  equipment  and  or- 
ganization at  these  several  centers,  we  have,  first,  at 
Soochow,  the  chief  city  and  capital  of  the  province,  a 
central  head-quarters  for  the  district,  comprising  a  mis- 
sionary community  of  seven  persons,  four  males  and 
three  females — wives  of  missionaries — and  the  follow- 
ing departments  of  work:  (1)  A  large  central  church, 
located  in  the  midst  of  the  missionary  community,  and 
surrounded  with  numerous  chapels  situated  on  public 
thoroughfares  in  contiguous  parts  of  the  city;  (2)  two 
boarding-schools— one  Bufiington  Seminary,  belonging 
to  the  Parent  Board,  and  the  other  a  girls'  school,  be- 
longing to  the  Woman's  Board  of  Missions— together 
w^ith  several  day-schools  in  parts  of  the  city  near  by ;  (3) 
two  hospitals  under  projen^tion,  and  which  it  is  hoped 
to- have  erected  and  put  in  operation  the  ensuing  year. 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S.  227 

The  work  at  this  center  is  admirably  located,  and  the 
missionary  residences,  school-buildings,  hospitals,  and 
church,  etc.,  form  a  conspicuous  group,  attractive  in 
appearance,  and  having  an  air  of  permanence  and  busi- 
ness wliich  has  already  greatly  impressed  the  native 
mind,  and  not  a  little  modified  the  prejudice  and  con- 
tempt Mdth  which  they  were  wont  to  regard  us.  Sec- 
ond, at  Nantziang,  the  head-quarters  of  the  district  by 
that  name,  we  have  a  mission  family,  and  two  young 
ladies  representing  the  Woman's  Board ;  and  the  equip- 
ments for  work  comprise  two  residences,  two  large 
school-buildings,  both  belonging  to  the  Woman's  Board 
of  Missions,  and  a  fine  large  church,  with  which  is  con- 
nected in  the  same  town  other  preaching-places  in  the 
vicinity.  The  native  community  at  this  point  has  been 
very  favorably  impressed,  and  the  work  at  this  time  is 
on  a  most  encouraging  basis.  Third,  at  Shanghai,  the 
most  important  center  of  all,  we  have  at  present  four 
mission  families  and  three  single  persons,  and  our 
equipments,  which  are  far  from  complete  as  projected, 
consist  of  two  mission  residences,  two  large  high  school 
buildings,  one  church,  and  several  chapels  and  rented 
school  premises.  Shanghai,  as  holding  the  key  not 
only  to  work  in  this  province  but  to  a  much  wider  re- 
gion, and  Soochow,as  being  in  the  center  of  the  imme- 
diate territory  which  we  have  chosen  as  the  basis  of 
our  missionary  operations  in  China,  are  two  points 
which  should  be  occupied  in  force,  and  where  our 
equipments  should  be  most  complete. 

The  following  suggestions  as  to  the  men 
needed  in  the  field  will  apply  with  equal  force 
to  other  foreign  fields: 

And  here  is  it  well  to  state  plainly  that  Conference 

228      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

men  are  preferred — men  Avith  experience,  mature  in 
judgment,  and  capable  of  taking  charge  at  once  of  a 
responsible  work.  Younger  men  might  possibly  get 
the  language  more  readily,  but  no  amount  of  facility  in 
that  respect  could  atone  lor  their  lack  of  experience  in 
the  actual  Conference  ministry.  That  such  men  as  we 
need  are  to  be  had  tliere  can  be  no  question,  and  when 
they  come  to  know  that  their  services  are  greatly  to  be 
preferred  to  those  of  younger  men  just  out  of  college, 
with  no  experience  in  the  field  work,  and  that  China 
opens  to  them  opportunities  of  development  and  use- 
fulness hardly  to  be  found  elsewhere,  certainly  in  no 
other  heathen  land,  they  will  not  be  slow  to  present 
themselves  for  this  work. 

Brother  Parker  reported  forty-two  scholars 
in  the  Biiffington  Institute,  Soochow.  The  re- 
ligious condition  of  the  school  was  very  good. 
Three  of  the  boys  joined  the  Church  during 
the  year,  and  eight  were  on  probation.  Three 
of  the  young  men  from  the  school  were  em- 
ployed as  native  assistants.  Brother  Parker 
was  also  engaged  as  one  of  a  committee  in 
preparing  the  books  of  Genesis,  Exodus, 
Psalms,  Proverbs,  and  Daniel  in  the  Soochow 
and  Shanghai  colloquials  to  be  published  by 
tlie  American  Bible  Society. 

The  following  statistics  for  the  year  ending 
December  31,  1883,  were  reported  at  the  an- 
nual meeting: 

Male  missionaries,  10;  female  missionary,  1;  Wom- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  229 

an's  Missionary  Society  missionaries,  7;  stations  where 
missionaries  reside,  3;  out  stations,  8;  communicants, 
158;  males,  68;  females,  90;  self-supporting  Church,  1; 
probationers,  32;  Anglo-Chineso  schools,  3;  pui)ils,  246; 
foreign  teachers,  6;  native  teachers,  10;  receipts  from 
pupils,  $1,480;  boys'  boarding-school,  1;  pupils,  47; 
boys'  day-schools,  6;  pupils,  66;  girls'  boarding-schools, 
3;  pupils,  102;  girls'  day-schools,  6;  pupils,  86;  theo- 
logical pupils  in  Buffington  Seminary,  5;  Sunday- 
schools,  17;  pupils,  479;  ordained  preachers,  3;  unor- 
dained  preachers,  9;  colporters  and  helpers,  5;  Bible- 
women,  3;  church -buildings,  8;  sittings,  1,350;  value, 
$11,300;  rented  chapels,  16;  sittings,  1,025;  average  at- 
tendance, 90;  male  hospital,  1;  value,  $10,000;  in  pa- 
tients, 52,  out  patients,  7,751 ;  subscription  to  hospital, 
$1,487.78;  receipts  from  patients,  $680;  total  hospital 
receipts,  $2,167.83;  adult  baptisms,  30;  infant  baptisms, 
7;  deaths,  2;  medical  students,  6;  books  published 
(copies),  1,000 ;  books  and  periodicals  distributed,  4,318 ; 
contributions  of  foreign  missionaries  and  native  Church, 
$441.99;  total  value  of  Mission  property,  Parent  Board, 
$96,800 ;  Woman's  Board  of  Missions,  $26,200. 

Few  questions  in  mission  fields  require  the 
exercise  of  more  patience  and  v/isdom  than 
the  salary  of  the  native  preachers.  This 
question  came  up  for  discussion  at  this  an- 
nual meeting.  While  the  missionaries  realize 
that  the  co-operation  of  the  native  preachers 
is  essential  to  the  evangelization  of  China, 
they  were  conscious  that  the  oifer  of  salaries 
that  were  in  excess  of  those  paid  in  native 

230      Hand  Book  of  MetJwdist  Missions. 

business  circles  might  present  a  temptation 
to  men  who  were  seeking  the  salaries  and  not 
the  souls  of  their  countrymen.  These  issues 
were  kindly  but  firmly  met  at  this  annual 

The  report  for  1884  shows: 

Parent  Board,  male  missionaries,  10;  female,  1; 
Woman's  Board,  missionaries,  7;  communicants,  158; 
probationers,  32 ;  ordained  native  preachers,  3 ;  unor- 
dained,  9;  colporters  and  helpers,  5;  Bible- women,  3; 
Anglo-Chine?^e  schools,  3;  pupils,  246;  boys'  boarding- 
school,  1;  pupils,  47;  boys'  day-schools,  0;  pupils,  CO; 
girls' boarding-schools,  3;  pupils,  102;  girls' day-schools, 
6;  pupils,  86;  hospital,  1. 

The  report  for  1885  furnishes  the  following: 

Missionaries  of  Parent  Board,  male,  12  (additions, 
Rev.  W.  B.  Bonnell  and  Rev.  O.  A.  Dukes,  M.D.) ;  fe- 
male, 1;  Woman's  Board  missionaries,  9 ;  ordained  na- 
tive preachers,  3;  unordained,  6 ;  colporters  and  helpers, 
3;  Bible-women,  3;  communicants,  163;  probationers, 
56;  Anglo-Chinese  schools,  2;  pupils,  269. 

The  report  for  1886  gives  the  following: 
Missionaries  of  Parent  Board  (Rev.  O.  G.  Mingledorf, 
owing  to  ill  health,  returned),  11 ;  Woman's  Board,  10; 
ordained  native  preachers,  3;  unordained,  6,  commu- 
nicants, 141;  probationers,  35;  Anglo-Chinese  schools, 
2;  pupils,  195;  boys'  boarding-school,  1;  pupils,  53; 
boys'  day-schools,  5 ;  pupils,  53 ;  girls'  boarding-schools, 
3;  pupils,  99;  girls'  day-schools,  6 ;  pupils,  107;  Sunday- 
schools,  7;  pupils,  413;  male  hospital,  in  patients,  217; 
out  patients,  11,980. 

Missions  of  the  M.  A'.  C,  S.         .  2?>1 

During  this  year  Rev.  O.  G.  Mingledorf, 
owing  to  ill  health,  and  Rev.  W.  AV.  Roy  all 
and  wife,  owing  to  the  sickness  of  their  child, 
returned  to  the  United  States.  Drs.  J.  W. 
Lambuth,  W.  R.  Lambuth,  and  O.  A.  Dukes 
were  transferred  by  Bishop  McTyeire  to  Japan, 
and  began  their  successful  work  in  that  field. 

The  report  for  1887  furnishes  the  following: 

Foreign  missionaries,  Parent  Board,  7;  Woman's 
Board,  9;  stations  where  missionaries  reside,  3;  out 
stations,  8;  ordained  native  preachers,  3;  unordained, 
6;  colporters,  1;  Bible- women,  2;  communicants,  146; 
baptisms,  11;  probationers,  55;  Anglo-Chinese  schools, 
2;  pupils,  106;  boys'  boarding-school,  1;  pupils,  36;  boys' 
day-schools,  9;  pupils,  199;  girls'  boarding-schools,  3; 
pupils,  107;  girls'  day-schools,  11;  pupils,  205;  Sunday- 
schools,  9;  teachers,  61;  scholars,  576. 

This  year  the  Board  sent  Rev.  W.  B.  Burke 
to  re-enforce  our  Mission. 

The  report  for  1888  furnishes  the  following: 

Missionaries,  7;  local  preachers,  native,  9;  members, 
foreign,  18;  native,  198;  total,  225;  infants  baptized,  5; 
adults  baptized,  40;  Sunday-schools,  10;  teachers,  19; 
scholars,  653.  Schools :  Anglo-Chinese  College :  Foreign 
teachers,  3 ;  native  teachers,  3 ;  pupils,  107.  Buffington 
Institute:  Foreign  teachers,  2;  native  teachers,  4;  pu- 
pils, 72;  day-schools,  9;  native  teachers,  9;  pupils,  114. 

In  1888  Rev.  M.  B.  Hill  and  Rev.  J.  L. 
Hendry  reached  the  Mission,  and  Rev.  H.  L. 
Gray  joined  them  in  1889. 

232      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Misswns. 

The  report  for  1889  gives  the  following 
figures : 

Missionaries  of  the  Parent  Board,  including  wives, 
18;  of  the  Woman's  Board,  14;  stations,  6;  sub- 
stations, 7;  native  membership,  312;  local  preachers, 
12;  probationers,  156;  infants  baptized,  8;  adults  bap- 
tized, 53;  ordained  preachers  (native),  4;  unordained, 
10;  colporters  and  helpers,  5.  Anglo-Chinese  schools, 
3;  pupils,  205;  boys'  boarding-school,  1;  pupils,  78; 
girls'  boarding-schools,  3;  pupils,  63;  day-schools,  31; 
pupils,  579;  foreign  teachers,  14;  native  teachers  45; 
Sunday-schools,  20;  teachers,  72;  pupils,  666;  hospitals, 
2;  patients,  10,427. 

The  following  list  gives  the  names  of  our 
missionaries  in  China,  with  the  date  of  their 
arrival  in  the  field: 

Y.  J.  Allen  (married),  1860;  A.  P.  Parker  (married), 
1876;  C.  F.  Reid  (married),  1880;  G.  R.  Loehr,  1881 ;  D. 
L.Anderson  (married),  1883;  W.  H.  Park  (married), 
1883 ;  W.  B.  Bonnell  (married),  1885 ;  W.  B.  Burke 
(married),  1887 ;  M.  B.  Hill  (married),  1888;  J.  L.  Hen- 
dry (married),  1888  H.  L.  Gray  (single),  1889;  B.  D. 
Lucas  (single),  1890;  O.  E.  Brown  (married),  1890;  T. 
A.  Hearn  (married),  1890;  Langhorne  Leitch  (single), 
1890 ;  R.  M.  Campbell  (single),  1890. 

The  following  report  for  1890  indicates  the 
condition  of  the  Mission  at  that  date: 

Male  missionaries,  16;  missionaries'  wives,  12;  local 
preachers,  6 ;  native  members,  345 ;  foreign  members,  25 ; 
adults  baptized,  33;  infants  baptized,  9 ;  number  of  Sun- 
day-schools, 72;  number  of  Sunday-school  scholars,  742. 


MISSIONS  OF  THE  M.  E.  C,  S. 

Mexican  Mission. 
The  conversion  of  Alejo  Hernandez  has 
been  styled  the  beginning  of  our  Mexican 
Mission.  He  was  born  in  the  State  of  Aguas 
Calientes.  His  father,  who  was  wealthy,  de- 
signed him  for  the  priesthood.  He  imbibed 
infidel  sentiments  while  in  college,  and  to 
avoid  becoming  a  priest  enlisted  in  the  army 
against  Maximilian.  He  was  taken  prisoner, 
endnred  much  suffering,  and  after  many  mis- 
fortunes found  himself  on  the  Rio  Grande. 
While  here  a  book  entitled  "Evenings  with 
the  Eomanists,"  fell  into  his  hands.  He  read 
it,  expecting  to  be  confirmed  in  his  infidelity. 
Its  quotations  from  the  Bible  led  him  to 
secure  a  copy  and  examine  it  for  himself.  Its 
divine  truths  came  to  him  as  a  revelation. 
He  saw  that,  while  Rome  was  corrupt,  in- 
fidelity was  spiritual  death,  and  that  life 
could  be  found  only  by  faith  in  Jesus  Christ. 
He  visited  Brownsville  to  determine  for  him- 
self the  claims   of    Protestantism.     He   was 


234      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Ml 


deeply  impressed  with  the  earnestness  and 
fervor  of  the  Protestant  congregation.  He 
said:  "I  felt  that  God's  spirit  was  there;  and 
though  I  could  not  understand  a  word  that 
was  said,  I  felt  my  heart  strangely  warmed. 
Never  did  I  hear  an  organ  play  so  sweetly; 
never  did  human  voices  sound  so  lovely  to 
me;  never  did  people  look  so  beautiful  as  on 
that  occasion.  I  went  away  weeping  for  joy." 
He  returned  to  Mexico  and  began  to  proclaim 
the  Saviour  he  had  found.  Being  bitterly 
persecuted,  an  American  friend  advised  him 
to  go  to  Texas  and  unite  with  some  Church, 
that  he  might  work  under  its  authority  and 
support.  On  reaching  Corpus  Christi  he  met 
a  hearty  welcome  from  the  pastor  and  a 
noble-hearted  layman,  was  admitted  into  our 
Church,  and  in  due  time  licensed  to  preach. 
He  spent  some  time  preaching  on  the  Medina 
River,  making  his  home  with  Rev.  J.  W.  Devie- 
biss,  presiding  elder  of  Corpus  Christi  Dis- 
trict. In  1871  he  was  received  on  trial  in  the 
West  Texas  Conference,  and  ordained  deacon 
by  Bishop  Marvin,  who  appointed  him  to  the 
Laredo  Mexican  Mission.  We  find  in  the  re- 
port of  the  Secretary  of  the  West  Texas  Con- 
ference the  following  account  of  his  work 
during  the  year  1872. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C.^  S,  285 

The  Mexican  Mission,  established  at  the  last  session 
of  your  Conference,  was  served  by  the  Rev.  Alejo  Her- 
nandez, a  man  who  was  led  by  the  good  providence 
and  Spirit  of  God  from  Romish  superstition,  through 
mazes  of  dark  distress  and  doubt  and  infidelity,  into  the 
marvelous  light  and  liberty  of  the  children  of  God. 
This  man  has  been  operating  along  the  border,  and  in 
his  own  country,  with  some  degree  of  success.  A  few 
of  his  fellow-countrymen  have  heard  and  heeded  his 
words,  and  some  of  them  have  been  converted  to  God. 
And  now  may  be  seen  the  unusual  spectacle  of  a  native 
Mexican,  rescued  from  superstition  and  vice,  sitting  in 
his  own  house,  reading  the  divine  word,  singing  the 
songs  of  Zion,  and  lifting  up  heart  and  voice  in  earnest, 
fervent  prayer.  Not  many  have  yet  been  swayed  by 
the  scepter  of  righteousness,  because  not  many  have 
yet  been  reached,  but  the  door  is  opening  and  the  dark 
places  are  being  gilded  with  light.  Brother  Hernandez 
has  been  subjected  during  the  year  to  the  dire  necessities 
of  poverty,  to  the  persecutions  of  superstitious  igno- 
rance and  bigoted  power,  and  to  the  no  less  potent  in- 
fluences of  flattery  and  persuasion  from  those  who  see  no 
good  only  as  it  associates  with  themselves.  But  out  of 
all  the  Lord  hath  brought  him  by  his  power,  and  we 
are  glad  to  think  that  our  brother  is  better  prepared 
to-day  for  the  great  work  of  God  than  ever  before. 
May  the  great  Head  of  the  Church  ever  have  him  in 
holy  keeping!  and  may  a  nation  in  darkness  now  see 
great  light,  and  flock  to  Christ  as  doves  to  their  win- 

In  1872  Bishop  Keener  appointed  liim  to 
Corpus  Christi  Mission.     Owing  to  the  ill- 

236      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ness  of  his  family  he  was  unable  to  reach  his 
charge  until  May,  1873. 

Central  Mexican  Mission. 

Early  in  1873  Bishop  Keener  visited  the 
City  of  Mexico  and  laid  the  foundations  of 
our  Central  Mexican  Mission.  After  a  care- 
ful survey  of  the  field  he  was  convinced  that 
the  way  was  open  for  the  vigorous  prosecu- 
tion of  mission  v/ork.  He  succeeded  in  pur- 
chasing property  in  the  heart  of  the  city  near 
tlie  College  of  Mines.  The  wisdom  of  the 
choice  is  manifest  in  the  fact  that  it  is  to-day 
a  most  eligible  location,  meeting  the  demands 
of  our  work  in  that  great  city. 

Having  been  favorably  impressed  with  Her- 
nandez, Bishop  Keener  decided  to  remove 
him  from  Corpus  Christi  to  the  City  of  Mexi- 
co. He  reported  promptly  to  his  post;  but  in 
the  course  of  the  year  was  stricken  down 
v/ith  paralysis.  He  greatly  desired  to  die 
among  his  brethren  in  Corpus  Christi.  His 
wish  was  gratified,  and  on  September  27,  1875, 
he  passed  peacefully  to  his  final  rest. 

Eev.  J.  T.  Daves  was  appointed  by  Bishop 
Keener  Superintendent  of  the  Mission  in 
1873.  He  entered  vigorously  on  his  work. 
In  February,  1874,  Bishop  Keener  revisited 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  C,  S.        .   237 

Mexico,  and  was  greatly  encouraged  by  the 
advance  Protestantism  had  made  in  twelve 
months.  He  found  Brother  Daves  planning 
wisely  as  to  the  Mission,  and  working  dili- 
gently to  acquire  the  Spanish  language.  The 
bishop  preached  in  our  San  Andres  church, 
and  ordained  Hernandez  to  the  office  of  elder. 
In  the  congregation  was  the  United  States 
Minister  and  his  lady,  and  a  goodly  company 
of  English,  American,  and  Spanish  Protest- 
ants. The  bishop  was  impressed  with  the  im- 
portance of  having  a  due  proportion  of  Amer- 
ican missionaries  who  were  conversant  with 
the  Mexican  language  to  work  with  the  native 
preachers.  They  would  be  mutual  aids  not 
only  in  evangelical  work,  but  in  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  Church,  the  training  of  preachers, 
and  the  proper  discipline  of  the  members. 
In  view  of  these  facts  he  expressed  the  hope 
that  college  students  would  turn  their  atten- 
tion to  the  study  of  the  Castilian  tongue,  and 
that  colleges  would  furnish  proper  facilities 
to  all  who  proposed  to  enter  this  portion  of 
the  mission  field.  We  commend  these  sug- 
gestions of  the  bishop  especially  to  those  in 
charge  of  our  institutions  of  learning.  French 
and  German  may  grade  higher  than  the  Span- 
ish, but  the  pathway  for  the  gospel  has  been 

238      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  M 


opened  among  the  Spanish-spealdng  popula- 
tions of  MexicOj  Central  and  South  America, 
and  our  Church  schools  have  a  noble  oppor- 
tunity to  advance  the  cause  of  evangelical 
Christianity  by  equipping  young  men  for 
mission  work  in  this  large  and  interesting 

The  unfinished  condition  of  our  San  Andres 
chapel  was  a  great  hinderance  to  the  work; 
and  the  bishop,  while  in  the  city,  provided 
for  its  completion.  Brother  Daves  pressed  the 
work  industriously,  and  by  August  22,  1885, 
it  was  ready  for  dedication.  Upward  of  400 
were  present  at  the  services.  In  November 
Brother  Daves  reported  sixty  members.  The 
two  native  preachers,  Sostenes  Juarez  and 
Jose  Elias  Mota,  proved  to  be  active  and 
earnest  workers.  They  were  diligeut  in  study- 
ing the  Bible  and  our  Discipline,  that  they 
might  be  qualified  to  preach  to  the  people 
and  train  the  Church.  Brother  Daves  held  a 
daily  conference  with  them  for  Bible  reading 
and  prayer.  He  also  organized  a  weekly 
Bible  class  of  young  men  at  his  house,  which 
soon  numbered  twenty  members.  The  day- 
school  for  boys  and  another  for  girls  had  each 
an  attendance  of  about  thirty.  The  Church 
numbered  sixty  members.     At  the  close  of  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  C,  S,  23d 

year  Brother  Daves  felt  constrained  to  return 
to  the  home  field,  greatly  to  the  regret  of  the 
native  preachers  and  helpers. 

Sostenes  Juarez,  one  of  our  first  native 
preachers,  was  the  first  man  who  held  Protest- 
ant service  in  Mexico,  using  on  this  occasion  a 
French  Bible  brought  into  the  country  by  a 
Catholic  priest  in  the  army  of  Maximilian. 
AVith  others,  he  had  lost  faith  in  the  Catholic 
Church,  and  realized  that  something  besides 
revolutions  was  needed  for  the  redemption  of 
Mexico.  In  1865  a  band  of  seven  met  in  a  room 
in  a  house  on  the  Calle  San  Jose  Heal,  and  or- 
ganized the  first  Protestant  Church  in  Mexi- 
co. It  v/as  called  the  "Society  of  Christian 
Friends."  They  adopted  a  Constitution  set- 
ting forth  their  faith.  Juarez  was  accepted 
as  their  preacher.  The  owner  of  the  house 
furnished  them  a  room  for  their  services,  and 
here  for  five  years  he  preached  to  a  large  con- 
gregation every  Sunday,  holding  prayer-meet- 
ing during  the  week.  The  writer,  in  company 
with  this  venerable  apostle  of  Protestant 
Christianity  in  Mexico,  visited  this  "upper 
room  "  memorable  in  the  religious  history  of 
the  Mexican  people.  The  eyes  of  the  old 
veteran  kindled  as  he  told  of  the  days  when 
he  and  that  little  company  came  from  under 

240      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions, 

the  thraldom  of  Eome  and  proclaimed  a 
Saviour  ready  without  priestly  intervention  to 
hear  and  answer  the  penitent's  prayer.  Later 
Juarez  removed  from  the  house  in  San  Jose 
Real  to  another  near  by  at  Belle  Mintas,  where 
he  was  preaching  when  Bishop  Keener  first 
visited  the  City  of  Mexico,  in  1873.  At  first 
he  regarded  the  ohispo  (bishop)  with  doubt, 
as  he  associated  that  title  with  the  corruptions 
of  Rome;  but  he  soon  learned  the  difference 
between  Methodism  and  Catholicism.  He 
entered  our  work,  and  to  his  last  illness  re- 
mained on  the  effective  list  as  a  native  preach- 
er. He  died  May  25,  1891,  with  his  harness 
on.  His  Bible  and  the  small  desk  he  used  in 
the  days  when  he  was  the  only  Protestant 
preacher  in  Mexico  are  in  the  Mission  Rooms 
in  Nashville. 

Bisiiop  Keener  again  visited  the  City  of 
Mexico  in  February,  1876.  We  give  an  ex- 
tract from  his  report. 

Directly  upon  my  arrival,  after  night,  I  went  round 
to  see  our  church.  AVheii  I  last  saw  the  spot,  the  out- 
side of  the  "capilla"  looked  like  a  huge  Catholic 
dromedary  waiting  to  he  unloaded;  now  all  the  lines 
were  straight  and  harmonious  as  the  temple  restored. 
The  Mexican  preachers,  by  the  by,  call  it  the  "  Templo 
Evangel ico."  It  was  beautifully  lighted  up  with  gas, 
and  service  was  going  on.    I  could  not  but  call  to 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  211 

mind  how  heavy  my  heart  was  three  years  ago,  just 
before  the  purchase  of  this  spot— how  impossible  it 
seemed  to  do  any  thing  with  these  "Mafiana"  people; 
and  I  felt  a  thrill  of  gratitude  and  prayer  shoot  through 
my  frame  when  walking  forward  to  the  pulpit.  Juarez 
and  Mota  were  both  there,  and  the  congregation  just 
about  to  sing.  The  altar  and  the  front  aisle  were  cov- 
ered with  a  bright-red  carpet,  and,  better  than  all,  there 
was  a  goodly  congregation  present— many  of  them 
cleanly  dressed  and  intelligent  persons.  The  singing 
was  better  than  any  I  had  ever  heard  in  any  of  our 
Mexican  Pi-otestant  Churches  here.  While  the  preach- 
er preached  in  Spanish  I  had  full  time  to  take  in  the 
height  and  color  of  the  walls,  the  frescoing,  the  width, 
the  length,  and  sittings  of  this  really  beautiful  room. 
Of  course  there  was  a  hearty  welcome.  Spaniards  are 
beyond  all  others  in  the  warmth  of  their  salutation 
and  the  prolonged  ceremony  of  their  a  Bios!  But  be- 
yond this  was,  evidently,  the  true  fervor  of  Christian 

That  "  Hermano  Daves  "  had  not  returned  with  me 
was  a  matter  of  profound  regret  to  them.  Indeed,  this 
is  universal.  He  had  made  a  fine  impression  with  all 
classes,  and  has  made  the  Mctodista  del  Sur  as  promis- 
ing as  any  other  Protestant  Chui-ch  in  the  city.  He 
was  attracting  to  himself  young  men  of  influence,  and 
just  getting  a  serviceable  knowledge  of  the  Spanish. 

The  next  morning  I  visited  our  girls'  school,  and 
found  a  very  interesting  body  of  girls,  and  some  young 
ladies,  refined,  quiet,  and  pleasant  in  their  expression, 
and  also  a  room  of  little  girls,  the  major  partof  them  from 
poor  families.  The  boys'  school  is  not  so  large,  nor  any 
of  them  so  well-grown  as  in  the  other.  We  have  two  good 
teachers,  the  gentleman  a  comjietent  teacher  of  music. 

242      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

On  Tuesday  morning  our  preachers  brought  nie 
three  very  good-looking  young  men— two  of  them 
twenty  years  of  age,  one  sixteen — sons  of  Protestants, 
who  were  ready  and  anxious  to  go  to  tlie  United  States 
for  the  purpose  of  entering  our  colleges.  One  of  them 
composes  music  well,  and  is  the  son  of  our  organist; 
the  other  two  are  going  to  the  schools  of  Mexico. 
They  are  represented  as  piously  inclined  youths.  Two 
of  them  actually  started  for  the  United  States,  and  got 
as  far  as  Vera  Cruz  on  their  way  to  me  at  New  Orleans. 
They  obtained  from  President  Lerdo  a  pass  on  the  rail- 
road, but  they  could  not  induce  the  steamer  to  take  them, 
and  returned.  Alas!  nothing  is  wanted  but  money  to 
control  this  hopeful  material  which  the  providence  of 
God  places  within  reach. 

In  the  absence  of  a  Superintendent  Juarez 
and  Mota  held  their  ground.  They  reported 
70  members,  30  children  in  the  Sunday-school, 
and  65  in  the  day-school.  There  had  been 
some^olitical  disturbances  in  Mexico  during 
the  year;  but  Bishop  Keener,  who  has  in- 
formed himself  thoroughly  respecting  the 
affairs  of  the  country,  assured  the  Board  that 
"there  is  no  difficulty  in  our  occupying  any 
place  in  the  States  of  Mexico,  Hidalgo, 
Morelos,  Guanajuato,  Tuxpan,  and  Tampico.' 

The  appointment  of  Kev.  W.  M.  Patterson 
as  Superintendent  of  the  "  Mexico  City  Mis- 
sion "  marked  a  new  era  in  its  movements. 
Brother  Daves  had  planted  our  Mission  firmly 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  .243 

in  the  capital  of  the  republic;  and  Dr.  Pat- 
terson, finding  the  work  well  intrenched,  be^ 
gan  to  push  his  lines  out  in  all  directions  from 
that  important  center.  He  began  his  work 
February  7,  1878.  March  18,  he  wrote  that 
he  had  started  out  the  missionaries,  and  had 
made  a  trip  himself.  Escolar  attended  to 
the  Church  in  the  city;  Juarez  was  sent  to 
Leon;  Mota,  to  Cuernavaca;  while  the  Superin- 
tendent visited  Toluca,  the  capital  of  the  City 
of  Mexico.  His  object  was  "to  lay  out,  as 
soon  as  possible,  as  much  work  as  can  be  de- 
veloped  during  the  year.  By  this  plan  we 
can  take  choice  of  the  places  now  open,  get 
new  points  from  which  to  radiate  and  work 
to  better  advantage  hereafter." 

In  1879  Juarez  and  Cuevas  at  Leon  report- 
ed forty  members.  This  city  was  under  the 
control  of  a  bishop  noted  for  his  intolerance, 
and  the  people  were  under  his  influence;  but 
the  public  officers  favored  religious  freedom, 
and  with  their  soldiers  protected  the  Protest- 
ant congregation.  The  preachers  visited  the 
surrounding  towns,  finding  in  several  the  way 
open  for  regular  work  as  soon  as  the  preach- 
ers could  be  supplied.  At  Toluca  a  Church 
with  17  members  was  reported,  and  a  school 
with  40  pupils.     A  dozen  towns  rn  the  vicinity 

244      Uand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

of  Toluca  were  open  to  missionary  labor. 
Angaba  reported  40  members  and  a  good 
school.  Good  congregations  were  found  at 
Cuernavaca  and  Cuatla.  An  earnest  call  was 
made  for  means  with  which  to  erect  churches 
at  all  these  points.  In  the  entire  Mission  12 
native  preachers,  eight  teachers,  and  268  mem- 
bers were  reported. 

The  expansion  of  the  work  will  appear  from 
the  following  figures,  reported  by  the  Superin- 
tendent March  31,  1880:  Stations,  30;  native 
preachers,  14;  teachers,  10;  day-schools,  8;' 
night-schools,  3;  school  for  young  preachers, 
1;  Sunday-schools,  15;  members,  531.  The 
work  was  distributed  over  a  large  territory, 
much  of  which  could  be  reached  only  by  pri- 
vate conveyance,  and  often  through  regions 
bitterly  hostile  to  Protestantism.  During  the 
latter  part  of  the  year,  while  making  a  round 
of  the  work,  the  missionary  was  assaulted 
"by  highwaymen  or  fanatical  Eomanists,"  he 
could  not  determine  which,  and  was  so  severely 
wounded  that  he  was  disabled  from  work  for 
some  time.  But  the  work  went  on.  A  paper 
styled  El  Evaugelista  Mexicana  was  com- 
menced, and  soon  sent  out  1,500  copies,  one- 
half  going  to  the  Border  Mission. 

In  1881  the  Mission  was  re-enforced  by  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  245 

arrival  of  Rev.  Robert  W.  MacDonell  and 
Miss  Callie  Hallaran.  The  latter  was  sup- 
ported by  the  ladies  of  New  Orleans,  and 
rendered  most  valuable  service  in  the  girls' 
school  in  the  City  of  Mexico.  The  statistics 
show  an  advance  in  every  department  of  mis- 
sion work  this  year.  They  are  as  follows: 
Missionaries,  2;  native  preachers,  34;  foreign 
teacher,  1;  native  teachers,  22;  colporters,  3; 
members,  710;  Sunday-schools,  34;  scholars, 
740;  day-schools,  26;  scholars,  600.  The  work 
which  in  1878  was  confined  to  the  city  had  ex- 
tended to  the  State  of  Mexico,  Morelos,  Vera 
Cruz,  Hidalgo,  Puebla,  Oaxaca,  Michoacan, 
Guanajuato,  and  Colima. 

The  report  for  1882  contains  but  few  fig- 
ures, but  these  indicate  remarkable  growth: 
Native  preachers,  34;  members,  1,150.  Dur- 
ing the  year.  Revs.  J.  W.  Grimes  and  R.  N. 
Freeman  joined  the  mission  force.  An  inter- 
esting account  of  a  District  Conference  in  the 
city  of  Cuernavaca  showed  how  admirably  our 
Methodist  economy  is  adapted  to  the  wants  of 
the  mission  field.  Rev.  D.  W.  Carter  reached 
Mexico  December  21,  1882,  and  Rev.  James 
Norwood  January  5, 1883.  Brother  Norwood, 
having  been  for  several  years  in  the  Border 
Mission,  entered  at  once  on  his  work  in  the 

246      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

city  of  Toluca.  Brother  Grimes,  after  devot- 
ing a  year  to  the  study  of  the  language,  was 
assigned  to  the  San  Luis  Potosi  District. 
Rev.  R.  N.  Freeman  had  charge  of  the  En- 
glish congregation  in  the  city  of  Mexico. 
These  additions  to  the  mission  force  added 
greatly  to  its  efficiency.  The  girls'  school  in 
the  city  of  Mexico,  under  the  charge  of  Miss 
Hallaran,  numbered  sixty -two  pupils.  Mrs. 
Norwood  superintended  a  girls'  school  at  To- 
luca, while  Mrs.  Grimes  had  charge  of  an- 
other at  San  Luis  Potosi. 

Early  in  1884  Rev.  R.  N.  Freeman  was  called 
from  the  field  to  his  reward.  He  had  just  re- 
turned from  the  United  States,  where  he  had 
been  united  in  marriage  with  Miss  Lucy  Bar- 
ton, when  he  was  stricken  down  with  small- 
pox, and  died  January  28.  A  short  time  before 
he  died,  speaking  of  Missions,  he  exclaimed: 
"Mission  work  a  failure!  Never.  It  is  the 
work  of  God  sealed  with  the  blood  of  Christ, 
and  must  succeed."  Brother  Freeman  was 
buried  in  the  American  cemetery,  near  the  city 
of  Mexico. 

During  this  year,  Rev.  D.  F.  Watkins,  for- 
merly of  the  American  Board,  but  for  some 
time  an  independent  missionary,  united  with 
our  Church,  and  was  put  in  charge   of  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  247 

Guadalajara  District,  which  had  been  the 
scene  of  heroic  labors.  The  Mission  was  now 
formed  into  six  districts,  in  charge  of  compe- 
tent presiding  elders.  The  report  gives  the 
following  items:  Weekly  preaching-places,  79; 
towns  visited,  178;  members,  1,614;  Sunday- 
schools,  46;  scholars,  1,207;  working  force, 
missionaries,  6;  native  preachers,  31. 

In  1885  E.  W.  MacDonell  was  transferred  to 
the  Border  Mission,  leaving  five  American 
missionaries  in  the  Central  Mission.  At  the 
annual  meeting  a  large  class  of  native  preach- 
ers was  examined  on  the  first  year's  course 
of  study.  Three  were  ordained  deacons  by 
Bishop  Keener.  Writing  of  this  annual  meet- 
ing, the  bishop  said:  "At  all  points  the  body 
is  full  orbed,  wanting  only  the  development 
of  experience."  The  Mission  now  reported 
five  missionaries,  two  native  elders,  six  native 
deacons,  and  thirty -five  native  licentiates, 
making  forty -eight  in  all.  The  training 
furnished  by  the  Quarterly  and  District  Con- 
ferences and  the  two  annual  meetings  was 
preparing  the  native  preachers  for  the  organ- 
ization of  the  Annual  Conference. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  Boys'  Indus- 
trial School  in  the  city  of  Mexico,  and  the 
schools  in  Ameca,  Eincon,  Cuernavaca,  and 

248      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Oajaca,  and  the  boys'  school  at  Toluca,  were 
supported  by  the  "  Eose-buds,"  under  the  di- 
rection of  "  Uncle  Larry,"  of  the  Virginia  Con- 
ference. The  Industrial  School  for  Girls,  un- 
der the  successful  direction  of  Miss  Hallaran, 
was  supported  by  the  Woman's  Missionary  So- 
ciety in  New  Orleans,  and  a  school  at  Joque- 
cingo  by  the  "  Busy  Bees,"  of  Gonzales,  Tex., 
under  the  direction  of  Mrs.  Belding,  of  that 
place.  These  "special"  efforts  at  this  period 
of  the  history  of  the  Mission  contributed 
largely  to  its  success.  A  school,  under  the 
charge  of  Mrs.  Watkins  at  Guadalajara  con- 
tained ninety-nine  girls  and  small  boys,  and 
had  excellent  success. 

The  Central  Mexican  Mission  was  organized 
into  an  Annual  Conference  February  25,  1886, 
by  Bishop  Keener. 

The  second  session  of  the  Central  Mexican 
Conference  was  held  in  Toluca,  beginning 
January  19,  1887,  Bishop  K.  K.  Hargrove  pre- 
siding. The  reports  furnished  the  following 
figures:  Local  preachers,  11;  members,  1,774; 
Sunday-schools,  47;  scholars,  1,009.  Dr. 
Watkins,  owing  to  ill  health,  was  granted  a 
superannuated  relation,  which  left  Eevs.  W. 
M.  Patterson,  D.  W.  Carter,  S.  W.  Grimes, 
and  Joseph   Norwood    on   the  effective   list. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  249 

The  work  included  six  districts,  which  em- 
braced nearly  all  of  Central  and  Southern 

During  this  visit,  Bishop  Hargrove  attend- 
ed the  Pueblo  District  Conference.  The  fol- 
lowing extract  from  his  published  account  of 
this  meeting  exhibits  the  conditions  under 
which  our  Mission  in  Mexico  was  carried  on 
at  that  period: 

This  gathering  of  so  many  Protestants,  and  that  in 
the  very  midst  of  their  sanctuaries,  filled  the  air  with 
threats.  Not  a  single  preacher  was  to  survive  the  first 
day.  Special  significance  was  given  to  their  demon- 
strations by  the  fact  that  only  a  few  miles  out,  several 
years  ago,  twenty-one  Protestants  were  massacred  in 
their  house  of  worship.  But,  as  often  happens,  the 
devil  overdid  the  business  in  this  case.  The  storm 
stirred  had  reached  the  ear  of  the  Jefe-politico  (the  chief 
ruler  in  the  civil  district),  and  put  him  on  his  guard. 

At  the  close  of  our  first  morning  session  a  gentlenan 
entered  and  was  introduced  to  jne,  who  proved  to  be 
the  colonel  commanding  the  local  soldiery,  and  who 
came,  he  said,  to  assure  me  that  ample  steps  had  been 
taken  for  our  protection.  The  very  silence  and  order 
on  the  street  where  we  met  was  suggestive  of  unusual 
precaution.  Every  night  a  guard  of  three  soldiers  oc- 
cupied the  room  in  which  Brother  Carter  and  I  slept, 
and  others  were  without.  Though  we  had  no  chains 
on  our  limbs,  and  were  not  exactly  in  prison,  the  cir- 
cumstances reminded  us  of  Peter  when  he  slept  be- 
tween two  soldiers.    The  Conference  passed  quietly, 

250      Tlayid  Booh  of  Method ist  Mi^^ion^. 

and  before  daylight  on  Monday  morning  we  took  the 
dihgence  under  escort  of  soldiers  to  the  liniit  of  the 
civil  district. 

At  the  opening  session  of  the  Conference  I  counted 
forty-five  persons  in  the  room,  all  Mexicans  except  the 
presiding  elder  and  myself,  and  mainly  members  of  the 
body.  After  that  session,  Friday  morning,  the  house 
was  crowded  with  quiet,  eager  listeners  to  the  close, 
some  of  whom  had  walked  twenty-five  miles  to  be 
present.  From  the  beginning  there  was  an  unusual 
sense  of  the  divine  presence,  and  the  interest  and  so- 
lemnity of  the  meeting  grew  till  the  close.  The  usual 
order  of  proceedings  was  observed,  though  greatly  mod- 
ified in  detail  by  the  different  conditions  under  which 
the  work  is  conducted. 

Preaching  was  had  at  11  o'clock  a.m.  and  7  o'clock 
P.M.  each  day.  By  every  token  the  gospel  was  a  wel- 
come message.  Unmistakable  interest  from  time  to 
time  was  depicted  on  the  faces  of  those  who  heard. 
More  than  once  I  saw  a  shudder  pass  over  a  man!s 
frame,  and  the  tears  steal  down  his  bronzed  face.  It 
came  over  me  almost  with  primitive  force  that  the  gos- 
pel is  "  good  tidings  of  great  joy,  which  shall  be  to  all 
people,"  as  I  tried  to  apen  the  treasures  of  the  Bible  to 
those  to  whom  it  had  so  long  been  not  only  a  sealed 
but  a  forbidden  book.  O  how  my  heart  yearned  to 
bring  the  message  still  nearer  to  them  by  clothing  it  in 
their  own  mother-tongue!  The  spiritual  forces  seemed 
to  burn  and  burden  me  as  I  would  pause  for  the  inter- 
preter. Several  united  with  the  Church,  and  a  number 
of  children  were  bai)tized.  Here  for  the  first  time  I  at- 
tempted to  use  the  Spanish  language  in  the  baptismal 

The  services  which  most  impressed  me  were  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  251 

love-feast  on  Sunday  afternoon  and  the  Lord's  Supper, 
which  closed  the  service  on  Sunday  nifjlit. 

Eev.  J.  M.  Weems,  D.D.,  of  the  Missinsippi 
Conference,  and  Rev.  G.  B.  Winton,  of  tlie 
Pacific  Conference,  were  appointed  to  the 
Central  Mexican  Mission  in  1888.  Dr.  AVeems 
Avas  assigned  to  work  in  Mexico,  where  he 
and  his  devoted  wife  served  the  mission  with 
great  efficiency  nntil  1891,  when  his  failing 
health  compelled  his  return  home. 

In  1888  Rev.  J.  Norwood  located  at  his  own 
request.  In  1889  the  Conference  met  in 
Guadalajara,  Bishop  Galloway  presiding. 
The  membership  reported  was  1,663.  The 
training  school  at  San  Luis  Potosi  reported 
20  pupils,  and  was  doing  thorough  work. 

In  1890  the  Conference  met  in  the  city  of 
Mexico,  Bishop  Haygood  in  the  chair.  The 
reports  were  encouraging.  There  were  now 
in  the  field  five  missionaries  and  their  waives. 
The  work  was  divided  into  six  districts,  with 
51  pastoral  charges.  Of  these,  31  were  filled 
by  native  preachers,  and  the  others  supplied 
by  local  preachers.  The  members  reported 
were  1,950,  with  over  2,000  additional  heai-ers. 
The  net  gain  in  membership  was  374.  There 
were  31  churches  and  8  parsonages,  valued  at 

252      Band  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Mexican  Border  Mission. 
When  Alejo  Hernandez  was  moved  to  the 
city  of  Mexico,  many  were  fearful  that  the 
work  among  the  Mexicans  in  the  Eio  Grande 
valley  would  be  arrested.  Not  so!  The  work 
was  of  God,  and  he  was  watching  over  its  in- 
terests. The  Mexicans  on  the  border  were 
ready  for  the  gospel.  They  were  weary  of  the 
follies  and  corruptions  of  Rome.  They  were 
in  contact  with  a  race  which  regarded  freedom 
of  conscience  as  one  of  the  most  sacred  rights 
of  man,  and  among  this  class  of  Mexicans  the 
power  of  the  priests  was  slowly  unlocking  its 
clasp.  Others  beside  Hernandez  were  begin- 
ning to  inquire  whether  there  was  not  a  better 
way  than  that  in  which  their  fathers  had  been 
led ;  and  when  under  the  light  of  the  word  and 
the  Holy  Spirit  they  were  pointed  from  the 
crucifix  to  Christ,  the  darkness  of  many  gen- 
erations began  to  disappear  and  they  gladly 
welcomed  the  light  of  the  open  Bible.  Very 
soon  the  results  of  the  brief  but  faithful  min- 
istry of  Hernandez  were  manifest.  He  had 
not  only  pointed  his  people  to  Christ,  but  he 
had  brought  them  in  contact  with  the  preach- 
ers of  the  West  Texas  Conference,  who,  though 
unable  to  preach  in  the  Mexican  language, 
earnestly    sought    to    instruct   those    ardent 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  253 

seekers  after  "the  truth  as  it  is  in  Jesus." 
The  leaven  was  in  the  measure  of  meal,  and 
silently  it  must  spread  until  the  whole  shall 
be  leavened.  While  Hernandez,  stricken  down 
by  sickness,  w^as  wearily  wending  his  way  to 
Corpus  Christi  that  he  might  die  with  his 
brethren  in  Christ,  God  was  raising  up  men 
who  would  take  up  his  fallen  mantle  and  carry 
on  the  work  he  had  opened  in  the  Rio  Grande 

At  the  West  Texas  Conference  held  in  De- 
cember, 1874,  three  Mexicans  presented  them- 
selves for  admission  on  trial.  Bishop  Keener, 
who  presided,  in  a  letter  to  the  New  Orleans 
Advocate,  thus  described  them: 

They  were  fine-looking  men— two  in  early  and  the 
other  in  mature  manhood— intelligent,  well-connected, 
and  well-educated.  Everybody  was  pleased  with  their 
proper  and  modest  demeanor.  They  had  come  togeth- 
er by  a  wagon  from  Corpus  Christi  and  San  Diego.  I 
suppose  the  Magi  would  have  traveled  the  same  way, 
only  in  their  country  the  spring  wagon  had  not  as  yet 
substituted  the  camel  and  dromedary.  These  men  had 
brought  with  them  a  very  precious  freight  in  honor  of 
the  King,  fully  as  much  so  as  the  gold,  incense,  and 
myrrh  of  the  East.  One  of  them  reported  a  member- 
ship of  sixty-two  converted  Mexicans,  and  another  of 
sixty-eight,  beside  some  nineteen  children  baptized; 
the  third,  Vidaurri,  had  not  as  yet  had  charge  of  a 
work.    When  we  consider  that  these  men  could  nei- 

254      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ther  speak  nor  understand  English,  and  knew  only 
their  native  Spanish,  they  might  be  regarded  rather  as 
missionaries  sent  to  us  than  as  the  fruit  of  any  messen- 
gers sent  by  us  to  them.  Have  they  not  come  as  the 
wise  men  came,  unlooked  for,  to  stir  up  the  very  heart 
of  Israel?  They  constitute  a  powerful  appeal  to  us  as 
a  Church  to  be  at  work,  lest  our  Lord  himself  come  and 
find  us  sleeping ;  to  bestir  ourselves,  and  send  forth  the 
light  of  that  powerful  and  glorious  system  of  heavenly 
truth  which  God  has  conferred  upon  us  for  the  benefit 
of  the  myriads,  on  this  continent  and  elsewhere,  who 
have  as  yet  no  just  thought  of  the  Spirit  of  the  power 
of  life  which  was  in  Jesus  Christ. 

A  movement  so  manifestly  the  work  of  the 
Holy  Spirit  called  for  unhesitating  action  on 
the  part  of  the  Church.  They  were  received 
on  trial,  elected  and  ordained  deacons  under 
the  missionary  provision  of  our  book  of  Dis- 
cipline, and  a  "  Mexican  Border  Mission  Dis- 
trict "  constituted,  with  the  following  appoint- 
ments: A.  H.  Sutherland,  presiding  elder; 
Corpus  Christi,  Donatio  Garcia;  San  Diego, 
Felipe  Cordova;  Laredo,  Fermin  Vidaurri; 
Brownsville,  to  be  s applied;  Bio  Grande  City, 
to  be  supplied;  Conception  and  Presanas,  to 
be  supplied.  Already  the  field  opened  was 
larger  than  the  force  the  Church  could  sup- 

Though  the  field  was  white,  it  required 
brave  hearts  and  an  ample  supply  of  faith  to 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.         .  255 

sustain  the  men  who  entered  it  in  the  name  of 
Christ.     The  "  Gringos  "  aud  the  "Greasers," 
as  the  Americans  and  Mexicans  in  that  day 
were  styled  on  the  border,  had  for  each  other 
but  little  love.     Kaids  made  by  bad  men  on 
both  sides  of  the  Kio  Grande  upon  the  ranches 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  deepened 
the  dislike  between  the  races  and  helped  to 
keep  the   border   in   a   ferment.      Desperate 
m-en  from  other  sections  songht  the  border, 
fancying   they  would    be   free   from   the   re- 
straints which  the  laws  of  their  native  lands 
imposed.     Few  men   in   those   days  traveled 
that    region    unattended   or   unarmed.      The 
dense  chaparrel  on  each  side   of    the   lonely 
roads  furnished  a  convenient  ambush,  and  no 
one  knew  when  he  would  be  confronted  with 
rifles  or  revolvers.     Under  these  conditions 
our   Border   Mission   was   established.      The 
missionaries  found  their  Bibles  better  safe- 
guards than  revolvers.     The  statement,  "  I  am 
a  preacher  of  the  gospel,"  commanded  more 
respect  than  a  passport  under  the  seal  of  ei- 
ther nation. 

The  reports  from  the  Border  District  for 
1875  were  full  of  encouragement.  The  lives 
of  the  converted  Mexicans  gave  evidence  of  a 
genuine  faith.     One  hundred  and  sixty-four 

256      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

members  were  reported,  with  4  Sunday-scliools 
and  136  scholars.  The  district  was  re -ar- 
ranged, with  five  appointments  and  ^\e  preach- 
ers. The  mission  at  Rio  Grande  City  was  of 
special  importance,  as  it  carried  the  gospel  to 
thousands  on  the  Mexican  side  of  the  river. 
Two  congregations  were  already  formed  In 
San  Antonio,  which  was  the  center  of  a  large 
Mexican  population. 

The  report  for  1876  gives  247  members,  8 
Sunday-schools,  and  185  scholars.  The  con- 
version of  the  Mexican  was  usually  preceded 
by  earnest  study  of  the  Bible.  It  furnished 
the  reasons  that  led  him  to  renounce  his  faith 
in  the  priests,  who  claimed  full  power  to  par- 
don sin  and  to  open  the  gates  of  heaven  to 
those  in  purgatorial  flames.  From  its  pages 
he  learned  that  God  alone  can  pardon  sin,  and 
that  pardon  free  and  full  could  be  found  by 
every  soul  that  came  to  God  with  sincere  re- 
pentance and  earnest  faith  in  Jesus  Christ. 
The  class  -  meeting  and  Sunday-school  were 
specially  suited  to  the  wants  of  these  sincere 
seekers  after  tbe  truth.  When  they  found 
Christ,  they  were  ready  to  give  a  reason  for 
tbe  faith  that  was  in  them.  Another  charac- 
teristic of  their  religion  was  their  desire  to 
impart  the  spiritual  gifts  they  had  attained  to 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.         .  257 

their  fellow-countrymen.  Sometimes  when 
converted  they  would  travel  many  miles  to  a 
village  or  ranch  where  their  relatives  lived  and 
seek  to  open  to  their  minds  the  light  that  had 
filled  their  own  souls  with  joy.  Soon  a  little 
group  would  be  gathered  around  them;  some 
bitterly  opposing,  others  listening  with  wonder 
to  their  story.  Then  their  Testament  would 
be  opened,  and  from  its  pages  they  would  seek 
to  explain  the  gospel  they  preached.  Under 
the  simple  story  of  the  cross  thus  told,  men 
and  women  were  led  to  a  knowledge  of  Christ, 
and  the  little  group  that  gathered  around  these 
earnest  teachers  would  grow  into  a  congrega- 
tion before  the  missionary  could  be  called  in 
to  baptize  the  converts  and  receive  them  into 
the  Church.  The  writer,  about  this  period  in 
the  history  of  the  Mission,  attended  a  session 
of  the  West  Texas  Conference,  and  heard 
Brother  Sutherland's  report  of  the  wonderful 
work  of  grace  among  the  Mexicans.  Among 
other  incidents,  he  told  the  following:  He  was 
on  his  way  to  Corpus  Cliristi  and  stopped  at 
noon  near  a  stream  of  water,  as  was  usual  in 
that  day,  to  rest  his  horse  and  eat  his  lunch. 
A  young  Mexican  rode  uj)  and  joined  him. 
Learning  that  Sutherland  could  speak  his  lan- 
guage, the  young  man  told  him  of  a  meeting 

258      Hand  Book  of  Mefliodist  Missions. 

lie  bad  attended  the  night  before  in  Corpus 
Christi.  The  singing  had  attracted  him  to 
the  door.  He  was  invited  in.  He  said  that 
they  called  it  a  class-meeting.  The  people 
were  talking  about  Jesus  and  the  pardon  of 
sin  and  the  joy  they  had  found  in  believing. 
Some  of  them  read  out  of  th^  Testament. 
Their  vrords  were  new  and  strange;  but  the 
people  seemed  happy,  and  their  singing  was 
beautiful.  He  asked  Brother  Sutherland  if  he 
knew  any  thing  about  these  people  and  their 
religion.  He  told  him  that  he  knew  a  great 
deal  about  them.  They  were  Methodists,  and 
soon  he  had  his  Testament  in  hand  and  was 
explaining  to  his  new  friend  the  wonderful 
story  of  salvation  through  Christ  alone,  that 
was  beginning  to  make  such  a  stir  among  the 
Mexicans.  They  talked  on  until  the  evening 
sun  reminded  the  missionary  that  he  had  an 
appointment  that  night  in  Corpus  Christi  and 
they  must  part.  The  young  Mexican  was 
anxious  for  a  Testament,  and  Brother  Suther- 
land gave  him  the  copy  out  of  which  he  had 
been  reading.  Learning  that  the  young  man 
was  going  to  visit  his  father's  family  near  San 
Antonio,  Brother  Sutherland  wrote  a  note  on 
a  page  of  his  memorandum  book,  and  direct- 
ing it  to  Eev.  H.  G.  Horton,  pastor  of  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  .  259 

American  cougregation  in  that  city,  he  told 
the  young  man  that  if  he  would  take  it  to  that 
man  he  could  learn  more  about  the  people 
who  had  held  that  meeting.  "And  now,"  said 
Brother  Sutherland  at  this  point  of  his  story, 
"  I  will  sit  down  and  let  Brother  Horton  tell 
the  rest."  Brother  Horton  rose  and  told  of  a 
young  Mexican  who  rode  up  to  his  house  one 
evening  and  handed  him  the  note.  It  told 
him  that  the  bearer  was  interested  on  the  sub- 
ject of  religion,  and  asked  him  to  introduce 
him  to  the  Mexican  preacher.  He  at  once 
conducted  him  to  the  preacher's  home.  The 
young  man,  during  his  days  of  travel,  had 
read  his  Testament.  His  interest  had  deep- 
ened as  he  read,  and  instead  of  going  directly 
home  he  had  come  to  San  Antonio  to  learn 
the  truth  of  the  things  he  had  heard.  He 
found  faithful  teachers.  He  remained  a  num- 
ber of  days,  devoting  all  his  time  to  the  study 
of  the  Bible,  conversation  with  his  new  friends, 
attendance  on  religious  services,  and  earnest 
prayer.  As  soon  as  he  fouud  Christ  as  his 
Saviour,  he  startinl  for  his  home  to  tell  his 
father  and  mother  and  brethren  the  way  of 
salvation  through  faith  in  Jesus  Christ.  Tlie 
story  did  not  end  tliere.  After  a  few  weeks 
the  young  man  returned  to  San  Antonio  and 

260      Hand  Book  of  MetJiodist  Missions, 

told  the  preacher  of  the  conversion  of  his  par- 
ents and  a  number  of  the  family  and  several 
others,  and  he  had  come  to  ask  him  to  come 
out  and  organize  them  into  a  Church.  And 
now  the  young  man  was  ready  to  go  out  with 
this  wonderful  message  to  his  people.  Such 
incidents  in  our  work,  both  in  the  Central  and 
Border  Missions,  demonstrate  the  presence 
and  power  of  the  Holy  Spirit  in  leading  this 
people  to  a  knowledge  of  the  truth  as  it  is  in 
Jesus  Christ. 

Erom  the  official  report  of  the  West  Texas 
Conference  for  1877  we  extract  the  following: 
"Mexican  work:  Number  hearing  the  word, 
2,650;  members,  430;  received  this  year,  144; 
adults  baptized,  178;  infants  baptized,  98; 
Sunday-schools,  13;  teachers,  19;  scholars, 
324."  Rev.  Joseph  Norwood's  name  appears 
this  year  in  the  report  of  the  Border  Mission 
District.  He  had  charge  of  the  Hidalgo 
Mexican  Mission.  The  following  incident, 
recorded  by  Brother  Gillett,  the  Secretary  of 
the  West  Texas  Conference  Board,  illustrates 
the  character  of  the  religion  of  our  Mexican 
converts.  An  intelligent  lady  of  another  de- 
nomination said  to  him:  "  I  had  a  company  of 
Mexicans  shearing  my  sheep,  and  they  had 
prayers  night  and  morning;  and  on  Sunday 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  '  261 

they  bad  seme  kind  of  a  meeting.  One  of 
their  number  talked  to-  them,  and  they  sung 
and  prayed  together.  They  prayed  beauti- 
fully— never  lacking  a  word."  To  those  who 
know  the  Mexicans  of  that  day  this  was  in- 
deed a  wonderful  change. 

The  work  was  now  being  pushed  across  the 
river  into  Mexico.  Brother  Paz,  after  much 
opposition,  opened  preaching  in  a  yard  near 
the  plaza  in  Laredo,  Mexico.  Work  was  also 
commenced  in  Camargo,  Villanuera,  and  Mier. 
At  these  points  the  missionaries  met  much 

In  1878  Brother  Sutherland  reported  that 
nearly  all  the  Mexicans  in  Texas,  and  many 
of  the  bordering  Mexican  States,  had  been 
brought  under  gospel  teaching.  "  There  were 
more  preaching-places  than  missions;  20  or- 
ganized societies,  with  others  in  formation; 
about  25  Sunday-schools,  with  over  500  schol- 
ars; more  than  600  members  of  the  Church, 
with  many  believers  and  probationers,  and 
congregations  everywhere  on  the  increase." 
Two  American  and  thirteen  native  preachers 
were  employed  in  the  border  work,  and  the 
Superintendent  called  for  three  additional 
foreign  missionaries.  Educational  work  was 
being  carried  forward  as  rapidly  as  the  means 

'262      Hand  Booh  of  Methodisf  Missions. 

at  command  would  allow.  Brother  Norwood 
and  his  wife  had  opened  a  school  at  Laredo 
which  was  doing  good  work.  The  wife  of  the 
native  preacher  at  San  Diego  had  a  school 
of  45  children.  The  Superintendent  wrote: 
"Very  few  children  remain  Protestants  long 
without  learning  to  read.  As  our  congrega- 
tions increase  in  ability  there  will  be  more 
and  better  supported  schools  among  them. 
Our  first  and  greatest  care  is  to  get  the  people 
converted,  and  then  the  educational  as  well 
as  every  other  feature  of  civilization  will  be 

From  the  annual  report  of  1880  we  learn 
that  in  addition  to  the  two  American  mis- 
sionaries there  were  thirteen  Mexican  preach- 
ers. They  preached  to  about  50  congrega- 
tions and  to  several  thousand  soals.  Great 
need  was  felt  of  a  training  school  for  preach- 
ers and  teachers.  The  assistance  rendered 
the  Mission  by  the  American  Bible  Society 
and  the  American  Tract  Society  in  furnishing 
them  publications  on  favorable  terms  was 
highly  appreciated  by  the  missionaries.  The 
members  were  faithful  in  attending  class  and 
prayer  meetings,  and  out  of  their  great  poverty 
were  willing  to  give  for  the  support  of  the 
gospel.     Brother    Sutherland    mentions    the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  .  268 

case  of  a  young  man,  Brother  Cisneros,  a  pri- 
vate member  who  had  gone  out  into  Mexico 
over  a  hundred  miles  from  the  border  and 
had  brought  back  from  a  town  ho  had  'visited 
fifty- one  names  of  candidates  for  baptism. 
The  report  gives  651  members  (of  these  169 
had  joined  during  the  year),  138  baptisms,  25 
Sunday-schools,  and  472  scholars. 

At  the  West  Texas  Conference  for  1880  the 
Mission  was  divided,  Brother  Sutherland  be- 
ing in  charge  of  the  upper  or  San  Antonio 
District,  and  Brother  Norwood  in  charge  of 
the^lower  or  San  Diego  District.  Eev.  Elias 
Kobertson,  of  theNorth-westTexas  Conference, 
was  added  to  the  Mission  force  and  stationed 
at  Laredo,  and  Kev.  J.  R.  Carter,  of  Georgia, 
was  sent  to  El  Paso.  Members  reported,  572; 
churches,  3;  parsonages,  2;  Sunday-schools, 
23;  scholars,  572. 

The  annual  report  of  1882  states  that  Rev. 
J.  Norwood  was  transferred  to  the  Central 
Mission,  while  Eev.  P.  C.  Bryce  was  added  to 
the  Mission  force  on  the  border,  and  placed 
at  Eagle  Pass.  This  gave  the  Central  Mis- 
sion four  American  missionaries.  Eev.  Jajnes 
Tafolla  was  placed  in  charge  of  one  of  the 
districts,  while  Brother  Sutherland  retained 
the  superintendency.    Of  the  eighteen  stations 

264      Hand  Booh  of  Metliodist  Missions. 

now  inchided  in  tlie  Mission,  four  were  wholly 
on  the  Mexican  side  of  the  Kio  Grande,  and 
five  others  were  part  in  Mexican  and  part  in 
Texan  territory.     The  Snperintendent  wrote: 

Our  future  progress  will  be  almost  entirely  in 
Mexico,  as  the  territory  on  this  .«ide  is  now  pretty  well 
occupied.  We  need  three  or  four  first-class  Americans 
in  addition  to  those  we  have.  At  Rio  Grande,  where 
we  lately  dedicated  a  new  and  elegant  church,  we  very 
much  need  an  American  preacher.  For  over  one  hun- 
dred miles  in  any  direction  there  is  not  one.  Rio 
Grande  is  a  town  of  twenty-five  hundred  inhabitants, 
and  yet  we  have  no  preacher  to  bring  the  Americans 
under  gospel  influences.  At  the  earliest  moment  I 
want  to  occupy  Saltillo,  capital  of  Coahuila,  and  Chi- 
huahua, capital  of  the  State  of  the  same  name.  To 
those  two  distant  places  in  Mexico  I  would  try  to  send 
with  the  Americans  some  of  our  most  trusty  natives.  I 
may  safely  say  that  there  are  fifty  places  where  as 
many  missionaries  could  be  advantageously  introduced 
in  the  four  States  of  Mexico  immediately  bordering 
Texas — ^Tamaulipas,  Nuevo  Leon,  Coahuila,  and  Chi- 
huahua. Besides,  I  am  very  anxious  to  extend  our 
operations  to  the  Pacific  Coast,  along  the  borders  of  the 
two  nations.  I  have  been  told  that  the  people  over 
there  are  ripe  for  the  gospel. 

The  Superintendent,  in  another  letter  to  the 
Board,  said: 

There  is  a  good  prospect  of  a  large  increase  in  the 
number  of  preachers.  A  good  many  are  making  appli- 
cation  for   license    to   preach.    Our  only   inquiry   is 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  •  265 

whether  they  are  truly  called  of  God  to  the  work ;  and 
this  ascertained,  we  jDut  them  to  study  and  to  work. 
AVith  all  our  carefulness,  some  enter  who  ought  not  to; 
or  they  fall  away,  and  have  to  be  turned  out.  The 
same  with  our  Church-membershii).  We  strive  to  let 
none  in  who  are  not  sincere  seekers  of  salvation. 

Eev.  S.  G.  Kilgore  appears  among  the  mis- 
sionaries in  the  border  work  in  1882.  His 
rapid  improvement  in  Spanish  enabled  him 
soon  to  preach  in  the  native  tongne.  The  Mis- 
sion now  reported  23  charges.  Of  these,  nine 
were  in  Texas,  four  occupied  territory  on  both 
sides  of  the  Eio  Grande,  and  ten  were  in  Mex- 
ico. The  work  had  been  opened  in  the  States 
of  Tamaulipas,  Nuevo  Leon,  Coahuila,  and 
Chihuahua.  *[t  extended  200  miles  beyond 
the  Kio  Grande.  The  native  membership 
numbered  943.  Eight  substantial  churches 
had  been  built.  Owing  to  lack  of  means,  and 
the  rapid  growth  of  evangelical  work,  the 
Board  had  been  able  to  do  but  little  in  estab- 
lishing schools.  The  two  schools  at  Laredo, 
especially  the  Seminary  under  the  charge  of 
the  Woman's  Board,  was  doing  effective  serv- 
ice. A  male  school  of  like  character  was 
greatly  needed  on  the  border. 

The  next  year  the  mission  was  extended  to 
two  important  points.  Eev.  John  F.  Cor- 
bin,  who  had  been  laboring  among  the  Ameri- 

266      Hand  Book  of  MetJtodist  Missions. 

cans  at  Laredo,  and  preparing  for  work  in 
Mexico,  was  sent  to  Saltillo.  His  wife,  Miss 
Annie  Williams,  who  had  been  in  charge  of 
one  of  the  girls'  schools  at  Laredo  before  her 
marriage,  opened  school  work  in  Saltillo. 
Sister  Corbin  has  rendered  heroic  service  in 
every  field  to  which  her  husband  has  been  ap- 
pointed. Rev.  J.  D.  Scoggins,  who  had  been 
transferred  from  the  North-west  Texas  Con- 
ference, opened  the  mission  in  Monterey. 
He  and  his  wife,  without  a  native  helper, 
entered  vigorously  on  the  acquisition  of  the 
language  and  work  among  the  Americans  in 
that  important  commercial  center. 

The  following  letter,  from  onewof  the  native 
preachers  to  Brother  Sutherland,  indicates 
the  trials  some  were  called  upon  to  undergo 
while  preaching  to  their  countrymen  the  truth 
as  it  is  in  Jesus. 

On  the  12th  instant  I  reached  AUende,  and  preached 
on  Saturday.  Sunday  on  concluding  the  evening  serv- 
ice, some  individuals  who  were  outside  at  the  window 
said  to  me  to  come  out,  among  other  insulting  words  to 
which  I  paid  no  attention.  But  on  Tuesday,  the  15th, 
while  on  the  road  to  Gijedo,  just  as  I  w^as  passing  the 
Chupaderas  wood,  two  bandits  assaulted  me,  one  from 
each  side  of  the  road,  obliging  me  to  get  down  from 
my  buggy.  Then  they  took  me  away  into  the  center 
of  the  wood,  and  said  to  me;  "Do  you  know  why  we 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.        -  2G7 

brought  yon  here?"  "I  am  ignorant  of  yonr  object," 
I  answered.  "Then  know  that  you  are  going  to  die! " 
"Why?"  I  asked.  They  said:  "We  will  teach  you 
how  to  censure  a  rehgion  so  holy  and  jDure."  Seeing, 
then,  that  the  last  moments  of  my  life  had  come,  I  said 
to  them :  "  Sirs,  you  do  well  to  be  zealous  for  your  re- 
ligion ;  biit  I  will  tell  you  the  truth,  the  religion  which 
you  defend  is  not  the  religion  of  God,  nor  of  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ.  The  religion  you  profess  is  the  religion 
of  the  devil,  of  antichrist,  for  you  give  testimony  that 
his  desires  you  do ;  for  this  is  not  tlie  will  of  God,  since 
the  children  of  God,  the  true  worshipers  of  Christ,  do 
not  rob,  nor  kill,  nor  assault ;  consequently  you  do  not 
the  will  of  God,  but  of  the  priests,  for  they  are  always 
thirsty  for  the  blood  of  those  who  believe  in  God  and 
love  Christ.  They  preach  and  tell  their  faithful  he 
who  speaks  to  a  Protestant  at  a  distance  of  twenty-five 
steps  is  excommunicated,  and  he  that  does  a  favor  to  a 
Protestant  is  already  ten  times  in  hell,  for  your  priest 
has  preached  these  things  in  all  this  district,  not  re- 
membering that  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  says:  'Bless 
your  enemies,  and  do  good  to  those  who  do  you  evil, 
and  pray  for  those  who  persecute  you  and  speak  evil 
of  you.'  "  As  I  said  this,  they  both  raised  their  voices 
and  ordered  me  to  stop  and  say  nothing  more.  They 
prepared  their  guns,  and  pointed  them  at  me.  1  said 
to  them :  "  Friends,  I  beseech  you  to  let  me  commend 
my  soul  to  the  Lord  whom  I  serve."  They  said :  "  Do 
it,  but  very  quickly;  for  very  soon  you  will  go  to  your 
God !  "  Hearing  these  words,  my  heart  was  filled  with 
joy  at  the  mention  of  the  place  where  my  soul  would 
go  after  breathing  my  last.  Then  kneeling  down,  and 
resting  against  the  trunk  of  a  tree,  I  said :  "  God  of  in- 
finite goodness,  full  of  mercy,  I  give  thee   humble 

268      Hmid  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

thanks  for  having  made  known  to  me  the  last  moments 
of  my  existence,  and  for  having  kept  me  faithful  to  the 
end  in  which  I  am  to  disappear  from  this  world  for  the 
sake  of  thy  divine  and  holy  word,  and  that  thou 
wouldst  be  pleased  to  receive  my  soul  into  thy  king- 
dom, in  the  name  of  thy  Son,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
for  into  thy  hands  I  commend  my  spirit.  And  I  be- 
seech thee,  O  blessed  heavenly  Father,  to  pardon  the 
sin  that  they  are  going  to  commit,  for  they  are  not  the 
guilty  ones.  They  do  the  will  of  the  enemies  of  thy 
word;  therefore  pardon  them,  for  they  know  not  what 
they  do.  0  Lord,  convert  them,  and  take  from  them 
the  veil  that  covers  their  eyes."  The  rest  of  the  prayer 
I  do  not  remember,  for  a  great  dread  seized  upon  me 
that  caused  me  to  lose  my  senses.  But  after  some 
time,  when  I  awoke  from  the  trance  in  which  I  had 
fallen,  I  arose  to  look  for  my  enemies,  and  to  tell  them 
that  I  was  ready  for  them  to  carry  out  their  purpose 
with  me.  But  looking  around  in  all  directions,  I  saw 
no  one,  but  a  profound  silence  reigned ;  and  I  found 
myself  alone  in  that  dark  wood.  But  the  singing  of 
the  birds  as  they  flew  among  the  branches  advised  me 
anew  to  resume  my  journey.  Directing  myself  to  my 
frail  buggy,  I  crossed  the  wood  as  one  who  quietly 
walks  in  the  shadow  of  death.  Taking  my  reins  in 
hand,  I  was  soon  in  Gijedo.  Going  along  the  road  I 
was  meditating  and  giving  thanks  to  God,  saying:  "O 
Lord,  in  me  has  been  fulfilled  that  promise  which  says: 
'  If  thine  enemies  come  upon  thee  by  one  road,  they 
shall  flee  from  thee  by  seven.' " 

At  the  West  Texas  Conference  for  1884, 
twelve  natives  were  admitted  on  trial,  and 
seven  new  missions  opened.     Of  these  new 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.        .  269 

missions  one  was  on  the  extreme  frontier  of 
Texas  and  New  Mexico,  and  the  other  six  on 
remote  outposts  in  Mexico.  One  of  the  chief 
barriers  to  the  work  was  the  want  of  houses 
of  worship.  Owing  to  the  bitter  opposition 
of  the  Catholic  priests,  it  was  often  extremely 
difficult  to  rent  a  house  for  worship;  and 
those  secured,  owing  to  their  location  and 
other  causes,  were  frequently  unsuited  to 
public  worship.  Notwithstanding  these  diffi- 
culties, the  work  among  the  Mexicans  spread 
with  wonderful  rapidity.  The  Mission  had 
extended  to  Chihuahua  under  charge  of  Eev. 
S.  G.  Kilgore,  and  to  Durango  under  charge 
of  Kev.  R.  W.  MacDonell. 

At  the  session  of  the  West  Texas  Confer- 
ence of  1885  Bishop  McTyeire  organized  the 
Mexican  Border  Mission  into  an  Annual  Con- 
ference, under  the  name  of  the  Mexican  Bor- 
der Mission  Conference. 

The  sixth  session  of  the  Border  Conference 
was  held  in  Chihuahua,  beginning  October  15, 
1890,  Bishop  Haygood  presiding.  It  report- 
ed an  effective  force  of  seven  missionaries 
and  their  wives,  42  native  preachers,  36  local 
preachers,  a  meml)ership  of  1,861,  and  1,864 
Sunday-school  scholars. 

The  Mission  has  extended  its  operations  to 

270      Hand  Book  of  Metliodist  Missions, 

the  Pacific  Ocean.  In  view  of  the  vast  extent 
of  tlie  field  it  was  deemed  wise,  under  the  au- 
thority of  the  General  Conference,  to  divide 
the  territory  into  two  Annual  Conferences. 
The  eastern  section  retained  the  name  of  the 
Mexican  Border  Mission  Conference.  It  em- 
braced the  States  of  Tamaulipas,  Nuevo  Leon, 
Coahuila,  and  the  Mexican  population  in 
West  Texas  south  of  the  Pecos  Eiver.  The 
western  section  took  the  name  of  the  North- 
west Mexican  Conference,  embracing  the  States 
of  Chihuahua,  Durango,  Sonora,  Sinaloa,  and 
the  Territory  of  Lower  California,  and  the 
Mexican  population  on  the  American  side  of 
the  border  north  and  west  of  the  Pecos  Eiver. 

We  crossed  the  river  in  1873,  and  now  we 
are  three  bands. 

The  statistics  of  Central  Mexico  Mission 
Conference  for  1892  are  as  follows:  Local 
preachers,  28;  members,  2,948;  net  gain  dur- 
ing the  year,  375;  infants  baptized,  239;  adults 
baptized,  315;  number  of  churches,  30;  value, 
$56,464;  amount  paid  preachers,  131.24;  paid 
bishops,  $34.45;  paid  Conference  claimants, 
$67.04;  collected  for  Foreign  Missions,  $354.37 ; 
Church  Extension,  $119.24;  number  of  Sun- 
day schools,  65;  pupils,  139;  day  schools,  14; 
pupils,  349;  paid  for  literature,  $65.57. 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S.  271 

For  the  Mexican  Border  Mission  Conference 
for  the  same  year  the  statistics  show:  Local 
preachers,  22;  members,  1,535;  infants  bap- 
tized, 153;  adults  baptized,  170;  Sunday 
schools,  66;  officers  and  teachers,  126;  schol- 
ars, 1,558;  day  schools  and  colleges,  6,  with  29 
teachers  and  553  students  of  both  sexes.  Col- 
lected for  Conference  claimants,  1181;  for  For- 
eign Missions,  $594;  for  Church  Extension, 
$226;  education,  $35.21;  Bible  cause,  $186.62. 

The  Northwest  Mexican  Mission  Conference 
statistical  report  for  1892  records  the  follow 
ing:  The  Conference  consists  of  6  missionaries, 
11  native  ministers,  and  8  local  preachers,  with 
a  membership  of  657.  There  have  been  84  chil- 
dren and  70  adults  baptized.  Sunday  schools, 
22;  teachers,  53;  scholars,  605.  Collected  for 
Missions,  $514;  Church  Extension,  $104;  value 
of  6  churches,  $13,500;  of  parsonages,  $10,500. 
The  MacDonell  Educational  Institute  has 
4  teachers,  80  scholars,  and  property  worth 
$10,000.  The  institution  is  at  Durango.  Pal- 
more  Institute,  Chihuahua,  has  5  teachers,  42 
scholars,  and  property  valued  at  $12,000.  El 
Paso  Institute  has  3  teachers,  125  scholars, 
and  property  worth  $850.  Nogales  Seminary 
has  3  teachers,  90  pupils,  and  property  valued 
at  $2,000. 


M/SSW/VS  OF  THE  M.  E.  C,  S. 

Beazil  Mission. 

In  a  former  handbook  brief  mention  was 
made  of  the  mission  of  Rev.  Fountain  E. 
Pitts,  of  the  Tennessee  Conference,  to  South 
America.  In  1835,  tliough  the  Roman  Catho- 
lic was  then  the  State  religion  of  Brazil,  the  gov- 
ernment was  liberal  in  its  spirit  and  disposed  to 
tolerate  other  forms  of  Christian  faith.  Mr. 
Pitts  found  in  Rio  Janeiro  a  number  of  for- 
eigners from  Protestant  lands,  who  were  anx- 
ious that  religious  services  should  be  observed 
in  that  city.  Such  meetings  were  allowed 
provided  they  were  not  held  in  a  building 
having  the  external  form  of  a  temple.  Mr. 
Pitts  held  services  in  a  private  house,  formed 
a  society  of  English-speaking  people,  and  left 
them  with  tlio  promise  that  a  pastor  would  be 
sent  them  at  an  early  day.  On  his  return  to 
the  United  States  he  earnestly  recommended 
the  establishment  of  a  Mission  in  Brazil. 

After  due  deliberation  on  the  part  of  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  .273 

bishops  and  the  Board  Rev.  Justin  Spaulding 
was  appointed  to  this  field,  and  sailed  from 
New  York  in  March,  1836.  The  little  band 
gathered  together  by  Mr.  Pitts  was  greatly 
encouraged  by  the  arrival  of  the  missionary. 
He  opened  services  in  a  private  room,  and 
soon  had  a  congregation  of  thirty  or  forty 
persons.  The  outlook  was  so  encouraging 
that  he  wrote  for  reenforcements.  Rev.  D.  P. 
Kidder  was  sent  out  in  1837.  Mr.  Spaulding 
remained  in  charge  in  Rio,  and  Mr.  Kidder 
traveled  extensively  in  the  interior.  Having 
some  knowledge  of  the  Portuguese  language, 
he  was  able  to  preach  where  opportunity  was 
offered,  and  to  distribute  Bibles  and  religious 
tracts  among  the  people.  The  society  in  Rio 
was  removed  to  a  larger  room.  A  Sunday 
school  was  opened  in  1836,  which  metwith  great 
success.  Weekly  prayer  meetings  were  held, 
which  proved  a  great  spiritual  benefit  to  the 
little  band.  Through  the  aid  of  an  English 
firm,  several  consignments  of  Bibles  and  Tes- 
taments were  obtained  from  the  British  and 
Foreign  Bible  Society.  The  demand  for 
them  was  so  great  that  of  the  first  consign- 
ment two  hundred  copies  were  sold  at  the 
home  of  the  missionaries  in  three  days.  They 
feared  that  this  demand  was  at  the  suggestion 

274      Hand  Booh  of  Mefliodist  Missions, 

of  the  priests,  who  wished  to  secure  aud  de- 
stroy the  Bibles.  Careful  inquiry  satisfied 
them  that  this  was  not  the  case.  The  mis- 
sionaries were  also  active  in  the  circulation  of 
tracts  specially  suited  to  the  wants  of  Brazil. 
As  thousands  of  sailors  visited  Bio,  the  mis- 
sionaries preached  on  the  deck  of  some  vessel 
every  Sunday.  Much  interest  was  taken  in 
the  work  by  many  English  and  American  cap- 
tains. A  British  flag  was  floated  from  the 
vessel  where  the  service  was  to  be  held,  and 
the  sailors  gathered  gladly  to  the  place  of  re- 
ligious worship. 

The  success  of  the  Mission  awakened  oppo- 
sition among  the  priests,  who  published  many 
gross  misrepresentations  of  the  missionaries 
and  their  work.  Their  hostility  made  but  lit- 
tle impression  on  the  people,  and  the  mission- 
aries moved  quietly  on,  assured  that  the  gov- 
ernment would  protect  them  so  long  as  their 
operations  were  within  the  restrictions  of  the 
laws  of  Brazil. 

In  one  of  Mr.  Kidder's  tours  through  the 
country  he  visited  Sao  Paulo,  being,  it  is  said, 
the  first  Protestant  missionary  who  had 
reached  that  region.  He  also  visited  Bahia, 
Pernambuco,  Maranhao,  Para,  and  other 
points  to  the  north  and  on  the  banks  of  the 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S.         .  275 

Amazon.  He  preached  tlie  first  Protestant 
sermon  ever  delivered  on  the  waters  of  the 
Amazon,  and  introduced  and  circulated  the 
Scriptures  in  the  Portuguese  language  on  the 
whole  Eastern  coast  and  in  the  principal  cities. 
He  was  diligently  preparing  himself  for  the 
work  by  the  study  of  the  Portuguese  language, 
when,  owing  to  the  death  of  his  wife  in  1840, 
he  returned  home  with  his  motherless  son. 
Mr.  Spaulding  continued  his  work  until  1861, 
when  the  financial  embarrassments  of  the 
Board  occasioned  his  recall. 
'  As  evidence  of  the  influence  these  early  Meth- 
odist missionaries  exerted  during  their  brief 
sojourn  in  this  field,  Kev.  H.  C.  Tucker,  one 
of  our  missionaries  now  laboring  in  Brazil,  in- 
forms us  that  he  found  a  few  years  ago  in  a 
second-hand  bookstore  in  Bio  a  work  in  the 
Portuguese  language,  entitled,  "The  Metho- 
dist and  the  Catholic."  It  was  written  by  a 
Catholic  priest,  and  was  designed  to  expose 
what  it  styled  the  errors  and  evil  effects  of 
the  doctrine  taught  by  the  Methodists.  The 
missionaries  had  certainly  aroused  the  fears 
of  the  priests.  Their  efforts  to  alarm  the  peo- 
ple did  much  to  call  the  attention  of  thought- 
ful minds  in  Brazil  to  the  work  of  the  mis- 
sionaries, and,  no  doubt,  aided  in  preparing 

276       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  MUs'mis. 

the  way  for  the  men  who  in  God's  time  should 
reenter  the  fold.  The  work  was  not  resumed 
until  after  the  division  of  the  Church.  The 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church  (North),  though 
sustaining  important  Missions  in  the  Argen- 
tine Eepublic  and  Uruguay,  has  no  Mission 
in  Brazil  except  an  appointment  in  the  Eio 
Grande  del  Sul  under  charge  of  a  native  preach- 
er, who  was,  we  are  informed,  once  in  the  serv- 
ice of  the  Southern  Methodist  Mission. 

It  was  not  until  1875  that  the  Mission 
Board  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
South,  could  answer  the  calls  from  Brazil.  In 
May  of  that  year  it  recognized  as  a  missiona- 
ry in  its  service  Rev.  J.  E.  Newman,  who  had 
been  in  that  country  several  years  and  had  or- 
ganized what  has  been  known  as  the  "  Santa 
Barbara  Mission."  Its  field  w^as  among  the 
English-speaking  residents  in  that  portion  of 
the  province  of  Sao  Paulo.  In  1876  it  report- 
ed thirty-eight  members,  all  Americans. 

Rev.  J.  J.  Ransom,  of  the  Tennessee  Con- 
ference, was  sent  to  Brazil  in  December,  1875. 
He  landed  February  2, 1876.  He  devoted  much 
time  to  the  acquisition  of  the  Portuguese  lan- 
guage, regarding  that  as  essential  to  his  fu- 
ture usefulness.  He  translated  Bishop  Mc- 
Tyeire's  "  Scripture  Catechism,"  and  by  1877 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  'Ill 

was  able  to  preach  with  considerable  fluency. 
He  earnestly  recommended  Rio  Janeiro  as  the 
point  where  the  serious  beginning  of  the  Mis- 
sion should  be  made.  The  bishop  in  charge 
and  the  Board  approved  this  judgment,  and 
in  January,  1877,  he  commenced  operations  in 
that  city.  The  Mission  this  year  reported 
forty-one  American  inembers  and  one  Brazil- 
ian. The  latter  was  Joao  Correa,  who  had 
been  for  some  time  a  colporter  in  the  service 
of  the  American  Bible  Society.  In  January, 
1878,  Brother  Ransom  opened  a  hall  for  preach- 
ing, with  about  forty  in  attendance.  The  next 
month  he  had  one  hundred  present.  His 
movements  were  warmly  assailed  by  the  lead- 
ing Romanist  journal,  and  were  defended  by 
the  liberal  press.  His  report  for  1878  showed 
thirteen  members,  foreign  and  native,  and  fifty 
Sunday  school  scholars.  The  next  year  he  re- 
ported nineteen  members,  six  of  whom  were 
Brazilians.  The  work  was  greatly  hindered 
by  the  want  of  a  suitable  building.  Being  de- 
pendent on  rented  halls,  the  frequent  changes 
in  location  were  not  favorable  to  the  increase 
and  permanency  of  his  congregation.  He 
visited  several  points  in  the  interior,  and  held 
services  when  he  could  obtain  a  room. 

In  December,   1879,  Brother  Ransom  and 

278     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  31mions. 

Miss  A.  A.  Newman,  daughter  of  Kev.  J.  E. 
Newman,  were  married.  This  compelled  the 
suspension  of  the  school  at  Piracicaba,  which 
had  been  under  Miss  Newman's  direction. 
Brother  Newman,  who  had  been  at  Piracica- 
ba, returned  to  Santa  Barbara,  that  point 
being  more  convenient  for  work  among  the 
Americans  scattered  through  the  province. 
Aided  by  his  wife,  Brother  Ransom  continued 
his  work  in  Rio  until  July,  1880,  when  Sister 
Ransom  entered  into  rest,  leaving  him  alone. 
Brother  Ransom  soon  afterward  returned  to 
the  United  States  and,  under  the  sanction  of 
the  Board,  visited  many  of  the  Conferences 
and  principal  charges  of  the  Church,  present- 
ing the  claims  of  the  Brazil  Mission.  The 
annual  report  for  1881  says:  "  The  South  Car- 
olina Conference  agreed  to  raise  the  amount 
necessary  for  the  support  of  Rev.  J.  W.  Koger, 
who,  with  Rev.  J.  L.  Kennedy,  was  accepted 
by  the  Board  and  recommended  for  appoint- 
ment to  that  work.  A  considerable  fund  was 
collected  for  the  erection  of  a  church  at  Pira- 
cicaba, and  a  beginning  was  made  toward 
building  in  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

March  26,  1881,  Brother  Ransom,  Rev.  J.  W. 
Koger,  of  the  South  Carolina  Conference,  and 
wife,  and  Rev.  J.  L.  Kennedy,  of  the  Holston 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  279 

Conference,  with  Miss  M.  Watts,  of  the  Wom- 
an's Board,  sailed  for  Brazil,  reaching*  Kio 
May  16.  They  proceeded  to  Piracicaba  and 
entered  industriously  on  the  study  of  the  lan- 
guage. Brother  Kansom  returned  to  Rio  and 
resumed  his  work.  Brother  Kennedy  joined 
him  in  September.  Brother  Roger  organized 
a  Church  in  Piracicaba  with  thirteen  mem- 
bers. He  preached  his  first  sermon  in  Portu- 
guese on  Christmas  night  of  1881,  and  Broth- 
er Kennedy,  who  was  present  on  a  visit, 
preached  his  first  the  following  Sabbath.  The 
services  were  continued,  with  increasing  con- 
gregations. The  year  closed  with  sixty-four 
members,  three  Sunday  schools,  and  fifty 

In  1882  Brother  Ransom  resigned  the  su- 
perin tendency,  and  Bishop  McTyeire,  who  was 
in  charge  of  the  Mission,  appointed  Brother 
Koger  superintendent.  In  September  the  new 
Sunday  school  chapel,  erected  on  the  ground 
purchased  in  Rio  in  1881,  was  first  occupied. 
A  new  Sunday  school  was  opened  in  Piracica- 
ba. The  statistics  indicated  a  decided  advance 
in  the  work.  Rio  reported  thirty-nine  En- 
glish and  thirty-two  Portuguese  members,  and 
Piracicaba  one  hundred  and  twenty-one.  The 
mission  was  divided  into  two  districts;   the 

280     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Iflssions. 

Rio  Janeiro  District,  with  Brother  Ransom  in 
charge;  and  the  Piracicaba  District,  under  the 
charge  of  Brother  Roger. 

The  report  of  Brother  Koger  for  1883  is  a 
valuable  paper.  We  regret  our  space  will  al- 
low us  to  give  it  only  in  a  condensed  form. 
At  that  time  the  empire  was  divided  into 
twenty  provinces,  and  these  provinces  into 
comarcaSy  corresponding  to  what  we  style 
counties.  The  government  was  greatly  cen- 
tralized, and  its  power  felt  in  every  province. 
The  country  was  divided  into  three  political 
parties:  the  Conservative,  the  Liberal,  and  the 
Republican;  of  which  the  Republican  was  the 
smallest.  The  Roman  Catholic  or  State  reli- 
gion was  divided  ecclesiastically  into  12  dio- 
ceses, 235  vicarages,  1,629  parishes,  and  17 
curacies,  which  were  served  by  some  2,000 
bishops  and  priests.  The  people  had  no  idea 
of  Christianity  only  as  taught  by  the  priests, 
and  the  immorality  of  the  priests  had  shaken 
the  faith  of  the  more  intelligent  class  in  the 
divine  authority  of  the  Bible.  While  the  ig- 
norant classes  were  dominated  by  a  corrupt 
clergy,  the  educated  class  was  drifting  swiftly 
into  atheism.  In  1884  the  Prime  Minister  or- 
dered the  execution  of  the  law  authorizing  the 
secularization  of  the  property  of  the  Romish 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  281 

Brotherhood  of  Friars  and  Nuns.  The  action 
caused  great  criticism  on  the  part  of  the  dig- 
nitaries of  the  Church,  but  evidently  met  the 
approval  of  the  leading  minds  of  the  empire. 
Several  members  of  the  Provincial  Assembly 
of  Sao  Paulo  pronounced  the  priesthood  a 
useless  excrescence  in  society.  The  atheistic 
tone  of  many  speeches  indicated  a  disgust  for 
all  religion  arising  from  their  loss  of  faith  in 
the  Church  in  which  they  had  been  reared. 
Very  few  had  seen  the  Bible  or  heard  a  state- 
ment of  the  truths  represented  by  the  mis- 
sionaries. As  the  representative  of  freedom 
of  thought  and  speech,  Protestantism  com- 
manded their  respect,  and  hence  they  were 
ready  to  assert  its  right  to  be  heard;  but  they 
knew  nothing  of  the  spiritual  blessings  that 
belong  to  vital  Christianity.  To  break  down 
the  wall  of  bigotry  that  controlled  the  priests 
and  the  great  mass  of  people,  and  to  overcome 
the  profound  indifference  of  the  reading  por- 
tion of  the  nation,  was  a  task  of  vast  propor- 
tions. The  missionaries  labored  under  the 
additional  disadvantage  of  being  foreigners, 
and  of  speaking  a  strange  language.  "VYhile 
the  Brazilians  respected  the  superior  progress 
of  the  United  States  and  other  Protestant 
lands,  they  were  intensely  national  in  their 

282     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

feelings,  and  listened  with  reserve  to  the 
teachings  of  another  people.  It  required 
strong  faith  to  sustain  the  missionaries  when 
facing  these  barriers. 

In  August,  1883,  the  Mission  was  greatly 
cheered  by  the  arrival  of  Rev.  J.  W.  Tarboux, 
of  the  South  Carolina  Conference,  and  his 
wife  and  Sister  Kennedy,  who  accompanied 
her  husband  on  his  return  to  the  field. 

Our  work  in  1883  was  within  the  provinces 
of  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  Sao  Paulo.  Rio  was 
our  most  important  station.  When  Brother 
Kennedy  arrived  in  1881,  Brother  Ransom  was 
able  to  devote  more  time  to  the  pastoral  work 
in  the  city,  to  visit  and  revive  the  work  in  Sao 
Paulo,  and  to  direct  the  establishment  of  new 
work  in  Piracicaba.  The  evangelistic  work 
was  carried  on  in  Rio  in  rented  rooms  until 
1882,  when  a  small  but  handsome  church  was 
opened  for  public  worship  on  Cattette  Square. 
This  opened  a  new  era  in  our  work  in  Rio,  its 
progress  being  marked  since  that  date.  Dur- 
ing 1883  both  the  English  and  Portuguese 
congregations  were  under  the  charge  of  Broth- 
er Kennedy  until  October,  when  Brother  Tar- 
boux took  charge  of  the  English  congrega- 
tion. Brother  Ransom,  as  presiding  elder  of 
the  district,  gave  much  attention  to  Rio  Sta- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  283 

tion  until  Brother  Kennedy  left  for  the  Unit- 
ed States,  when  he  devoted  his  whole  time  to 
the  work  in  the  city. 

Brother  Koger  had  charge  of  the  station  at 
Piracicaba  in  addition  to  his  duties  as  super- 
intendent. The  work  of  the  preceding  year 
had  been  carefully  matured,  and  eight  or  nine 
had  been  received  into  the  Church.  Owing 
to  the  lack  of  teachers  and  the  continuous 
sickness  of  the  pastor's  family,  a  decline  in 
the  Sunday  school  was  reported. 

At  Capivary,  an  out  station  of  Piracicaba, 
there  was  some  increase  in  the  congregation 
during  part  of  the  year.  A  Sunday  school  had 
been  opened,  but  threats  of  excommunication 
made  by  the  priests  alarmed  the  parents,  who 
withdrew  their  children  from  the  school.  De- 
spite opposition  and  discouragements,  the 
missionaries  were  assured  that  much  good 
was  achieved. 

Santa  Barbara  Circuit  remained  under  the 
useful  pastorate  of  Brother  Newman.  This 
charge  was  important,  as  it  provided  for  a  large 
number  of  American  families  who,  without  it, 
would  have  been  entirely  without  religious  priv- 
ileges. It  is  well  for  missionaries  to  have  serv- 
ices among  the  English-speaking  residents  in 
foreign  fields.    The  people  in  those  lands  j  udge 

284      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

the  religion  of  a  nation  by  the  character  and 
conduct  of  its  representatives  in  their  midst. 
Often  tlie  vices  of  American  and  English  res- 
idents in  non-Protestant  and  heathen  lands 
greatly  counteract  the  influence  of  the  faith- 
ful missionaries.  Hence  the  anxiety  of  our 
brethren  to  look  after  that  American  colony 
in  Brazil. 

Brother  Ransom  opened  work  in  the  city  of 
Siio  Paulo  in  October,  1883,  under  encourag- 
ing auspices.  Brother  Roger  took  charge  of 
the  work  in  November.  February  10,  1884, 
four  members  were  received  into  full  connec- 
tion, and  one  adult  and  three  children  baptized. 
Weekly  preaching  was  maintained  at  Jundia- 
hy,  an  out  station  of  Sao  Paulo.  There  was 
some  interest,  but  no  members  secured. 

Brother  Roger  mentions  the  useful  work  of 
Mr.  Samuel  Elliot,  who,  near  the  close  of  1882, 
was  employed  as  colporter  for  the  Mission  in 
Sao  Paulo  Province.  During  fourteen  months' 
service  he  sold  1,153  copies  of  the  Bible,  or 
parts  of  the  Bible,  and  870  evangelical  books. 
He  also  exercised  himself  in  reading  and  ex- 
plaining the  Scriptures  as  occasion  offered. 
Sr.  Giovani  Bernini  was  employed  the  latter 
part  of  1883  in  the  same  service.  Brother 
Roger  was  much  impressed  with  the  value  of 
this  branch  of  mission  work. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  285 

Shortly  after  the  arrival  of  Brother  Tar- 
boux  in  Brazil  he  was  given  the  professorship 
of  English  in  the  CoUegio  Progresso  of  Kio  de 
Janeiro,  an  American  institution,  in  which  he 
did  valuable  service  in  addition  to  his  accept- 
able ministry  in  the  English-speaking  congre- 

Seeing  the  destitution  of  the  children  near 
her  home  in  Piracicaba,  Sister  Koger  opened 
a  school  for  boys  and  girls,  placing  tuition 
rates  in  reach  of  all,  and  admitting  free  only 
those  who  could  not  pay.  She  soon  had  six- 
teen pupils,  and  the  outlook  was  fair  until  her 
health  failed.  A  young  Brazilian  of  earnest 
piety  was  employed,  and  the  work  yielded  en- 
couraging results.  The  demand  for  a  boys' 
school  at  this  point  was  manifest  to  our  mis- 
sionaries even  in  those  early  days  of  the  Mis- 
sion. It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  want  of 
funds  has  prevented  the  Board  from  making 
proper  provisions  for  it. 

The  Mission  at  the  close  of  1883  reported  5 
missionaries,  4  wives  of  missionaries,  1  of  the 
Woman's  Board;  total,  10.  Colporters,  2; 
members,  130;  probationers,  21. 

The  following  from  the  excellent  report  of 
the  superintendent  for  1884  will  enable  our 
readers  to  determine  the  condition  and  out- 

286      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

look  of  the  Mission  during  that  part  of  its 

Our  forces  were  considerably  scattered  during  the 
past  year— one  in  Rio,  one  in  Sao  Paulo,  one  in  Piraci- 
caba,  one  in  Santa  'Barbara.  This  is  not  the  plan  of 
our  Lord  in  sending  out  his  seventy  disciples,  tliese  be- 
ing sent  in  couples ;  nor  the  method  of  the  apostles  in 
the  prosecution  of  their  work,  for  they  followed  the 
plan  indicated  by  the  Divine  Master,  and  went  in  com- 
panies of  two  for  their  mutual  sympathy,  strength,  en- 
couragement, and  cooperation.  There  is  much  in  con- 
centrated forces— in  mutual  sympathy.  We  need  more 
preachers,  and  shall  continue  to  need  them  until  our 
Mission  Church  can  furnish  them  to  her  own  peo{)le, 
and  send  out  her  sons  to  press  the  battles  in  other 
fields.  We  see  a  great  necessity  for  native  ministers, 
and  our  hearts  are  turned  in  earnest  prayer  more  and 
more  to  "  to  the  Lord  of  the  harvest  to  send  forth  la- 
borers into  his  harvest." 

An  interesting  and  significant  fact  is  the  compara- 
tive dearth  of  native  priests  in  the  Romish  Church. 
There  are,  perhaps,  at  least  one-third  of  all  the  Romish 
parishes  in  Brazil  served  by  foreigners,  the  majority  of 
whom  are  Italians.  A  priest  told  me  last  year  that 
very  few  young  men  were  preparing  for  the  priest- 
hood ;  that  it  had  lost  its  prestige  among  the  best  fam- 
ilies, and  that  now  only  the  poor  and  less  influential 
classes  were  willing  for  their  sons  to  be  priests.  All 
this  shows  at  least  the  great  necessity  of  the  thorough 
and  widespread  religious  awakening  of  this  people. 
May  the  Lord  send  it  upon  them! 

The  appointments  for  the  year  just  closed  were  made 
in  the  beginning  of  the  year,  but  were  all  changed  in 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  287 

the  month  of  April,  owing  to  the  emergencies  growing 
out  of  Brother  Ransom's  visit  to  the  United  States. 
The  new  arrangement  put  the  work  at  Rio  de  Janeiro 
in  charge  of  Brother  Kennedy,  who,  in  addition  to 
preaching  in  English  and  Portuguese,  had  the  burden 
of  the  treasuryship  of  the  Mission.  The  work  at  that 
point  has  grown  in  interest  more  than  appears  from 
the  statistics,  owing  to  the  removal  from  the  country 
of  two  of  the  most  important  families  in  connection 
with  the  Church  there.  All  things  considered,  the 
work  ha«  been  well  sustained,  and  much  hope  is  en- 
tertained for  the  success  of  the  work  there  during  the 
present  year. 

Sao  Paulo  Station  has  been  under  the  pastoral  care 
of  Brother  Tarboux  since  the  middle  of  April,  1884. 
The  record  shows  a  steady  increase  of  interest  in  all 
the  departments  of  the  work.  Brother  Tarboux  has 
proved  himself  fully  equal  to  the  demands  made  on 
him  by  the  importance  of  that  point,  and  has  prosecut- 
ed the  work  with  vigor  and  constancy  in  the  city  and 
neighboring  towns. 

Santa  Barbara  Circuit  has  continued  under  the  pas- 
toral charge  of  Brother  Newman,  under  whom  it  was 
organized  some  fifteen  years  ago.  There  has  been  lit- 
tle change  on  the  circuit  during  the  past  year.  The  in- 
direct influence  of  this  circuit  upon  other  mission  work 
increases  the  importance  of  continuing  to  them  tlie 
mmistry  of  the  divine  word.  If  the  whole  American 
colony  were  Christian  in  faith  and  practice,  they  would 
be  a  mighty  evangelical  power  among  the  Brazilians. 

Piracicaba  Station  got  a  good  start  off  in  the  early 
part  of  the  year  during  the  brief  pastorate  of  Brother 
Kennedy,  and  has  continued  to  prosper  during  the 
year.    The  multiplication  of  mission  forces  and  inter- 

288      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

ests  at  this  point  makes  it  not  only  a  mission  center, 
but  renders  it  very  important  that  great  care  should 
be  used  to  strengthen  and  build  up  all  departments 
of  the  Church  here.  Besides  being  an  important 
mission  station,  it  is  the  seat  of  the  Collegio  Piracica- 
bano,  the  institution  of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Soci- 
ety, in  which  is  invested  considerable  capital  and  con- 
centrated many  fondly  cherished  hopes,  and  whose 
influence,  under  the  blessing  of  God,  will  be  exerted 
on  hundreds  of  the  future  families  of  the  province  of 
Sao  Paulo.  So  far  this  is  the  most  interior  point  of  our 
Mission,  and  is  destined  to  serve  as  a  connecting  link 
of  the  interior  with  other  parts  of  our  Mission. 

The  out  stations  of  Botafogo,  Jundiahi,  Capivary, 
and  Santa  Barbara  received  some  attention,  and  some 
interest  has  been  manifested,  but  no  Churches  have  yet 
been  formed.  A  small  school  has  been  taught  in  Rio 
de  Janeiro  which  has  been  somewhat  embarrassed  by 
the  fact  of  the  minority  of  the  teacher,  who,  according 
to  the  law  of  the  empire,  could  not  teach  except  in  a 
private  way.  The  primary  school  at  Piracicaba  has 
done  only  tolerably  well.  The  teacher  is  a  faithful 
and  diligent  worker  in  the  gospel,  however,  and,  besides 
the  scholastic  work  in  the  day  and  night  school,  he  has 
conducted  public  service  in  my  frequent  absence. 

"  By  their  fruits  ye  shall  know  them,"  said  the  Di- 
vine Master  to  his  disciples,  and  we  rejoice  to  see  the 
same  fruit  produced  by  the  gospel  here  that  is  pro- 
•duced  by  it  elsewhere.  People  are  converted  and  live 
a  new  life,  develop  the  graces  of  Christian  charity  and 
liberality.  There  is  an  increasing  desire  to  hear  the 
gospel  and  read  the  Scriptures.  Many  of  the  Roman 
Catholics  admit  readily  the  superior  morality  of  the 
Protestant  Church.    There  are  in  the  Mission  some 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  289 

candidates  for  the  ministry.  The  people  are  beginning 
to  see  that  we  are  here  to  stay,  and  consequently  our 
cause  inspires  more  i^ublic  confidence. 

AS'^afisfe.— Missionaries  of  Parent  Board,  5 ;  mission- 
aries of  Woman's  Missionary  Society,  2;  helpers,  4^; 
members,  131 ;  received  during  the  year,  37 ;  removed 
during  the  year,  23;  Sunday  schools,  5;  scholars,  119; 
primary  schools,  2;  pupils  in  day  school,  31;  pupils  in 
night  school,  37;  school  of  Woman's  Missionary  Socie- 
ty, 1 ;  number  of  matriculations,  88. 

Owing  to  the  sad  and  unexpected  death  of 
the  superintendent,  Brother  Koger,  we  have 
no  official  account  for  the  work  in  1885.  In 
his  last  quarterly  report,  sent  January  6, 1886, 
he  gives  an  account  of  the  dedication  of  the 
new  church  at  Piracicaba,  and  the  reception 
of  twenty-five  members  into  that  charge  dur- 
ing 1885.  In  the  letter  inclosing  this  report 
he  made  an  earnest  appeal  for  more  mission- 
aries. That  was  his  last  message  to  the 
Church  at  home.  He  died  of  yellow  fever  in 
Siio  Paulo  February  6,  1886.  In  reporting 
his  death  to  the  Church  Bishop  Granbery, 
who  was  in  charge  of  the  Mission,  wrote: 

Shall  not  his  death  hallow  and  endear  to  us  more 
than  ever  the  Mission  to  which  he  devoted  himself? 
From  his  grave  there  comes  to  our  hearts  a  tender, 
mighty  appeal  in  behalf  of  the  far  off  land  where  he 
died  for  Christ  and  perishing  souls.  To  that  "  still, 
small  voice  "  we  will  not  be  deaf.  The  Mission  n/jst 

290      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

be  strengthened,  and  in  the  place  of  Koger  not  one 
only,  but  a  number  of  like-minded  men  must  be  sent 
out.  Those  were  sad  words  of  Paul  to  the  Philippians, 
to  whom  he  trusted  in  the  Lord  Jesus  to  send  Timothy 
shortly :  "  For  I  have  no  man  like-minded,  who  will 
naturally  care  for  your  state.  For  all  seek  their  own, 
not  the  things  which  are  Jesus  Christ's."  We  trust  in 
the  Lord  Jesus  shortly  to  send  reenforcements  to  Bra- 
zil. There  will  not  be  lacking  preachers  to  go  forward 
from  a  holy  zeal  in  the  great  cause  of  the  gospel ;  and 
may  I  not  add  that  our  people  will  freely  give  their 
money  as  our  ministers  freely  give  their  lives? 

The  Mission  Board,  with  the  means  at  its 
command,  has  sought  to  answer  the  mute  ap- 
peal from  the  grave  of  the  first  male  mission- 
ary we  tfuried  in  Brazil.  When  Brother 
Koger  died,  he  left  four  men  in  the  Mission, 
one  of  whom  was  confined  wholly  to  the  En- 
glish work.  Since  then,  though  embarrassed 
by  debt  and  burdened  by  pressing  demands 
from  other  Missions,  the  Board  has  sent  out 
additional  missionaries  until  we  now  have  ten 
faithful  and  efficient  men  in  that  field  sancti- 
fied by  the  dust  of  this  heroic  man  of  God. 

The  first  to  answer  this  call  was  Eev.  H.  C. 
Tucker,  of'  the  Tennessee  Conference.  He 
went  out  in  1886  with  Bishop  Granbery,  who 
then  made  the  first  Episcopal  visit  to  oar  only 
Mission  south  of  the  equator.  They  left  the 
United  States  June  the  8th,  and  reached  Rio 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  291 

July  4.  They  found  quarterly  meeting  in 
progress.  At  night  the  bishop  preached 
through  an  interpreter.  Sunday,  July  11, 
he  taught  a  class  in  Sunday  school,  preached 
in  the  morning  to  the  English  congregation, 
and  at  night  to  the  native  congregation  through 
an  interpreter. 

They  next  visited  Stio  Paulo,  where  Quarter- 
ly Conference  was  in  session.  At  this  meet- 
ing Sr.  Bernardo,  a  native  exhorter,  was  li- 
censed to  preach. 

The  annual  meeting  was  held  in  Piraci- 
caba  beginning  July  18.  From  the  report  of 
the  Secretary,  Brother  Tucker,  we  condense 
the  following  items:  Organized  Societies,  7; 
local  preachers,  6;  exhorters,  3;  members, 
211;  candidates  for  membership,  42;  adults 
baptized,  39;  infants,  12;  Sunday  schools,  6; 
officers  and  teachers,  26;  pupils,  164;  church 
buildings,  3;  value,  $52,700.  The  brethren 
reported  the  spiritual  state  of  these  charges 
as  very  good.  They  warmly  recommended 
a  looys'  school  at  Piracicaba.  The  Mission 
adopted  as  its  legal  title  the  name  of  Igreja 
Methodista  Episcopal  do  Brazil. 

Brother  Bansom  returned  to  the  Tennessee 
Conference,  Brother  Newman  remained  on  the 
Santa  Barbara  Circuit,  and  Brother  Tucker, 

292       Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions^ 

who  had  to  devote  much  time  to  the  acquisi- 
tion of  the  Portuguese,  was  placed  in  charge 
of  the  English  congregation  at  Eio.  This  left 
the  Mission  with  but  two  missionaries  to  carry 
on  the  work  among  the  native  population. 
Brother  Kennedy  was  placed  in  charge  of  the 
Eio  District  and  the  Eio  Portuguese  congre- 
gation, and  Brother  Tarboux  in  charge  of  the 
Sao  Paulo  District  and  Station. 

After  the  adjournment  of  the  Annual  Meet- 
ing Bishop  Granbery  made  an  extensive  tour 
through  the  Mission.  He  visited  the  Ameri- 
can community  which  is  embraced  in  the  San 
Barbara  Circuit.  The  "meeting  on  Sunday 
reminded  him  of  a  quarterly  meeting  in  Vir- 
ginia and  Tennessee."  He  speaks  in  his  let- 
ters to  the  Advocate  in  warm  terms  of  praise 
of  the  school  work  under  charge  of  the  Wom- 
an's Board,  at  Piracicaba.  Our  Church  at  the 
time  of  his  visit  numbered  70  members.  In 
company  with  Brother  Tarboux  he  visited 
Capivary,  where  the  missionary  preached,  and 
had  a  conversation  with  an  intelligent  and 
thoughtful  Brazilian  who  is  studying,  with 
the  light  of  the  Bible,  the  claims  of  Methodist 
doctrine.  He  found  our  Church  at  Sao  Paulo 
small,  having  but  13  members  and  19  Sunday 
Bcl:  ol  scholars,  but   full  of   i^romise.     They 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  298 

visited  Santos,  a  seax)ort  distant  fifty  miles 
from  Siio  Paulo.  There  was  no  Protestant 
service  at  that  time  save  that  held  in  the  home 
of  Brother  Porter,  a  devout  Methodist  layman 
who  on  Sunday,  in  addition  to  singing  and 
prayer,  read  to  his  household  one  of  Marvin's 
sermons.  In  company  with  Brother  Kennedy 
he  visited  the  Province  of  Minas.  At  Eio  Novo 
they  found  the  native  pastor  and  native  helper 
under  arrest.  Brother  Kennedy  called  on  the 
authorities,  and  learned  that  the  young  men 
had  failed  to  show  any  papers.  They  were 
released,  but  instructed  hereafter  to  show 
their  license  as  local  preachers.  At  night  the 
bishop  preached  through  an  interpreter  to  a 
small  company.  They  spent  Sunday  at  Juiz 
de  Fora,  attending  Sunday  school  in  our  nice 
new  church,  and  the  bishop  preaching,  wath 
Brother  Kennedy  for  interpreter.  Beaching 
Eio,  they  found,  on  the  first  Sunday  in  Sep- 
tember, the  new  church  ready — not  for  dedica- 
tion, as  it  was  not  yet  out  of  debt,  but  to  be 
opened  for  worship.  It  is  a  solid,  commo- 
dious stone  structure,  and  will  meet  the  needs 
of  our  people  for  many  years.  At  10:30 
Brother  Tarboux  preached  to  over  two  hun- 
dred persons,  and  at  noon  the  bishop  preached 
to  a  congregation  of  over  a  hundred  foreign- 

294     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ers.  The  services  were  continued  during  the 
week,  and  closed  with  six  candidates  for  mem- 

On  September  16  the  bishop  met  the 
three  missionaries — Kennedy,  Tarboux,  and 
Tucker — in  the  chapel  and  organized  the  Mis- 
sion into  an  Annual  Conference.  "  This  step 
was  taken  in  order  to  complete  a  plan  for  the 
legal  incorporation  of  the  body,  that  it  may 
secure  the  right  to  hold  property."  This 
possibly  was  the  smallest  Annual  Conference 
ever  organized  in  Methodism  and  is  the  first 
and  only  Conference  the  M.  E.  Church,  South, 
has  in  the  Southern  Hem_isphere.  Few  have 
been  established  in  a  wider  field  or  one  more 
*'  white  unto  the  harvest." 

The  visit  of  Bishop  Granbery  greatly 
strengthened  the  faith  and  quickened  the  zeal 
of  the  missionaries.  His  letters  to  the  Church 
at  home  added  largely  to  its  interest  in  our 
Mission  in  South  America. 

The  following  extracts  from  the  quarterly 
report  of  Brother  Kennedy,  written  February 
7,  1887,  will  enable  our  readers  to  judge  the 
condition  and  outlook  of  the  missions  on  Rio 
District  at  that  date: 

Our  new  church  in  Rio  attracts  a  very  considerable 
number  to  preaching  who  never  attended  our  services 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.        •   295 

before.  Making  a  proper  discount  for  some  unfaithful 
members,  our  congregation  is  in  a  fair  way,  and  is 
growing.  At  Cattette  Station  there  has  been  a  net  in- 
crease of  eight  diu-ing  the  quarter,  seven  in  the  native 
and  one  in  the  foreign  congregation.  Brother  Tucker 
is  doing  good  work  all  around. 

At  Palmeiras  we  have  received  one  member.  In 
Macacos  one  local  preacher  has  a  fine  day  school  and  a 
Sunday  school.  Both  these  works  were  opened  this 
quarter,  and  have  done  good.  He  preaches  there  and 
at  Palmeiras. 

There  is  no  doubt,  especially  in  the  Province  of 
Minas,  that  "  a  great  door  and  effectual  is  opened  unto 
us."  Recently  two  large  planters  with  many  families 
and  slaves  living  on  their  lands,  and  of  considerable 
influence  have  opened  their  doors  to  us.  Sometime 
ago,  with  a  local  preacher  and  steward,  I  visited  a  large 
coffee  plantation.  The  owner  sent  horses  twelve  miles 
to  meet  us  at  the  railroad  station.  I  preached  to  the 
family  and  friends  and  some  slaves.  The  family  is  of 
a  large  and  influencial  connection,  and  we  trust  through 
them  to  do  much  good.  After  the  sermon  I  talked 
with  the  teacher  of  the  children  of  the  family.  He 
had  spent  four  years  in  a  seminary  studying  for  the 
Catholic  priesthood,  but  confessed  he  had  never  read 
the  Bible.  We  left  him  in  doubt  as  to  the  dogmas  of 
Rome.  We  also  left  with  him  a  Bible  and  some  reli- 
gious books  and  tracts. 

In  Juiz  de  Fora  we  have  recently  admitted  three 
adults  on  profession  of  faith.  Others  will  soon  make 
like  profession.  I  have  made  four  trips  to  Rio  Novo 
Circuit,  and  on  each  occasion  from  one  to  four  were 
admitted  into  the  Church.  On  this  circuit  there  has 
been  much  persecution.    On  one  occasion  two  of  our 

296      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

local  preachers  were  escorted  through  the  streets  under 
arrest.  Eecently,  in  the  country,  a  dozen  armed  men 
lay  in  wait  for  two  of  our  brethren,  but  providentially 
they  were  led  to  return  by  another  road,  not  knowing 
of  the  conspiracy.  In  a  neighborhood  where  we  have 
one  member,  a  poor  woman,  it  became  so  unpleasant 
to  her  that  she  and  her  husband,  who  at  first  bitterly 
scofied  at  her,  moved  to  a  community  where  a  number 
of  families  are  believers. 

Brother  Tarboux,  who,  in  addition  to  the 
Sao  Paulo  District,  was  preacher  in  charge  of 
the  Sao  Paulo  and  Piracicaba  Stations  and 
Capivary  Circuit,  wrote  as  follows,  January  14, 

The  Quarterly  Conferences  have  been  held  at  all 
points.  All  the  workers  are  busy.  Brother  Newman, 
owing  to  bad  health,  has  not  been  able  to  preach.  I 
suppose  his  working  days  are  ended.  I  have  preached 
twenty-nine  sermons  and  made  eighty  pastoral  visits 
during  the  quarter. 

At  Sao  Paulo  Station  twenty-six  public  services  have 
been  held,  with  an  average  attendance  of  twenty  per- 
sons. The  number  of  services  are  less,  having  to  give 
up  one  of  our  halls,  but  the  attendance  has  improved. 
One  adult  has  been  baptized,  one  received  by  profession 
of  faith,  and  three  by  letter.  The  present  member- 
ship is  twenty.  The  ball  is  slowly  gathering  size  and 
momentum.  Sr.  Bernardo,  the  local  preacher,  is  faith- 
ful in  study  and  work.  Sr.  Manvel,  a  young  man  and 
a  candidate  for  the  ministry,  is  now  at  my  home 
studying  and  helping  as  directed.  Sr.  Bernini  contin- 
ues as  colporter  of  the  American  Bible  Society,  and 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.         .  297 

does  earnest  work.  The  Sunday  school  now  numbers 
26.  Sao  Paulo  is  a  large  city,  and  requires  all  the  time 
and  strength  of  the  pastor. 

In  Piracicaba  Station  the  three  regular  services  of 
the  week  have  been  held  without  intermission  in  the 
church;  average  attendance  fifty,  though  sometimes 
we  have  eighty  hearers.  Regular  weekly  services  are 
also  held  in  a  distant  part  of  the  city  with  good  results. 
Sometimes  fifty  attend  at  this  point.  Six  members 
have  been  received  on  profession  of  faith,  and  three 
by  letter.  We  have  now  72  members.  The  Sunday 
schools  in  the  church  and  rented  hall  are  both  improv- 
ing. During  this  quarter  the  city  has  been  greatly 
stirred  by  eftbrts  of  the  priests  to  injure  our  cause. 
They  have  spoken  and  written  against  us.  We  rejoice 
to  know  the  enemy  is  alarmed.  It  show^s  we  are  mak- 
ing real  progress.  Sr.  Severo,  helper  and  teacher,  was 
licensed  to  preach  at  the  Quarterly  Conference.  He 
came  to  us  from  the  Presbyterian  Church.  His  time  is 
fully  employed.  He  goes  to  Capivary  when  I  go  to 
Pircicacaba,  and  preaches  in  that  city  Saturday  night 
and  Sunday  morning  and  night. 

No  Church  is  yet  organized  in  Capivary.  The  peo- 
ple in  the  States  can  hardly  appreciate  the  difficulties 
of  the  work  in  this  land.  In  Capivary  a  number  of 
persons  have  from  time  to  time  become  convinced  of 
the  truth  of  the  gospel ;  but  after  examining  into  the 
rules  of  the  Church,  have  concluded  that  it  was  impos- 
sible for  them  to  break  loose  from  their  circumstances 
and  keep  the  rules  of  the  Church.  Want  of  ftiith? 
Yes,  but  also  serious  difficulties.  If  a  man  decides 
to  keep  the  Sabbath  day  holy,  it  is  very  difficult  for 
him  to  get  employment  and  make  his  bread.  We  who 
are  strong  in  the  faith  can  trust  in  the  Lord  for  our 

298      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

bread,  or  even  suffer  for  his  sake,  but  the  unconverted 
man  does  not  see  the  Ahnighty  arm.  This  is  only  one 
of  many  obstacles. 

March  19,  1887,  Eev.  J.  W.  Wolling,  of  the 
South  Carolina  Conference,  and  his  wife 
sailed  from  Newport  News  to  join  our  mis- 
sionary force  in  Brazil.  They  reached  Rio 
April  15.  Their  coming  greatly  strengthened 
our  little  band.  After  sharing  with  her  hus- 
band the  toils  and  trials  of  mission  life  for 
eight  months,  Sister  Wolling  was  called  home 
by  the  Master  December  27,  1887.  The  soil 
of  Brazil  was  once  more  sanctified  as  the  rest- 
ing place  of  a  missionary  until  the  resurrec- 
tion morn. 

Brother  Tucker,  who  had  charge  of  the  Rio 
English  congregation,  was  invited  to  take  charge 
of  the  work  of  the  American  Bible  Society  in 
Brazil.  In  view  of  the  importance  of  this 
work  and  of  the  special  fitness  of  Brother 
Tucker  for  its  duties.  Bishop  Granbery  and 
the  Board  felt  constrained  to  respond  favor- 
ably to  the  call.  This  left  an  important  post 
for  a  time  unsupplied. 

From  the  report  of  Brother  Wolling,  who 
presided  at  the  Annual  Conference  in  1887,  it 
appears  that  there  had  been  a  net  gain  during 
the  year  of  45  members,  making  the  member- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.        -  299 

ship  at  that  date  256,  with  8  local  preachers. 
During  the  year  $1,900  had  been  contributed 
for  various  Church  expenses;  showing  the  Mis- 
sion was  moving  forward  on  the  line  of  self- 
support.  Three  native  preachers  were  admit- 
ted into  the  Conference  on  trial:  Justiniano 
de  Carvalho,  Bernardo  de  Miranda,  and 
Felippe  de  Carvalho.  These  were  the  first 
native  preachers  in  Brazil  who  have  been  re- 
ceived on  trial  in  our  Church. 

The  age  and  failing  health  of  Brother  New- 
man made  it  necessary  for  him  to  retire  from 
active  service.  With  Brother  Tucker  detailed 
for  the  Bible  work,  the  Mission  was  again  left 
with  three  American  missionaries  to  meet  the 
the  increasing  demands.  Each  one  had  double 
work.  Brother  Kennedy  was  again  in  charge  of 
both  Sao  Paulo  District  and  Station,  Brother 
Tarboux  in  charge  of  the  Rio  District  and  the 
Bio  Portuguese  congregation,  and  Brother 
Wolling  was  in  charge  of  Piracicaba  and 
Santa  Barbara  Mission.  In  addition  to  the 
missions  served  by  the  three  native  preachers 
who  were  admitted  into  Conference,  there 
were  five  appointments  supplied  by  local 

Brother  Tarboux  reported  encouragingly 
respecting   the   work    in    Rio   District.     The 

300       Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions, 

preachers  were  hard  at  work  and  the  congre- 
gations improving.  He  urged  the  importance 
of  having  a  missionary  who  cotild  devote  his 
whole  time  to  the  Rio  Portuguese  Mission,  as- 
sisted by  a  native  helper.  He  also  urged  the 
importance  of  opening  work  in  two  or  three 
halls  in  different  parts  of  the  city  for  preach- 
ing and  Sunday  schools. 

The  Palmeiras  Mission  had  now  four  ap- 
pointments. The  native  preacher  in  charge 
was  holding  services  six  nights  in  the  week, 
with  invitations  from  other  places  for  him  to 
come  and  preach.  He  had  asked  for  an  as- 
sistant to  aid  him  in  meeting  these  calls. 
More  than  sixty  candidates  for  admission  into 
the  Church  were  under  instruction  in  this 

Brother  Tarboux  earnestly  called  for  a  mis- 
sionary at  Juiz  de  Fora.  As  soon  as  he  could 
speak  Portuguese  the  appointments  would  be 
doubled.  We  know  of  no  field  in  Brazil  more 
full  of  promise  than  this  point.  Another  na- 
tive preacher  was  needed  at  Rio  Novo  Mis- 
sion and  two  additional  halls  at  adjacent 
cities.  A  new  field  was  opened  at  Ouro  Preto, 
the  capital  of  the  Province  of  Minas.  Brother 
Tucker  had  been  on  the  ground  selling  Bibles^ 
and  his  heart  had  been  stirred  by  the  wants 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.        *  301 

of  the  people  and  opportunities  for  successful 

In  addition  to  his  work  in  the  Stio  Paulo 
District  and  Station  Brother  Kennedy  was 
editing  the  Ej'positor  Christao,  the  paper  pub- 
lished for  the  benefit  of  the  people,  and  also 
translating  and  preparing  for  the  press  an  in- 
fant catechism  and  some  of  Wesley's  sermons. 
He  had  visited  all  points  of  his  district, 
meeting  encouragement  in  every  charge.  In 
Sao  Paulo  City  he  received  into  the  Church 
two  Brazilian  ladies  and  a  young  Italian.  The 
Italians  in  that  city  numbered  over  12,000, 
and  the  province  was  filling  up  with  them. 
There  is  another  open  door. 

With  his  wife  and  a  baby  organ  borrowed 
for  the  trip,  he  visited  the  Santo  Amaro  Mis- 
sion and  preached  two  nights  to  large  congre- 
gations,- some  of  the  people  standing  during 
the  entire  service.  Two  persons  expressed  a 
desire  to  become  Christians.  After  he  left 
the  priest  summoned  some  sixty  persons  be- 
fore him  at  the  confessional,  and  abused  the 
missionary  soundly. 

At  Salto  de  Ytu  there  are  three  cotton  facto- 
ries, and  a  paper  mill  being  built  by  a  Brazilian 
who  was  educated  in  the  United  States  and  is 
friendly  to  Protestantism.     He  reported  here 

302       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  ^fissions. 

five  members  and  two  candidates.  It  is  near 
the  famous  city  of  Ytu.  At  Capivary  we  have 
one  zealous  member  and  several  candidates. 
Brother  Kenoedy  closes  his  report  with  an 
earnest  appeal  for  reenforcement  to  enable 
him  and  his  colaborers  to  occupy  the  fields 
opening  on  every  side. 

In  June,  1888,  Kev.  E.  A.  Tilly,  of  the  Hol- 
ston  Conference,  and  Eev.  M.  Dickie,  a  local 
preacher,  of  Eichmond,  Va.,  and  his  wife  were 
sent  out  by  the  Board.  They  reached  Eio  in 
July.  Although  some  time  must  be  employed 
before  they  could  count  for  their  full  strength, 
yet  their  arrival  greatly  encouraged  our  over- 
worked missionaries  and  enabled  them  to  ex- 
tend their  lines  into  fields  that  had  been  wait- 
ing for  laborers. 

The  Conference  of  1888  was  held  by  Bishop 
Granbery  in  Siio  Paulo,  including  the  fifth 
Sunday  in  July.  Three  native  preachers 
were  received  on  trial,  and  the  two  native 
preachers  who  were  admitted  on  trial  the  year 
before  were  advanced  to  the  class  of  the 
second  year.     There  were  now  in  the  Mission 

6  missionary  and  3  native  preachers  on  trial, 

7  local  preachers  and  288  members.  The  net 
gain  in  members  during  the  year  was  31.  A 
chf^ering  fact  was  the  report  of  155  candidates 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  ,  303 

for  membership.     This  indicated  the  vitality 
of  the  Mission.     Another  cheering  fact  was 
their   eagerness   to   learn   the  doctrines  and 
usages   of   the    Church.     They   *' search    the 
scriptures "  and  some  are  able  "to  give  a  rea- 
son of  the  faith  that  is  in  them  "  to  their  be- 
nighted countrymen.     The  report  showed  11 
Sunday  schools,  33  teachers,  and  339  scholars. 
The  next  Annual  Conference  was  held  in 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  beginning  July  16, 1889,  Rev. 
J.  W.  Wolling  presiding.     Rev.  J.  M.  Lander, 
a  local  deacon  from  South  Carolina,  and  his 
wife;  Rev.  J.  S.  Matteson,  of  the  South  Caro- 
lina Conference,  and  his  wife;  and  Rev.  J.  H. 
Harwell,  of  the  Holston  Conference,  who  had 
left  the  United  States  in  June,  reached  Rio 
the  day  the  Annual  Conference  opened.    They 
received  a  warm  welcome,  and  entered  at  once 
on  their  w^ork. 

The  Mission  force  now  consisted  of  9  for- 
eign missionaries  and  5  native  preachers. 
This  still  left  2  appointments  to  be  supplied. 
They  reported  6  local  preachers,  359  members, 
10  Sunday  schools,  26  officers  and  teachers, 
and  257  scholars.  Accompanying  the  above 
reports  are  the  following  statements  from  the 
pen  of  Brother  Tarboux: 

These  statistics  show  progress  along  all  the  lines  of 

304     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Christian  work,  and  on  nearly  every  charge  in  the 
Conference.  The  reports  of  the  preachers  were  en- 
couraging. An  additional  fact  was  brought  out  that 
there  were  in  the  bounds  of  the  Conference  from  one 
hundred  and  fifty  to  two  hundred  candidates  for 
Church  membership  under  instruction.  A  calculation 
shows  that  the  three  hundred  and  seventy-three 
Methodists  of  Brazil,  most  of  whom  are  extremely 
poor,  paid  this  year  to  the  various  Church  enterprises 
an  average  of  $7.48  per  member.  There  are  few 
charges  in  the  Southern  Church  that  do  so  well. 

Two  young  men  have  been  received  on  trial,  and 
three  missionaries  from  the  United  States,  making  a 
working  force  of  eighteen  men,  one  of  whom  is  a  local 
preacher  who  serves  as  a  regular  supply.  The  native 
force  not  only  grows  in  numbers,  but,  with  more  ex- 
perience, more  education,  and  deeper  consecration,  it 
is  each  year  better  prepared  to  do  successful  work  for 
the  Church  and  our  blessed  Lord.  The  missionary 
force  also,  growing  in  numbers,  in  acquaintance  with 
the  people,  and  in  knowledge  of  the  Portuguese  lan- 
guage (and  I  think  I  can  also  add,  in  devotion  to  the 
Lord's  work  in  Brazil),  is  better  prepared  to  render  ef- 
fective service.  The  Church  ought  to,  and  may  safely, 
look  for  larger  results  each  year. 

All  Brazil  is  open  to  evangelical  work.  The  field  we 
occupy  is  limited  only  because  our  force  is  small.  It  is 
possible  to  go  anywhere  and  preach  with  some  results 
following  to  the  glory  of  God.  Of  course  difliculties 
are  to  be  met  from  the  world,  the  flesh,  and  the  devil, 
besides  the  ignorance,  superstition,  and  prejudices  of  a 
degraded  Romish  populace ;  but  such  is  the  providen- 
tial condition  of  the  country  that  in  every  place  some 
one  is  to  be  found  who  will  give  heed  to  the  word  of  the 

Missmis  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  .  305 

servant  of  God.  And  let  me  say  here  that  the  largest  re- 
results  of  the  work  already  done  cannot  be  touched  by 
statistical  tables.  We  have  been  casting  the  divine 
leaven  into  the  lump,  and  have  been  kneading  it  dur- 
ing these  years.  God  only  knows  exactly  how  far  its 
influence  has  penetrated  the  mass,  but  we  know  that 
it  is  felt  farther  than  our  eyes  can  see  or  our  figures 
can  mark. 

The  starting  of  the  Juiz  de  Fora  College  and  Semi- 
nary by  sending  Brothers  Wolling  and  Lander  there 
with  instructions  to  lay  its  foundations  as  Providence 
would  open  the  way  marks,  I  believe,  an  epoch  in  the 
Ufe  of  our  Churcli  in  Brazil.  Much  depends  on  that 
future  school  of  Juiz  de  Fora.  Make  it  a  success,  and 
it  will  do  much  to  make  Methodism  a  success  in  Brazil. 
Its  success  does  not  depend  upon  a  large  number  of 
students.  Let  it  but  give  six  young  men,  called  of  God 
to  preach,  a  good  Cliristian,  Methodist  education  with- 
in the  next  ten  years,  and  it  will  be  worth  more  than 
a  mountain  of  gold  to  the  Methodist  work  in  Brazil. 
Even  now  there  are  several  students  to  start  with. 

We  are  indebted  to  Eev.  H.  C.  Tucker,  who, 
with  his  wife,  the  daughter  of  Bishop  Gran- 
bery,  is  on  a  leave  of  absence  in  the  United 
States,  for  the  following  brief  account  of  the 
Mission  during  the  years  1890  and  1891: 

Brothers  Mattison  and  Harwell  were  assigned  re- 
spectively to  the  English  charges  in  Rio  de  Janeiro 
and  Santa  Barbara.  Of  the  eight  native  preachers 
who  received  ai)pointments,  two  were  in  the  school 
at  Juiz  de  Fora  and  assisted  the  missionary  on  the  cir- 
cuit. Apart  fi^om  the  above  mentioned  the  real  force 

306     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

engaged  in  preaching  in  Portuguese  was  four  foreign 
missionaries  and  six  native  preachers. 

During  the  year  a  new  work  was  opened  at  Taubate. 
On  the  10th  of  May,  1890,  Brother  Mattison  died  of 
fever  at  his  post  in  Rio  de  Janeiro.  He  was  highly  es- 
teemed, and  the  brethren  had  hoped  for  much  from 
him.  His  death  was  a  heavy  blow.  Brazil  and  the 
work  is  made  dearer  to  the  Conference  and  the  whole 
Church  in  that  the  body  of  this  godly  man  sleeps  be- 
neath the  stately  palms  of  that  country.  Notwith- 
standing this  death,  Brother  Tarboux's  absence  from 
the  field,  the  fact  that  two  of  the  native  men  had  been 
most  of  the  time  engaged  in  study,  this  was  a  prosper- 
ous year,  as  statistics  will  show. 

About  the  close  of  the  Conference  year,  August  8, 
1890,  Bishop  Granbery  arrived  on  his  third  visit  to 
Brazil,  in  company  with  Brother  Tarboux  and  family, 
returning,  C.  B.  McFarland,  of  the  Holston  Conference, 
and  R.  C.  Dickson,  of  Kentucky. 

The  fifth  session  of  the  Brazil  Mission  Conference 
was  held  in  Juiz  de  Fora,  Minas  Geraes,  August  13^ 
18,  1890,  Bishop  Granbery  presiding.  The  sessions 
were  spiritual  and  the  reports  good.  The  statistics  for 
the  year  showed  an  increase  in  the  membership  of  111. 
Forty-three  infants  had  been  baptized  during  the  year. 
There  was  an  increase  in  collections  and  in  the  work 
generally.  The  Conference  was  memorable  for  the  real 
worship  enjoyed  by  all  and  for  the  presence  of  the 
Holy  Spirit, 

This  session  will  be  important  in  the  annals  of  the 
history  of  Methodism  in  Brazil  because  of  the  ordina^ 
tion  of  the  iirst  Brazilian  preachers  as  deacons,  and 
their  admission  into  fiiU  connection  in  the  Conference, 
Justiniano  R.  de  Carvalho,  Felippe  R.  Carvalho,  Ber- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.         .  307 

nardo  de  Miranda,  and  Ludegeo  de  Miranda  were  or- 
dained and  admitted  into  full  connection.  Michael 
Dickie  and  James  H.  Harwell  were  also  admitted. 
Manoel  de  Camargo  was  also  ordained.  Of  the  foreign 
missionaries,  James  H.  Harwell  and  C.  B.  McFarland 
were  ordained  deacons ;  and  Michael  Dickie,  elder.  R.  C. 
Dickson  and  Joao  E.  Tavares  were  received  on  trial. 
Herman  Gartner,  Antonio  Cardoza  de  Fonseca,  Jose  C. 
Audrade,  Manoel  de  Camargo,  J.  M.  Lander, and  C.  B.  Mc- 
Farland remain  on  trial.  So  we  had  in  full  connection 
in  the  Conference,  10 ;  and  on  trial,  9.  Senhor  Bernardo 
de  Miranda  was  compelled  to  locate  on  account  of  ill 
health.  His  health  was  partially  restored,  and  he  ren- 
dered valuable  aid  to  the  Church  in  Rio  until  his  death 
from  fever  in  February,  1891.  He  was  one  of  the  first 
native  preachers  to  be  licensed,  admitted  into  full  con- 
nection in  the  Annual  Conference,  and  ordained  dea- 
con. He  was  the  first  of  their  number  to  pass  over  the 
river  and  enter  through  the  pearly  gate.  Shortlv  after 
the  session  J.  H.  Harwell  was  transferred  to  the  North 
Georgia  Conference.  In  September,  1890,  J.  L.  Bruce, 
of  Virginia,  arrived  and  began  the  study  of  the  lan- 
guage. He  rendered  valuable  aid  in  the  school  at  Tau- 
bate,  and  at  the  following  session  of  the  Conference 
was  admitted  on  trial. 

Writing  of  this  session  of  the  Conference,  Bishop 
Granbery  says:  "Nearly  all  the  preachers  arrived  on 
or  before  Monday,  so  as  to  give  full  time  for  the  ex- 
aminations of  undergraduates  on  the  course  of  study 
It  was  a  memorable  occasion.  '  It  was  the  most  delight- 
ful session  of  the  Annual  Conference  I  have  ever  at- 
tended,' was  the  remark  of  more  than  one  member; 
though  it  must  be  acknowledged  that  their  experience 
in  this  line  is  not  very  extensive.    Prominence  was 

308     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

given  to  devotional  services,  and  these  were  marked  by- 
clear  manifestations  of  the  divine  presence.  Each 
morning  we  held  a  prayer  meeting  after  early  coffee. 
The  Conference  sat  from  10  to  1.  For  the  first  time 
Brazilian  preachers  were  admitted  into  full  connection, 
and  ordained  deacons.  This  was  a  cause  of  rejoicing 
and  thanksgiving.  The  brethren  thus  honored  re- 
ceived the  congratulations  and  embraces  of  mission- 
aries and  natives.  The  whole  number  admitted  into 
full  connection  was  six:  Dickie  and  Harwell,  of  the 
United  States,  one  native  of  Portugal,  and  three  na- 
tives of  Brazil.  Bernardo  de  Miranda  was  admitted, 
that  he  may  be  eligible  to  readmission  if  his  health  be 
restored.  Seven  were  ordained  deacons,  two  of  them 
Americans.  Two  had  not  stood  on  the  course  of  study 
for  the  second  year;  but  as  no  bishop  may  come  out 
next  year,  they  were  admitted,  being  men  qualified 
by  gifts  of  grace  and  itinerant  experience.  No  lay 
members  of  the  Conference  were  present.  Few  lay- 
men were  eligible,  and  it  happened  that  those  elected 
could  not  attend." 

The  sixth  session  of  the  Conference  was  held  at  Pira- 
cicaba,  Sao  Paulo,  July  23,  1891.  H.  C.  Tucker  was 
elected  President ;  and  M.  Dickie,  Secretary.  The  ses- 
sion was  pleasant  and  the  reports  good.  There  were 
favorable  indications  of  a  growing  confidence  in  the 
work.  The  Conference  was  organized  five  years  ago 
with  3  members  in  full  connection ;  at  this  last  session 
there  were  11 ;  increase,  8.  There  were  no  preachers  on 
trial;  there  are  now  8.  There  were  reported  then  219 
members ;  at  this  Conference,  528 ;  increase,  309.  Other 
statistics  of  this  last  session  were:  Local  preachers,  10; 
adults  baptized  during  the  year,  78;  infants  baptized, 
58;    Sunday    schools,    10;    oflicers    and   teachers,  35  ^^ 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  309 

scholars,  333.  The  Granbery  College,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  a  missionary  and  his  wife  with  two  assistants, 
reported  31  pupils.  The  school  at  Taubate,  under  a 
missionary  and  his  wife  with  five  assistants,  reported 
108  pupils.  There  were  reported  two  colleges  under  the 
direction  of  the  Woman's  Board,  with  9  missionaries,  8 
assistants,  and  198  pupils. 

There  was  reported  as  belonging  to  the  Conference 
3  churches,  valued  at  $67,000,  other  Church  property 
valued  at  $4,876.  During  the  year  a  neat,  new  church 
was  built  in  Juiz  de  Fora,  by  the  brethren,  and  they 
were  confident  of  raising  on  the  field  the  entire  amount 
necessary  to  pay  for  it.  This  is  about  the  first  effort 
made  by  the  native  Church  to  build  a  house  of  worship 
without  special  aid  from  the  Board  of  Missions. 

Special  attention  was  given  during  the  year  l^oth  by 
foreign  and  native  men  to  the  question  of  ministerial 
self-support.  There  was  raised  for  this  purpose  $1,833. 
During  the  present  year  it  is  thought  the  Churches  in 
Piracicaba  and  Juiz  de  Fora  will  contribute  enough  to 
pay  the  entire  salaries  of  their  native  pastors.  The 
Conference  Board  of  Missions  undertakes  this  year  the 
support  of  four  native  preachers. 

There  was  raised  during  the  year  in  the  Conference 
for  all  purposes  $5,500.  There  was  expended  for  Sun- 
day school  literature  $300. 

At  the  session  special  attention  was  given  to  the  re- 
ports of  the  schools  and  to  the  subject  of  education 
generally.  The  Granbery  College  was  reported  to  be 
in  a  prosperous  condition  and  fall  of  promise  for  the 
future.  Much  interest  is  felt  it  this  institution  as  a 
school  for  training  young  men  for  the  ministry.  A 
very  encouraging  report  was  presented  from  the  school 
at  Taubate,  showing  extraordinary  progress  in  but  lit- 

310     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

tie  time.  Education  is  an  important  factor  in  building 
up  a  strong,  self-supporting  evangelical  Church  in 

The  report  made  of  the  Expositor  Christao,  the  organ 
of  the  Conference,  was  interesting.  The  issue  of  each 
number  had  exceeded  a  thousand  copies.  The  in- 
crease in  the  number  of  new  subscribers  during  the 
year  was  478;  exchanges,  20.  The  year's  receipts 
amounted  to  $567,  an  increase  over  last  year  of  $110. 
It  was  recommended  that  the  paper  be  published 
weekly,  and  that  the  Sunday  school  lessons  be  given  in 
it,  with  suitable  notes  and  comments.  There  is  evi- 
dently a  growing  demand  among  the  people  for  whole- 
some religious  reading  matter. 

At  this  session  of  the  Conference  three  lay  delegates 
were  present  and  rendered  valuable  aid  in  the  business 
of  the  Conference.  Their  presence  and  participation 
in  the  Conference  added  much  interest  to  the  occasion 
and  inspired  confidence  in  the  permanency  of  our  work 
in  Brazil. 

Several  local  preachers  were  present  also  and  par- 
ticipated in  the  worship,  and  some  of  them  who  had 
been  supplies  made  reports  and  spoke  when  requested 
by  the  Conference.  Two  of  these  were  admitted  on 
trial  in  the  Conference.  At  this  present  writing  there 
are  in  the  Conference  in  full  connection  8  foreign  mis- 
sionaries and  3  native  preachers ;  on  trial,  2  foreign  mis- 
sionaries and  6  native  preachers.  There  are  employed 
also  as  supplies  2  local  preachers.  The  entire  time  of 
one  foreign  missionary  is  given  to  the  American  Bible 
Society.  There  are,  then,  20  preachers  actively  engaged 
by  the  Conference. 

Kev.  James  L.  Kennedy  gives  the  following 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  BH 

resume  of  our  Brazilian  missions,  showing 
their  status  in  1893 : 

Never  before  was  our  Brazilian  work  in  a  more  prom- 
ising and  prosperous  condition.  Never  before  was  it 
in  a  more  thoroughly  organized  shape,  according  to  our 
system.  The  machinery  of  all  our  Conferences,  from  the 
Annual  down,  is  fully  at  work.  We  have  our  Confer- 
ence organ,  the  Expositor  Christao,  with  a  circulation 
nearly  or  fully  double  our  membership.  We  have  a 
limited  number  of  our  own  theological  and  religious 
books,  and  the  religious  literature  of  the  Portuguese 
language,  in  the  form  of  books,  tracts,  weekly  and 
monthly  periodicals,  though  comparatively  small,  is  by 
no  means  insignificant.  Our  membership,  which  ac- 
cording to  latest  official  statistics  numbered  679,  is  not 
less  than  825  at  this  date.  We  have  a  corresponding 
Sunday  school  population.  There  are  3  districts, 
manned  by  10  missionaries,  of  whom  9  are  married, 
and  16  native  preachers,  besides  whom  we  had  at  last 
Annual  Conference  5  local  preachers.  We  have  a 
beautifhl  stone  church  in  Rio  de  Janeiro ;  a  modest  but 
comely  brick  church  in  Juiz  de  Fora,  built  almost  alto- 
gether through  Brother  Tarboux's  energies  and  the  ef- 
forts of  our  native  Church ;  a  very  neat  church  of  brick 
in  Piracicaba;  a  chapel  and  parsonage  in  Sao  Paulo, 
bought  by  Brother  Wolling  since  my  departure  in  Au- 
gust last,  and  other  chapels  and  Church  property,  of 
many  thousands  in  value. 

The  present  status  is  very  gratifying,  when  we  re- 
member that  about  six  and  a  half  years  ago  Bishop 
Granbery  organized  the  Brazil  Mission  Annual  Confer- 
ence with  only  3  members  and  a  Church  membership 
of  211. 


MISSIONS  OF  THE  M.  E,  C,  S. 

Japan  Mission. 

At  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Board  of 
Missions,  beginning  May  6,  1885,  the  follow- 
ing resolution,  offered  by  Bishop  Keener,  was 

Resolved,  That  we  establish  a  Mission  in  Japan,  and 
that  we  appropriate  therefor  the  sum  of  $3,000. 

The  following  September  Kev.  J.  W.  Lam- 
buth,  in  response  to  a  request  from  home, 
made  a  tour  of  inspection  upon  the  coast  and 
interior  of  Japan,  and  made  a  favorable  report 
to  the  Board. 

April  20,  1886,  Bishop  McTyeire,  who  was 
in  charge  of  the  China  Mission,  appointed  J. 
W.  Lambuth,  W.  K.  Lambuth,  and  O.  A. 
Dukes,  of  the  China  Mission,  to  Japan.  The 
letter  which  bore  the  appointment  reached 
Shanghai  May  20. 

China  was  endeared  to  Dr.  J.  W.  and  Mrs. 
Lambuth  by  thirty-two  years  of  faithful  and 
successful  missionary  labor.  This  call  reached 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  C,  S.  313 

them  at  a  period  of  life  wlien  many  tliink 
their  work  is  done;  but  tliey  did  not  hesitate 
in  the  presence  of  the  formidable  work  as- 
signed them.  In  reply  to  the  notice  of  his 
appointment,  Dr.  Lambuth replied:  "We thank 
you  and  the  friends  for  this  determination  to 
open  a  Mission  ir  Japan.  We  shall  go,  lean- 
ing on  the  omnipotent  arm  of  God  and  seeking 
in  our  work  the  guidance  of  the  Holy  Spirit 
and  his  blessing." 

On  the  25  of  July  Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth  and 
wife  and  Dr.  O.  A.  Dukes  reached  Kobe,  Ja- 
pan. Their  first  meal  w^as  eaten  from  their 
hands  while  standing  on  the  shore.  They 
found  a  shelter,  and  the  first  night  slept 
on  tables,  yet  they  "rejoiced  that  God  had 
called  them  even  unto  the  isles  of  the  sea  to 
herald  the  matchless  claim  of  the  gospel  of 
salvation  in  Christ  Jesus." 

Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth  was  in  hospital  work  at 
Peking  when  he  received  the  notice  of  his  ap- 
pointment. Though  his  wife  was  in  feeble 
health,  and  they  were  fearful  she  could  not 
bear  the  climate  of  Japan,  yet  they  "  counted 
not  their  lives  dear  unto  themselves,"  but 
promptly  prepared  for  the  field  assigned  them. 
Leaving  his  wife  in  Peking,  Dr.  Lambuth 
reached  Yokohama   September   13,  when  he 

314     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

was  rejoiced  to  meet  Bishop  Wilson,  who  had 
charge  of  the  Japan  and  China  Missions,  and 
who  was  accompanijed  by  Eev.  Collins  Denny. 
The  Japan  Annual  Conference  of  the  M.  E. 
Church  (North)  being  in  session  at  Tokio, 
they  had  an  opportunity  to  study  the  mission- 
ary operations  of  our  sister  Church  before  en- 
tering another  part  of  the  same  great  field. 
Proceding  to  Kobe,  they  joined  Dr.  J.  W.  Lam- 
buth  and  O.  A.  Dukes.  On  September  17, 
just  thirty-two  years  from  the  landing  of 
Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth  in  Shanghai,  they  held  the 
inauguration  meeting  of  the  Japan  Mission, 
Bishop  Wilson  presiding.  Writing  of  the 
meeting.  Dr.  W.  R.  Lambuth  said:  "It  was  an 
occasion  long  to  be  remembered  by  us  all. 
The  words  of  our  leader,  freighted  with  rich, 
ripe  thought,  his  prayers,  and  the  experience 
of  others,  and  the  benedictions  of  both  the 
bishop  and  Brother  Denny,  warm  and  fresh 
from  the  home  land,  quickened  our  zeal  and 
augmented  our  faith.  The  bishop  saw  and 
heard  a  great  deal  in  Japan,  and  was  greatly 
pleased  with  the  field,  but  did  not  entertain 
any  plan  of  operations,  thinking  it  wise  to 
leave  us  to  formulate  our  plans  and  organize 
our  work,  after  we  had  more  time  to  take  in 
the  situation." 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  315 

Dr.  W.  R.  Lambuth  returned  with  Bishop 
Wilson  to  China,  and  having  found  a  substi- 
tute for  his  hospital  work  in  Peking,  reached 
Kobe  with  his  family  November  24. 

The  first  quarterly  meeting  held  by  oar 
Mission  in  Japan,  October  2,  was  an  occa- 
sion of  great  joy,  on  account  of  the  baptism 
of  their  first  convert.  A  young  Japanese,  Mr. 
Sudzuki,  had  been  under  Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth's 
instruction  for  sonie  eight  months  in  Shang- 
hai, and  had  come  with  him  as  his  interpreter 
to  Kobe.  He  had  been  an  earnest  inquirer 
for  six  months,  and  gave  marked  signs  of 
the  work  the  Holy  Spirit  had  wrought  in  his 
heart.  He  commenced  studying  for  tlie  min- 
istry that  he  might  bear  to  the  people  the 
message  that  had  brought  healing  and  happi- 
ness to  his  own  heart.  He  is  now  in  Cen- 
tral College,  Missouri,  completing  his  studies. 

A  remarkable  call  led  our  missionaries  to 
Hiroshima,  two  hundred  miles  west  of  Kob6, 
on  the  Inland  Sea,  a  city  of  some  eighty  thou- 
sand inhabitants.  Mr.  Sunamoto,  a  converted 
pilot,  a  native  of  Hiroshima,  was  laboring 
there  among  his  people.  He  had  been  con- 
verted in  San  Francisco,  under  Dr.  Gibson. 
While  supporting  himself,  he  attended  night 
school  for  some  years  in  order  to   obtain  a 

316     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

more  thorough  knowledge  of  the  Christian  re- 
ligion. His  heart  turned  toward  his  native 
land,  and  he  decided  to  return  at  his  own  ex- 
pense to  Japan  and  to  tell  to  his  kindred  the 
story  of  the  cross.  In  September,  1886,  he 
reached  Kob6,  bearing  to  i)r.  J.  W.  Lambuth 
a  letter  from  Dr.  Maclay,  of  the  Northern 
Methodist  Mission,  Yokohama,  explaining  his 
purpose,  and  entreating  our  missionaries  to 
go  to  his  aid  when  he  should  begin  his  work 
among  his  people.  About  two  weeks  after 
he  reached  Hiroshima,  he  wrote,  informing 
our  missionaries  that  his  people  were  greatly 
interested  in  Christianity,  and  urging  Dr.  J. 
W.  Lambuth  and  Dr.  Dukes  to  come  to  his 
assistance.  When  they  reached  Hiroshima, 
they  found  a  work  begun  of  a  most  encourag- 
ing nature.  Before  they  left  five  persons  gave 
their  names  as  probationers,  among  them  Mr. 
Sunamoto's  mother.  They  found  a  literary 
man  who  taught  a  school  of  one  hundred  and 
sixty  scholars  who  was  searching  the  Scrip- 
tures, and  a  Buddhist  priest  at  the  head  of  two 
hundred  and  fifty  pui3ils  asked  eagerly  for  a 
Testament  in  the  Chinese  character.  They  re- 
turned to  Kobe  greatly  encouraged  by  the 
outlook  in  Hiroshima. 

The  first  Church  Conference  of  the  Kob6 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S.  .317 

Mission  was  held  December  3, 1886.  Dr.  W.  E. 
Lambuth,  who  had  been  appointed  by  Bishop 
Wilson,  Superintentent  of  the  Mission,  with 
his  wife,  having  returned  from  China,  the  lit- 
tle baud  began  to  develop  their  plans.  The 
marriage  of  Dr.  O.  A.  Dukes  to  Miss  M.  Ben- 
nett increased  their  strength. 

Having  spent  several  years  in  the  Woman's 
Union  Missionary  Society  in  China,  Mrs.  Dukes 
was  prepared  to  enter  at  once  into  the  work  of 
the  Mission.  The  members  reported  at  the 
Church  Conference  were  six  Europeans,  one 
Chinese,  and  one  Japanese. 

A  reading  room  had  been  opened  nightly 
and  was  well  attended.  Five  members  of  the 
Bible  class  had  handed  in  their  names  as  in- 
quirers. Eev.  W.  B.  Palmore,  of  Missouri, 
who  visited  Kobe  at  this  period  in  its  history, 
became  much  interested  in  the  work,  and  con- 
tributed one  hundred  dollars  annually  to  pro- 
cure pure  sound  literature  for  those  young 
men  who  found  so  much  atheism  in  Japanese 
libraries  and  book  stores.  It  was  decided  to 
call  the  reading  room  Palmore  Institute.  Dr. 
Palmore  also  added  valuable  books  from  his 
own  library.  A  donation  of  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five  dollars  annually  for  two  years 
from    J.    T.     McDonald,    of    the     Memphis 

318      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Conference,  aided  in  enriching  the  library. 
The  Sunday  school  averaged  twenty  scholars. 
It  was  decided  to  put  the  Japanese  church  at 
once  on  the  line  of  self-support.  To  this  end 
a  weekly  collection  was  commenced  for  the 
purchase  of  a  lot  for  a  church. 

The  ladies  of  the  Mission  entered  cordially 
into  the  work.  Mrs.  Dukes  rendered  efficient 
service  in  the  reading  room,  especially  in  the 
absence  of  the  brethren.  Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth 
had  gathered  around  her  the  nucleus  of  a 
school.  She  found  greater  access  to  the  wom- 
en in  Japan  than  in  China,  and  her  large  ex- 
perience in  this  department  enabled  her  to 
enter  the  doors  now  being  opened.  Married 
women  banded  themselves  together  to  study 
English,  foreign  customs,  and  the  Bible. 
Already  sixty  women  from  among  the  best 
families  in  Kobe  w^ere  united  for  Bible  study 
under  the  Congregationalists'  missionaries, 
and  they  requested  their  teachers  to  extend  the 
time  devoted  to  its  study  each  day.  One  of  Dr. 
W.  B.  Lambuth's  patients,  a  wealthy  Japanese 
naval  officer,  told  him  that  his  wife  had  be- 
come interested,  and  he  was  reading  the  Bible 
with  her.  These  facts  indicated  the  lines  on 
which  the  Mission  could  be  worked  if  reen- 
forced.     From  Dr.  W.   R.  Lambuth's  report 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S,  319 

of  the  second  quarterly  Conference,  held  De- 
cember 31,  we  learn: 

Tlie  whole  length  of  the  Inland  Sea  had  been  vis- 
ited twice.  The  number  of  inquirers  had  increased  at 
Hiroshima  from  five  to  twenty-seven.  Among  these  was 
a  well  to  do  physician,  several  medical  students,  an 
officer,  two  school-teachers,  a  Shinto  priest,  and  sev- 
eral more  relations  of  the  Christian  pilot.  He  himself 
had  been  indefatigable.  Expecting  to  return  to  Cali- 
fornia in  March,  he  had  made  the  most  of  his  time. 
One  trip  made  by  this  man  to  an  island  village,  while 
Dr.  Dukes  and  I  were  at  Hiroshima,  was  at  night  in  an 
open  boat  and  in  the  teeth  of  a  wintry  gale.  There  he 
told  the  story  of  the  cross,  and  returned  during  the 
same  weather,  nearly  frozen,  but  bright,  hopeful,  and 
enthusiastic.  His  health  has  suflfered  in  consequence 
of  repeated  exposure,  but  he  contemplates  an  early  re- 
turn J;o  his  American  friends. 

During  this  quarter  the  interior  to  the  north 
of  Kobe  was  visited,  and  the  circuits  mapped 
out.  Kob6,  W.  B.  Lambuth;  Hiroshima,  J. 
W.  Lambuth ;  and  Lake  Biwa,  O.  A.  Dukes. 

In  the  report  made  to  the  Secretary  at  Nash- 
ville, February  9,  1887,  the  Superintendent 

We  have  definitely  fixed  upon  Kob^  as  the  center 
of  our  base  line.  1.  It  is  the  center  of  our  legitimate 
field.  The  M.  E.  Church  occupies  two  hundred  miles 
to  the  north  of  us,  and  three  hundred  to  the  south.  2. 
It  is  the  center  of  a  railway  line  rapidly  being  pushed 
to  completion.    3,  It  is  the  most  healthful  seaport,  of 

320     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

all  seasons,  of  any  in  Japan.  4.  It  commands  the  In- 
land Sea,  all  coasting  vessels  making  this  a  depot.  5. 
Being  a  treaty  port  in  almost  weekly  communication 
with  America,  China,  and  England,  we  have  advan- 
tages here  which  could  not  be  secured  inland.  Even 
the  right  of  residence  itself,  outside  of  treaty  ports,  is 
debarred  us  until  the  revised  treaty  is  ratified,  unless 
we  are  engaged  by  a  native  company  to  teach.  6.  Eest- 
ing  as  it  does  upon  the  southern  slope  of  a  lofty  range 
of  hills,  and  reaching  down  along  the  shore  of  Osaka 
Bay ;  situated  almost  midway  between  the  extremes  of 
a  long  coast  range  where  arctic  winters  and  torrid  sum- 
mers reign;  with  commanding  sites  and  broad,  well- 
graded  streets,  what  wonder  is  it  that  eighty  thousand 
people  have  already  made  their  homes  in  Kob6,  and 
others,  like  ourselves,  are  anxious  to  secure  a  foot- 

In  the  same  report  he  speaks  as  follows  of 
the  field  and  its  wants: 

As  soon  as  feasible  we  want  men  from  home  stationed 
upon  the  northeast  at  Osaka,  Kioto,  and  on  Lake  Biwa ; 
and  upon  the  southwest  at  Onomichi,  Hiroshima,  Yama- 
guchi,  and  Shimonoseki.  These  southwestern  points  are 
all  important  commercial  centers,  and  command  the 
hundreds  of  islands  and  thousands  of  villages  which  oc- 
cupy the  Inland  Sea.  The  population  of  Japan,  by  rea- 
son of  the  inaccessibility  of  its  mountainous  interior,  is 
largely  confined  to  a  narrow  zone,  which  fringes  the 
coast  line,  and  on  account  of  the  bleak  winds  upon  the 
bleaker  northern  coast,  which  bears  the  brunt  of  Sibe- 
rian winters,  there  has  been  a  steady  gravitation  of  the 
people  to  the  southern  slope  of  this  great  volcanic  roof. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  8,  321 

Here  is  our  field,  and  singularly  enough  occupied,  as 
yet,  at  but  one  point  by  resident  missionaries.  We  are 
late  upon  the  field !  Let  us  occupy  vigorously  what  has 
been  so  providentially  left  open  to  us !  We  call  for  at 
least  two  men  each  year  for  this  inviting  field ! 

In  December,  1886,  Dr.  W.  K.  Lambuth 
wrote  to  the  Secretary  respecting  a  remarka- 
ble offer  made  by  the  Manager  of  the  Govern- 
ment Schools  at  Yamaguchi,  one  of  the  lead- 
ing educational  centers  of  this  portion  of  Ja- 
pan. A  teacher  was  wanted  in  the  English 
department.  An  American,  a  married  man 
and  a  missionary,  was  preferred.  A  house 
free  of  rent  and  a  liberal  salary  were  offered. 
While  he  could  not  preach  Christianity  in  the 
school,  the  students  could  attend  religous 
services  in  the  house  of  the  missionary. 
The  influence  of  a  Christian  home  was 
emphasized  as  one  of  the  objects  sought. 
This  arrangement  ensured  the  support 
of  the  missionary  during  the  time  he  was 
learning  the  language,  and  secured  for  him 
access  to  young  men  who  were  seeking  a  lib- 
eral education.  Dr.  Lambuth  visited  Yama- 
guchi and  had  an  interview  with  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  school,  and  also  the  Governor  of 
the  province  of  which  Yamaguchi  is  the  cap- 
ital, who  was  deeply  interested  in  the  move- 

322     Band  Book  of  31ethodist  Missmis. 

ment.  He  then  wrote  home,  urging  that  a 
man  be  sent  for  the  place.  He  was  allowed 
eight  weeks  to  secure  the  teacher.  No  man 
could  be  found  within  this  time;  and  had  the 
man  been  at  command,  the  Board  did  not  have 
the  money  with  which  to  furnish  his  outfit 
and  expense  of  travel  to  Japan.  The  place 
was  filled  by  a  Presbyterian  missionary.  But 
soon  similar  calls  came  to  our  missionaries, 
and  they  again  sent  the  call  across  the  ocean. 
At  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Board  in  May, 
1887,  this  remarkable  opening  was  presented, 
but,  burdened  by  its  indebtedness,  the  Board 
declined  to  make  an  appropriation  for  their 
outfit  and  travel  to  the  field.  After  some 
discussion  it  consented  that  proper  appli- 
cants might  be  accepted  for  whose  outfit  and 
traveling  expenses  provision  could  be  made 
by  special  donations  without  detriment  to  the 
regular  assessments,  and  who  would  find  em- 
ployment in  Japan  as  teachers  in  government 
schools  while  acquiring  the  Japanese  language, 
and  performing  such  missionary  work  as  time 
and  other  duties  would  permit.  The  call  was 
made  on  the  Church.  Men  chosen  of  God  for 
the  work  responded.  Money  for  their  outfit  and 
traveling  expenses  was  given  by  willing  hands. 
Men   of  wealth    in   our   Churches,  who  had 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  ,323 

hitherto  been  content  with  their  scanty  offer- 
ings under  the  assessments,  were  aroused  by 
the  opportunity  to  do  larger  things  for  the 
Master,  and  by  the  fall  of  1888  we  had  reen- 
forced  the  mission  with  three  single  missiona- 
ries and  two  married  missionaries  and  their 
wives.  They  were  Kev.  C.  B.  Moseley,  of  the 
Little  Eock  Conference;  Eev.  B.  W.  Waters, 
of  the  Baltimore  Conference;  Kev.  J.  C.  C. 
Newton,  of  the  Baltimore  Conference;  S.  H. 
Wainright  and  wife,  of  Missouri;  and  N.  W. 
Utley,  of  the  Memphis  Conference.  They 
were  sent  out  without  costing  the  Board  a 
dollar.  This  demonstrates  what  the  Church 
can  do  in  the  line  of  special  calls. 

The  missionaries  opened  the  year  1887  with 
afternoon  prayer  and  class  meeting.  They 
prayed  for  twenty-five  converts  and  two  hun- 
dred probationers.  Ere  the  evening  of  that 
New  Year's  Day  had  closed  they  received  a 
token  that  God  had  heard  their  x^i'ayer.  A 
pale,  consumptive-looking  young  man  called, 
and  in  broken  English  said:  "I  want  to  be  a 
Christian.  Will  you  teach  me?  "  With  grate- 
ful hearts  they  unfolded  to  him  the  message 
of  life,  and  then  knelt  with  him  in  prayer. 
Soon  he  was  soundly  converted,  and  his  frail 
body  seemed  to  share  the  power  of  his  new 

324     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

spiritual  life.  Brother  Nakamura  became  one 
of  their  most  efficient  workers.  He  was  stew- 
ard, class  leader,  and  exhorter,  and  held  three 
Bible  classes  during  the  week. 

Within  twelve  months  from  that  New  Year's 
night  they  had  received  into  the  Church 
sixty-four  adults  ^by  baptism,  four  by  cer- 
tificate, and  had  recorded  sixty-six  on  proba- 

In  April  Mr.  Kihara,  an  educator  of  Hi- 
roshima, called  on  Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth  and 
asked  him  to  teach  the  Bible  in  his  schools 
and  to  open  them  with  prayers.  He  had  a 
large  school  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  boys  and 
a  school  of  about  thirty  girls.  The  latter  he 
wished  to  place  in  charge  of  the  missionaries. 
Several  of  his  pupils  were  anxious  to  become 
Christians.  He  said  he  knew  he  would  meet 
opposition,  and  perhaps  some  of  the  boys  would 
not  come ;  but  he  was  working  for  the  good  of 
the  people,  and  the  opposition  would  ba  for 
but  a  short  time.  The  next  Thursday  he 
called  for  Dr.  Lambuth,  and  said  all  the 
teachers  gave  their  consent  to  the  plan.  On 
Wednesday  Dr.  Lambuth  went  to  the  school. 
About  sixty  young  men  were  present.  He 
spent  an  hour  in  reading  and  explaining  the 
Bible.       Each    day   the  number  present    in- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  325 

creased.  When  Dr.  Lambnth  left  Hiroshima, 
Dr.  Dukes  took  his  place  for  two  months.  The 
pressure  of  other  duties  compelled  him  to  re- 
turn to  Kobe.  Had  there  been  a  teacher  in 
the  field  to  hold  the  position,  no  doubt  a  rich 
harvest  would  have  been  gathered.  Mr.  Ki- 
liara  was  true  to  his  word,  and  turned  over  his 
girls'  school  to  the  missionaries.  Some  fifteen 
of  the  pupils  united  with  our  Christian  school 
for  ladies.  His  teacher,  Mrs.  Nishigawa. 
gave  her  services  without  salary,  and  taught 
an  hour  a  day  for  months.  She  was  a  gradu- 
ate of  Tokio  Normal  School  and  Vice  Presi- 
dent of  the  Hiroshima  Society  for  the  Higher 
Education  of  Women.  Her  husband  was  a 
judge,  ranking  second  in  the  district.  Mr. 
Kihara's  wife  and  niece  have  since  become 
members  of  our  Church. 

About  this  time  a  young  man  by  the  name 
of  Nakayama,  a  teacher  in  the  town  of  Sho- 
bara,  in  the  mountains  about  fifty  miles  from 
Hiroshima,  wrote  inviting  Dr.  Lambuth  to 
visit  that  place.  Accompanied  by  Brother 
Sunamoto,  he  reached  that  place  May  17.  He 
was  warmly  welcomed  by  Mr.  Nakayama,  who 
took  them  to  his  private  room  until  he  could 
secure  a  room  for  them  at  the  hotel.  On  his 
table  they  saw  the  Bible,  tracts,  and   hymn 


826     litmd  Book  of  Methodist  missions. 

books.  On  reaching  tlie  hotel  a  company  of 
upward  of  fifty  soon  gathered  around  them, 
and  soon  they  had  the  history  of  the  work 
already  commenced  in  that  remote  locality. 
Mr.  Matsutira,  the  third  teacher  in  the 
school,  had  heard  the  gospel  in  Hiroshima 
the  preceding  January,  and  on  his  return  had 
commenced  reading  the  Bible  with  his  family. 
About  two  months  later  Mr.  Nakayama,  who 
was  the  principal  teacher  in  the  school,  and 
teacher  in  English,  and  who  had  heard  the 
gospel  in  Osaka,  began  also  to  read  the  Bible. 
When  he  heard  that  Mr.  Matsutira  was  read- 
ing the  Bible,  he  jjroposed  that  they  should 
meet  and  read  together,  and  they  arranged  to 
meet  every  Wednesday  and  Sunday  evening 
and  read  and  pray  together.  Soon  others  joined 
them  until  they  had  about  twenty  in  their  com- 
pany. And  thus  before  they  were  aware  of  the 
fact  the  Church  of  Christ  w^as  established  on 
the  top  of  the  mountains  beyond  Hiroshima. 
Mr.  Matsutira  and  his  family  of  seven,  and 
a  young  lady  living  in  the  family,  were  ready 
to  make  public  the  profession  of  their  faith. 
Their  names,  with  nine  others,  v/ere  handed 
the  missionary,  who,  with  a  full  heart,  thanked 
God  and  took  courage.  He  spent  all  the  aft- 
ernoon explaining  the  word  of  God,  the  pec- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  327 

pie  coming  in  so  that  he  hardly  had  time  to 
take  his  lunch.  This  was  continued  until 
after  night,  when  upward  of  three  hundred 
were  present.  Fearing  the  upper  rooms  of 
the  hotel  would  give  way,  they  adjourned  to 
the  lower  rooms,  where  he  preached  to  them 
until  10  P.M.  Many  prominent  men  of  the 
town  were  present.  After  the  audience  was 
dismissed,  many  who  wished  to  be  Christians 
met  Dr.  Lambuth  in  his  room,  where  he  read 
and  explained  the  Creed  and  baptismal  serv- 
ice, and  they  again  prayed  together.  On 
Wednesday  he  visited  and  addressed  the 
school.  He  was  told  the  Trustees  had  decided 
to  make  the  Bible  a  text-book  in  the  school. 
The  President  of  the  school  and  the  second 
and  third  teachers  and  some  of  the  pupils  were 
among  the  seventeen  whose  names  he  had 
received.  There  were  but  two  Buddhist 
priests  in  the  town,  and  their  religion  was 
dead.  The  way  was  fully  open  to  the  gospel. 
Mr.  Nakayama,  who  was  twenty-one  years  of 
age,  went  to  Kobe  and  studied  theology  under 
Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth.  Anxious  for  his  moun- 
tain flock,  he  wrote  them  a  letter  every  week, 
containing  full  notes  of  the  sermons  and  Bi- 
ble class  instructions  he  heard  from  his  teach- 
ers.     Calls  as   urgent  as  that  from  Shobara 


328      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

continued  to  press  on  our  little  band.  A 
letter  came  from  a  lawyer,  and  another  from 
a  teacher  in  the  lower  end  of  the  island  of 
Shikoku.  The  lawyer  wrote:  "I  am  anxious 
to  know  more  of  the  Christian  faith.  My 
wife  and  daughter  are  Christians,  and  I  want 
to  be  a  Christian."  Then  they  telegraphed: 
"Wanted,  a  preacher  of  the  gospel."  Dr.  J. 
W.  Lambuth  answered  the  call  to  this  point, 
two  hundred  and  fifty  miles  distant  on  the 
Inland  Sea.  He  was  met  at  the  landing  by 
fifty  young  men,  several  local  officers,  besides 
teachers  and  the  lawyer.  He  held  several  Bi- 
ble classes  in  the  school,  where  twenty-six 
gave  their  names  as  desirous  to  search  the 
Scriptures.  He  was  invited  to  address  the 
public  in  the  theater,  where  he  had  an  audi- 
ence of  over  a  thousand  of  the  most  intelli- 
gent men  and  women  in  the  place^  who  listened 
for  an  hour  and  a  half,  while  he  told  them  of 
the  wonderful  things  revealed  in  the  word  of 
God.  When  he  left,  they  besought  him  to 
send  them  a  missionary  at  least  once  in  every 
two  months. 

June  23,  Dr.  W.  R.  Lambuth  was  writing  in 
the  school  in  Osaka,  where  he  was  teaching, 
when  a  pupil,  for  the  third  time  in  a  week,  came 
to  his  side  and  said:    "Teacher,  when  will  your 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  329 

father  go  to  my  native  town  of  Uajima?  My 
people  write  me  so  many  letters."  When 
the  missionaries  answered  this  call,  they 'were 
met  by  the  entire  school  of  young  men  and 
women,  upward  of  a  thousand  respectful 
hearers  thronged  the  town  theater,  and  for 
two  hours  remained  seated  on  the  cold  ground 
as  they  listened  to  the  story  of  the  cross. 
Then  followed  the  illness  of  the  venerable 
Prince  Datte,  nearly  ninety-nine  years  of  age. 
Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth's  invitation  to  treat  him, 
and  his  recovery  and  his  gratitude;  and  then 
the  organization  of  the  Methodist  Church. 

Oita  requested  a  teacher  in  the  government 
schools.  The  Buddhists  sought  to  create  a 
sentiment  against  Christianity;  but  this  place, 
the  key  of  that  part  of  the  coast  was  secured  to 
our  Mission  by  the  appointment  of  Brother 
Waters  as  teacher. 

At  Nishi-no-miya^  Sumiyoshi,  and  Kanzaki, 
railway  stations  between  Kobe  and  Osaka, 
Dr.  Dukes  found  the  way  opened  to  his  daily 
itinerations.  Six  hours  were  spent  each  day 
in  Bible  teaching.  Much  interest  was  mani- 
fest among  railway  employees.  He  had  knots 
of  eager  learners  all  along  the  line. 

Brother  Moseley  found  an  open  door  at 
Wakayama.     The  school  and  government  of- 

^80       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Mi 


ficials  were  friendly^  and  good  congregations 
attended  his  ministry. 

The  opportunities  for  woman's  work  find 
few  parallels  in  the  history  of  Missions.  The 
open  doors  taxed  to  the  utmost  the  strength 
and  time  of  the  devoted  wives  of  our  mission- 
aries. Home  comforts  and  cares  were  held 
subordinate  to  the  pressing  demand  made  upon 

Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth  had  a  school  of  eleven 
ladies  in  Kob6,  each  paying  fifty  cents  per 
month.  This  of  course  yielded  but  a  trifle  in 
the  way  of  an  income,  but  it  counted  largely 
in  training  these  people  for  their  work  of 
evangelizing  their  own  people.  These  ladies 
were  taught  the  Bible  daily,  with  the  other 
branches  common  to  similar  schools  in  Japan. 
The  only  difficulty  encountered  was  the  fact 
that  this  work  developed  more  rapidly  than 
did  the  resources  at  the  command  of  the  Mis- 
sion. In  addition  to  the  day  school,  Mrs. 
Lambuth  taught  classes  in  Palmore  Institute 
niglit  school  which  numbered  about  seventy 

In  Hiroshima  the  day  school,  in  charge  of 
Miss  Nannie  B.  Gaines,  numbered  thirty  girls 
and  ladies,  all  paying'  their  tuition.  Every 
lady  in  the  Mission  had  helped  to  build  up 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  C,  S.  331 

this  work.  On  Miss  Gaines's  arrival  she  was 
placed  in  charge.  She  taught  three  and  a  half 
hours  each  day,  and  one  at  night.  This,  with 
the  study  of  the  language,  kept  her  busy. 
Some  of  the  pupils  attended  Sunday  school 
and  preaching.  Through  the  influence  of  the 
lady  pupils,  their  husbands  became  much  in- 
terested in  the  work  of  the  Mission.  The 
Buddhist  element  is  very  strong  in  Hiroshi- 
ma, especially  among  the  middle  and  lower 
classes;  but  the  influence  of  the  school  on 
the  intelligent  portion  of  the  city  increased 

The  influence  of  Pahnore  Institute  in  Kobe 
was  limited  by  the  lack  of  room.  The  night 
school,  which  was  phenomenal  in  its  growth 
and  results,  was  held  in  the  houses  of  the  mis- 
sionaries in  connection  with  the  reading  room 
of  the  institute.  It  had  become  one  of  the 
chief  factors  in  the  remarkable  growth  and 
activity  of  the  Kobe  Church.  Steady  Bible 
teaching  each  night  furnished  about  twenty 
of  the  most  eflicient  members  of  the  Church. 
The  receipts  of  the  Church  were  about  thirty 
dollars  per  month,  which  was  reserved  to  aid 
in  building  the  church  in  Kob6  and  enlarging 
the  accommodations  of  the  institute. 

The   annual   meeting   was   held   beginning 

332     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

September  24  in  Kobe.  The  meeting  ad- 
journed to  meet  Brother  Moseley  and  Miss 
Gaines,  who  reached  the  harbor  that  day. 
The  Mission  now  reported  4  ordained  mis- 
sionaries, 3  missionaries'  wives,  1  single  lady 
missionary,  3  stations  where  missionaries  re- 
side, 9  out  stations,  64  adult  baptisms,  71  com- 
municants, 66  probationers,  3  Sunday  schools, 
7  teachers,  114  scholars,  2  exhorters,  and 
4  theological  students.  The  itineration  of 
missionaries  has  been  over  24,000  miles. 
Eleven  hundred  Bible  classes  had  been 

The  appointments  for  the  coming  year  were 
as  follows:  Kobe  Circuit,  W.  E.  Lambuth 
(it  embraced  Kobe,  Hiogo,  and  Awaji);  Kobe 
Day  School  for  Ladies,  Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth; 
Hiroshima  Circuit,  J.  W.  Lambuth  (it  em- 
braced Hiroshima,  Iwakuni,  Shobara,  Kuri, 
Uajima);  Hiroshima  Day  School  for  ladies, 
Miss  N.  B.  Gaines;  Osaka  Circuit,  O.  A. 
Dukes  (it  embraced  Osaka,  Hirano,  Otsu, 
and  Wakayama);  Wakayama  SchoolAVork,  C. 
B.  Moseley. 

Eev.  B.  W.  Waters  arrived  November  3, 
1887.  He  at  once  began  teaching  in  two  Jap- 
anese schools  in  Osaka,  some  twenty  miles 
from  Kobe.    Living  in  a  native  house,  he  taught 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  333 

four  hours  a  day  for  his  support,  and  gave  the 
balance  of  his  time  to  Bible  class  work  and 
the  study  of  the  language.  February  23, 1888, 
he  removed  to  Oita,  at  the  extreme  western 
end  of  the  Inland  Sea,  some  three  hundred 
and  twenty  miles  from  Osaka.  Beaching  this 
prefectural  town  February  25,  he  resumed 
work  under  the  government  school  authori- 
ties. On  this  remote  shore,  with  the  aid  of 
Brother  Tariaka,  his  interpreter,  and  his  faith- 
ful Christian  cook,  he  began  the  foundation 
of  a  Christian  Church. 

During  the  last  quarter  of  the  year  1887  it 
was  decided  to  build  a  church  at  Kobe  and 
another  at  Hiroshima.  The  native  members 
entered  heartily  into  the  movement.  January 
13,  1890,  they  reported  in  hand  two  hundred 
and  twenty  dollars.  When  it  is  remembered 
that  the  Church  had  been  organized  but  a 
year,  and  with  but  one  member,  this  collection 
will  reveal  remarkable  and  healthy  growth. 
The  following  from  a  letter  of  the  above  date 
from  the  Superintendent  will  exhibit  the  lines 
on  which  our  missionaries  were  moving: 

We  are  trjdng  to  put  our  probationers  and  members 
through  a  thorough  Bible  drill.  Brother  Moseley  has  a 
Bible  class  once  a  week,  and  preaches  Sunday ;  Broth- 
er Waters,  Bible  class  two  hours  every  night,  and  holds 


334     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

two  services  Sunday.  Both  these  brethren  fully  occu- 
pied with  teaching  during  the  week.  Dr.  Dukes  is 
putting  in  five  hours  every  day,  teaching  nothing  but  the 
Bible  and  Christianity.  He  has  a  class  at  every  station 
on  the  railway  between  Kobe  and  Osaka.  Trains  run 
every  two  hours.  He  begins  at  the  first  station  in  the 
morning,  teaches  an  hour  and  passes  on  to  the  next, 
and  so  on.  *Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth  averages  four  hours 
teaching  in  Kobe  per  diem,  and  three  of  that  is  the  Bible 
pure  and  simple;  lectures  on  Christian  biography 
Saturday  nights,  teaches  two  Bible  classes  in  Hiogo,  and 
holds  five  services  every  Sunday,  occupying  seven 

Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth  teaches  seven  hours  every  day, 
more  than  four  being  given  to  the  teaching  of  Christian- 
ity. Mrs.  Dukes,  Miss  Gaines,  and  Mrs.  W.  R.  Lam- 
buth teach,  and  all  have  Bible  classes.  I  myself  am 
teaching  the  Bible  almost  continually.  As  I  cannot  be 
in  one  place  very  long  at  a  time,  it  is  impossible  to  have 
a  regular  class,  but  I  try  to  make  up  for  it  by  drilling  my 
interpreter  hour  after  hour  as  we  walk  over  the  moun- 
tains, or  ride  together  in  jinrikas,  or  crouch  down  among 
the  passengers  on  the  little  steamboats  which  ply  on 
the  Inland  Sea.  And  when  we  reach  a  town  or  village 
where  we  have  organized  a  Methodist  Society,  we  call 
on  the  class  leader,  and  telling  him  we  have  only  twen- 
four  or  thirty-six  hours  to  spare,  send  him  out  after  the 
members.  In  the  meantime  we  eat  our  lunch,  and  are 
ready  for  from  07ie  to  ten  consecutive  hours  of  Bible  read- 
ing, comparing  of  parallel  passages,  explaining,  catechis- 
ing, and  applying.  Why,  the  last  time  Mr.  Oka  and  I 
were  at  Shobara  we  began  at  10  a.m.  and  continued 
until  10  P.M.;  then,  on  the  morrow,  from  6:30  a.m.  until 
3  P.M.,  and  then  rode  eleven  miles  and  preached  three 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  335 

hours  and  a  half.  The  people  sat  in  a  circle  on  the  floor 
around  us  while  we  ate  our  dinner  and  supper,  contin- 
uing to  ask  questions. 

The  rapid  growth  of  the  membership  led 
the  Mission  to  unite  in  prayer  that  the  Lord 
of  the  harvest  would  raise  up  in  the  field  men 
who  would  proclaim  the  gospel  to  their  own 
people.  The  prayer  met  speedy  answer.  Dr. 
W.  R.  Lambuth  in  January  reported  fourteen 
young  men  who  had  offered  themselves  to 
preach  the  gospel.  One  was  the  class  leader 
at  Shobara.  He  was  over  forty  years  of  age, 
and  a  good  Chinese  scholar.  Another  was  a 
teacher  with  a  school  of  fifty  scholars.  An- 
other the  teacher  of  a  school  of  three  hundred 
pupils.  Another  was  a  physician  connected 
with  the  Kobe  hospital.  His  wife  was  an  ear- 
nest Bible  student.  He  is  very  busy  in  his 
profession,  yet  so  eager  to  learn  that  he  carried 
his  lunch  with  him,  so  that  he  could  attend  the 
4  P.M.  Bible  class  without  loss  of  time. 

The  January  report  of  Miss  Gaines  gave  an 
encouraging  account  of  the  girls'  school  at 
Hiroshima.  The  pupils  were  principally  ladies 
of  rank,  and  very  gentle,  studious,  and  refined. 
All  were  interested  in  Bible  study,  though  but 
one  had  become  a  Christian.  They  asked  that 
more  time  might  be  given  to  Bible  study.  These 

336      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

facts  acquire  additional  importance  when  we 
remember  that  Hiroshima  is  one  of  the  strong- 
holds of  Buddhism.  The  school  was  located 
in  a  theater  building  with  a  Buddhist  temple 
on  either  side.  As  far  as  her  health  would 
permit,  Mrs.  Daisy  Lambuth  cooperated  with 
the  school  work  at  Hiroshima.  The  demands 
on  them  were  pressing.  Young  men  were 
pleading  for  a  night  school,  where  opportunity 
would  be  afforded  to  teach  them  the  Bible. 
Soldiers  in  the  garrison  could  not  attend  the 
night  school,  and  asked  for  a  little  time  in  the 
afternoon.  A  Sunday  school  must  be  opened 
and  a  Sunday  afternoon  Bible  class  for  young 
men.  With  incessant  calls  pressing  on  them, 
it  is  no  wonder  the  life  of  the  missionary  is 
soon  burned  out. 

Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth  was  greatly  encouraged 
by  learning  that  some  seven  or  eight  of  the 
native  members  and  probationers  were  meet- 
ing in  a  mountain,  about  a  mile  from  their 
home  in  Kobe,  every  morning  by  daylight,  to 
unite  in  prayer  for  an  outpouring  of  the  Spirit, 
and  that  they  might  soon  have  a  house  of 
worship.  He  offered  his  house,  so  they  were 
having  in  his  house  a  six  o'clock  prayer  meet- 
ing. One  of  the  young  men,  who  was  licensed 
to   exhort,    visited   his    parents  in   a    neigh- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  337 

boring  village.  His  father  is  a  school-teach- 
er. The  young  man  began  to  tell  them  about 
Christ.  Soon  the  questions,  "  What  shall  we 
do  to  become  Christians  ?  "  and  "  Where  shall 
we  go  to  hear  Christianity  ?  "  were  asked.  He 
brought  his  parents  to  church  next  Sunday, 
that  they  might  hear  Dr.  Lambuth  ''talk 
about  the  true  religion." 

Dr.  W.  R.  Lambuth  visited  early  in  the  year 
the  town  of  Uajima.  He  preached  in  the 
theater,  as  the  rented  chapel  would  not  hold 
the  crowd  of  over  ^ve  hundred  persons.  He 
baptized  two  men,  registered  six  probationers, 
and  organized  a  Methodist  Society.  At  Kiu- 
shiu  he  found  a  deep  interest  in  Christianity. 
The  provincial  judge  said:  "Send  us  a  native 
preacher  who  can  preach  the  gospel  and  teach 
English  two  hours  a  day,  and  we  will  support 
him."  He  was  also  anxious  for  a  missionary 
and  his  wife. 

The  arrival  of  Rev.  J.  C.  C.  Newton  and  S. 
H.  Wainright,  M.D.,  with  their  wives,  May 
21,  1888,  greatly  encouraged  their  fellow-mis- 
sionaries. In  accordance  with  the  action  of 
the  Board  accepting  the  proposal  of  the  Meth- 
odist Episcopal  Church  to  cooperate  in  the 
work  of  training  a  native  ministry,  Brother 
Newton  was  appointed  by  Bishop  Wilson  to  a 

338      Hand  Book  of  Metliodlst  Missions. 

professorship  in  the  Philander  Smith  Biblical 
Institute  at  Aoyama^  Tokio.  He  was  assigned 
to  the  chair  of  Biblical  Exegesis  and  entered 
on  the  work  of  teaching  theology  in  teaching 
in  English  and  Japanese,  the  latter  through 
an  interpreter.  Two  of  our  students  were 
there  awaiting  his  arrival,  and  were  soon 
joined  by  five  others,  making  a  class  of  seven. 
In  addition  to  these  duties  he  was  Secretary 
of  the  Faculty,  was  engaged  in  Bible  class 
work,  preaching,  and  the  study  of  the  language. 
The  importance  of  training  a  native  force  for 
the  evangelization  of  Japan  had  early  engaged 
the  thoughts  and  prayers  of  our  brethren  on 
the  ground,  and  to  their  efforts  in  this  direc- 
tion may  be  attributed  a  large  measure  of 
their  great  success.  The  Kob6  Church  sent 
four,  the  Hiroshima  two,  and  the  Oita  one  to 
receive  the  benefit  of  Brother  Newton's  train- 
ing. One  third  of  their  expenses  were  borne 
by  the  native  Churches  to  which  they  belonged, 
and  two-thirds  by  our  native  Missionary  So- 

Brother  Wainright  and  wife  were  sent  to 
the  relief  of  Brother  Waters  at  Oita,  reaching 
their  work  June  6.  By  June  24  they  had  or- 
ganized a  Sunday  school  with  forty-two  schol- 
ars on  the  roll.     It  soon  numbered  sixty-four. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  339 

Soon  several  young  men  asked  tliem  to  have 
a  daily  Bible  class.  They  had  an  average  at- 
tendance of  about  twenty.  On  Sunday  even- 
ings they  held  gospel  meetings,  which  soon 
had  an  average  of  forty.  The  annual  report 
showed  at  Oita  an  organized  Church  of  twenty- 
seven  members. 

Rev.  N.  W.  Utley  landed  in  Kob6  August 
14,  the  same  hour  that  the  corner  stone  of 
their  first  church  was  laid.  He  entered  at 
ouce  on  his  work.  Teaching  in  Palmore  In- 
stitute, the  night  school,  two  daily  Bible 
classes,  Chautauqua  work,  and  Japanese  study 
soon  engrossed  all  his  time.  While  doing 
full  work  as  a  missionary.  Brother  Utley  was 
self-supporting.  The  second  annual  meeting 
was  held  in  Kobe,  beginning  September  1, 
1888,  Bishop  Wilson  presiding.  The  annual 
review  of  the  work  was  full  of  encourage- 

Dr.  O.  A.  Dukes  had  been  in  charge  of  the 
Osaka  Circuit,  with  stations  at  Osaka,  Mikage, 
Nishinomiya,  Amagaski,Hirano,  and  Wakaya- 
ma.  His  method  of  working  his  railroad  sta- 
tion Bible  classes  was  peculiar.  He  loaded 
up  his  native  assistants  with  sermons  and  ex- 
hortations to  give  to  them  who  have  not.  He 
visited  each  railroad  station  in  order,  holding 

340      Hand  Book  of  Mdhodist  Missions. 

Bible  classes  at  each  point.  As  the  train 
passed  each  point  every  two  hours,  he  was  able 
to  economize  time.  On  Sunday  he  preached 
at  Osaka,  and  held  his  Bible  classes  during 
the  week.  Mrs.  Dukes  accompanied  him  on 
his  circuit,  doing  efficient  work  among  the 
women,  and  with  organ  and  voice  training 
them  in  Christian  song. 

Brother  Moseley  was  engaged  in  a  govern- 
ment school  at  Wakayama  until  October,  1888, 
where  he  devoted  his  entire  time  to  mission 
work,  his  support  being  now  provided  by  the 

The  report  of  Kob6  Circuit,  under  charge  of 
Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth,  was  full  of  interest.  Its 
stations  were:  Kobe, Hiogo,  Uajima,  and  Sumo- 
to.  The  steady  growth  of  the  Church  at  Kobe 
demanded  much  attention,  while  frequent  visits 
to  the  island  of  Awaji,  and  to  the  city  of  Ua- 
jima, distant  some  three  hundred  and  seventy 
miles,  made  heavy  drafts  on  his  time  and 
strength.  The  Bible  was  taught  daily,  stead- 
ily, and  persistingly.  In  fact  the  Mission  was 
a  great  Bible  school.  Prayer  meetings  were 
frequent  and  well  attended.  A  protracted 
meeting  had  been  held  in  Kob6  during  the 
summer,  with  good  results.  During  the  meet- 
ing there  was  a  notable  ingathering  of  women 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S,  841 

and  whole  families.  Two  years  before,  one  of 
the  servants  in  Dr.  Lambuth's  family,  who 
was  a  Congregationalist,  in  her  daily -prayer, 
said:  "O  Lord,  bless  the  poor  Methodist 
Church,  which  has  but  one  believer. ''  Subse- 
quently she  changed  the  prayer  to  "which 
has  a  few  believers,  but  no  women."  These 
prayers  were  answered.  The  Methodist  Mis- 
sion had  "many  believers,  and  many  women, 
both  wives  and  mothers."  The  laying  of  the 
corner  stone  of  our  first  church  in  Kobe 
by  Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth  opened  a  new  era 
in  our  work.  The  site  was  secured  by  a 
special  donation  from  a  Presbyterian  brother 
of  Nashville,  Tenn.  Palmore  Institute  night 
school,  under  Dr.  Lambuth's  management, 
aided  by  Brother  Yoshioka,  our  native  ex- 
horter,  had  grown  until  it  could  not  find 
room  for  all  who  desired  to  share  its  benefits. 
The  pupils  averaged  60  in  number.  The  cir- 
cuit reported:  Adults  baptized,  47;  children,  6; 
Sunday  schools,  3;  scholars,  120. 

The  work  for  women  was  vigorously  prose- 
cuted by  Mrs  J.  W.  Lambuth.  The  ladies' 
class  occupied  her  time  from  9  to  12  a.m.  She 
taught  a  class  of  gentlemen  from  2  to  4  p.m. 
and  a  class  in  the  Palmore  Institute  night 
school.     A  weekly  Bible  class  for  women  and 

342      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

children  was  organized,  with  an  average  at- 
tendance at  the  school  of  thirty-five. 

The  story  of  the  work  this  year  at  Uajima 
illustrates  so  remarkably  the  character  of  the 
work  in  this  field,  and  the  movements  of  the 
Holy  Spirit  in  connection  with  the  labors  of 
our  missionaries,  that  we  give  in  full  the  re- 
port of  the  Superintendent: 

This  city,  upon  the  remote  western  extremity  of  the 
island  of  Shikoku,  is  upon  a  rocky  and  (except  by 
■  water)  ahnost  inaccessible  coast.  It  was  opened  to  us 
by  agencies  which  we  knew  not  of,  and  has  given  us 
an  illustration  of  Paul's  words :  "  God  hath  chosen  the 
weak  things  of  the  world  to  confound  the  things  which 
are  mighty."  We  were  written  and  telegraphed  for 
several  times  by  a  teacher  and  a  lawyer— men  whom 
we  had  never  met.  They  desired  to  have  "the  city 
opened  to  the  civilization  of  the  West."  We  went  sev- 
eral times,  met  with  kind  receptions,  talked  for  hours 
to  private  circles,  and  addressed  large  audiences  in  the 
city  theater;  but  for  some  months  had  only  two  believ- 
ers in  Christianity,  and  one  of  them  became  a  casta- 
way. Besides  these  two  there  were  a  half  dozen  proba- 
tioners, but  to  a  man  they  went  over  to  the  Congrega- 
tionalists  during  our  absence,  the  latter  having  five 
members,  but  no  pastor.  The  only  other  human  factor 
in  our  work  was  a  boy  of  sixteen,  whom  the  two  mem- 
bers and  prol)ationers,  previous  to  their  disaffection, 
had  sent  to  Kobe  for  religious  instruction,  that  in  the 
course  of  years  they  might  have  a  native  teacher.  Ex- 
traneous influences  set  in  with  such  a  tide,  and  the  vi- 
tality of  our  work  during  our  enforced  absence  at  other 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  343 

points  readied  so  low  an  ebb  that  it  seemed  best  to 
hand  over  the  place  to  the  Congregationalists,  who  pro- 
posed to  send  a  pastor.  We  felt  that  this  was  better 
than  to  permit  them  to  suffer  for  attention,  for  in  all 
our  bounds  we  had  not  a  native  preacher.  Not  so, 
thought  our  young  hero,  who  had  in  the  meantime  re- 
ceived baptism  in  Kobe.  Not  waiting  our  arrival  to 
consult  over  the  matter,  but  recognizing  the  crisis  in 
his  distant  home,  he  gathered  up  his  books  and  bedding 
and  took  passage  by  the  first  steamer  going  west.  Ar- 
riving at  Uajima,  he  dauntlessly  began  his  work,  gath- 
ered the  expiring  embers,  fanned  them  into  a  flame, 
and  in  the  name  of  the  Master  told  his  people  that  he 
had  come  to  j^reach  Jesua  and  him  crucified.  House 
to  house  prayer  meetings  were  held,  class  meetings 
instituted,  a  Sunday  school  organized,  and  all  the  means 
of  grace  within  his  reach  availed  of.  Brother  Nino- 
miya  had  been  taught  of  the  Spirit,  and  learned  his 
lesson  well.  He  urged  us  not  to  give  up ;  of  course  we 
did  not,  and  as  a  result  of  his  faithful  ministry  and  of 
Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth's  indefatigable  efforts,  under  the 
blessings  of  God,  the  Uajima  Church  has  to-day  thirty- 
four  members,  many  probationers,  and  has  become  the 
center  of  a  promising  work  along  the  coast.  The 
teacher  has  recently  been  baptized,  and  now  the  lawyer, 
after  a  long  and  severe  illness,  surrendered  not  to  civ- 
ilization, but  to  Christ.  Thus  the  two  men  who  were 
led  by  other  motives  to  invite  the  missionary  have 
themselves  found  the  true  motive  and  foundation  for 
all  right  doing.  The  happy  conversion  within  the  last 
few  weeks  of  an  old  woman  of  eighty-four  years,  result- 
ing in  her  throwing  away  her  idols,  and  her  son  of 
sixty  smashing  his  wine  cup  and  crying  with  bitter 
tears  over  his  sinful  habits,  has  made  a  deep  and  abid- 

344     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ing  impression  upon  the  whole  city.  The  facts  are  in 
every  mouth.  There  is  a  sound  of  a  going  forth  in  the 
tops  of  the  mountains.  The  Spirit  is  at  work.  Let  us 
be  reaiiy  lor  the  marching  orders! 

Our  young  brother's  heroism  was  equaled  by  his  self- 
denial.  He  came  up  to  annual  meeting  expecting  to 
enter  the  theological  school  at  Tokio  with  the  other 
members  of  the  class,  but  as  we  had  no  one  to  send 
to  Uajima  in  his  place  he  cheerfully  consented  to  return 
to  his  work  for  another  year.  In  the  autumn  he  must 
go  where  he  can  receive  instruction,  but  we  are  still 
unable  to  replace  him.  Who  will  come  from  America 
and  work  in  Uajima  for  four  year.-;  until  he  has  com- 
pleted his  course?  Cannot  the  Church  send  us  the 
help  we  so  much  need? 

The  Hiroshima  Circuit  was  under  the  charge 
of  Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth.  The  stations  were 
Hiroshima,  Iwakuni,  Shobara,  and  Oita.  A 
disturbing  element  in  the  Hiroshima  Church 
had  injured  the  Church.  This  had  been  in- 
creased by  the  enforced  absence  of  the  pastor, 
who  in  his  relation  to  the  whole  work  had  to 
be  on  the  wing.  In  the  spring  matters  were 
improved  by  the  removal  of  one  factor  of  the 
disturbing  element  and  the  timely  aid  of 
Brother  Nakayama,  whose  name  appears  in 
connection  with  the  Church  at  Shobara.  "At 
a  time  when  the  girls'  school  was  without  a 
Japanese  manager,  and  when  the  affairs  of  the 
Church    were    much    disturbed,    he   quickly 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  345 

stepped  in,  and  in  the  most  unassuming  but 
systematic  manner  restored  order  and  gave 
no  small  impulse  to  the  work." 

Miss  Gaines  had  worked  faithfully  at  her 
school.  It  had  averaged  twenty  pupils,  who 
represented  the  best  element  in  Hiroshima. 
Her  heart  was  gladdened  by  their  willingness 
to  attend  church  and  Sunday  school.  One  had 
received  baptism.  It  was  evident  that  the 
work  was  greatly  impeded  by  her  surround- 
ings. Her  home  was  an  old  theater,  located 
in  a  narrow  alley,  between  two  Buddhist  tem- 
ples. The  great  need  of  the  school  was  good 

Good  work  had  been  done  among  the  sol- 
diers, and  by  Miss  Gaines  and  Mrs.  Daisy 
Lambuth  among  the  women  and  children. 
Brother  Waters,  after  he  was  relieved  at  Oita 
by  Brother  Wainright,  came  to  Hiroshima 
to  teach  in  the  government  schools.  His 
presence  and  help  in  supervising  the  work  of 
the  Church  was  of  great  service. 

The  statistical  reports  furnished  the  follow- 
ing figures:  Stations,  5;  oufc  stations,  10; 
male  married  missionaries,  5;  missionaries' 
wives,  5;  male  single,  3;  female  single,  1; 
total,  14;  adults  baptized,  88;  children,  6; 
native  membership,  153;  net  increase,  99;  pro- 

846      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

bationers,  79;  theological  students,  7;  total 
preparing  for  the  ministry,  12;  exliorters,  4; 
Sunday  schools,  15 ;  scholars,  359 ;  Bible  class- 
es, 10;  students,  113;  night  schools,  2;  stu- 
dents, 77;  day  schools,  3;  students,  82;  church 
building,  1;  seating  capacity,  300;  value,  $2,- 
500;  (hiiilt  without  appropriations  hij  the  Board); 
Bible  classes  held,  2,232  times;  itineration,  33,- 
900  miles. 

The  visit  o£  Bishop  Wilson  and  his  wife  was 
an  inspiration  to  the  missionaries.  Their 
deep  interest  in  the  work  and  their  sympathy 
for  the  workers  gave  them  fresh  courage. 
They  visited  many  portions  of  the  Mission ;  and 
having  thoroughly  informed  himself  as  to  the 
details  of  the  work  in  all  its  departments,  the 
bishop  was  able  before  the  Board  and  home 
Church  to  represent  its  condition  and  press  its 
urgent  demands. 

The  third  Annual  Meeting  was  held  in 
Kob6  September  4,  1889,  Dr.  W.  K.  Lam- 
buth  in  the  chair.  The  reports  were  full  of 
interest.  We  regret  that  our  limited  space 
will  not  allow  us  to  give  them  in  full.  As  the 
Mission  Board  had  been  unable  during  the 
past  year  to  reenforce  the  Mission,  but  little 
on  the  line  of  expansion  had  been  attempted, 
yet  two  important  cities  had  been  added  to 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  347 

the  work — viz.,  Himeji,  a  city  of  over  25,000 
inhabitants,  thirty-five  miles  by  rail  west  of 
Kobe,  and  Tadotsu,  with  a  i3opulation  of  6,000, 
eighty  miles  southwest  of  Kobe.  The  latter 
was  considered  an  important  strategic  point 
on  the  Inland  Sea. 

The  number  and  efficiency  of  the  native 
force  had  been  increased.  Kev.  Y.  Yoshioka 
received  the  first  license  to  x^reach  granted  by 
the  Mission.  A  year  before  he  came  to  the 
missionaries  and  said:  "Having  worked  for 
foreigners,  I  know  one  side  of  foreign  life; 
but  I  believe  there  is  another  side,  and  I 
want  to  know  something  about  it."  They 
tried  to  show  him  the  other  side,  and  there  he 
found  Christ.  He  was  teaching  for  a  support, 
but  gave  up  two  hours  of  work  daily,  and  lost 
the  equivalent  in  salary,  that  he  might  devote 
the  time  to  Bible  study.  His  mother  was  a 
devout  Buddhist,  but  at  his  baptism  she  broke 
down.  She  became  one  of  the  happiest  Chris- 
tians in  the  Mission  Church.  Brother  Yoshi- 
oka was  the  assistant  pastor  of  the  Kob6 
Church,  and  an  efficient  teacher  in  the  Kob6 
girls'  school.  Four  earnest  young  men  had 
been  licensed  to  exhort,  making  eight  in  the 
work,  or  nine  licensed  native  workers  in  all. 

The  ladies  of  the  Mission,  while  bearing  the 

348      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

burdens  of  housekeeping,  and  the  almost  daily 
entertainment  of  guests,  native  and  foreign, 
moved  on  with  cheerfulness  in  answer  to  the 
exigencies  of  the  work.  All  had  Sunday 
schools  for  children  and  classes  for  women 
during  the  week.  Miss  Gaines  stood  at  her 
post  against  heavy  odds  in  charge  of  the 
girls'  school  at  Hiroshima.  Alone,  in  the  up- 
per story  of  an  old  theater,  confronted  by 
strong  Buddhist  opposition,  the  cheerful  de- 
termination with  which  she  pulled  through 
every  obstacle  was  surprising. 

At  a  regular  meeting  of  the  Mission,  held 
July  15,  1889,  it  was  resolved  to  concentrate 
our  educational  forces  at  Kobe,  and  that  im- 
mediate steps  be  taken  to  procure  a  Faculty  and 
facilities  for  thorough  academic  and  Biblical 
training.  The  action  was  taken  with  the 
knowledge  and  approval  of  Bishop  Wilson. 
This  movement  would  not  have  been  feasible 
but  for  the  bequest  of  Thomas  L.  Branch,  of 
Bichmond,  Va.,  which  placed,  through  Bishop 
Wilson,  $10,000  at  the  disposal  of  the  Japan 
Mission  for  the  education  of  young  men. 
The  report  of  the  Superintendent  says: 

A  most  ehgible  site,  comprising  eight  acres  upon  the 
southern  slope  of  the  hills  two  miles  east  of  Kobe,  half 
a  mile  from  and  facing  the  sea,  was  purchased,  and  a 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  349 

two -story  dormitory  rapidly  pushed  to  completion. 
The  lower  story  is  to  be  used  for  recitations  and  the 
upper  to  accommodate  twenty-five  boarders.  Brother 
N.  W.  Utley,  removing  his  day  school  from  Kobe, 
became  Principal  of  the  Academic  Department;  while 
Professor  J.  C.  C.  Newton,  who  had  been  laboring  in 
Tokio,  brought  out  theological  students  here  and  be- 
came Principal  of  the  Biblical  Department.  As  will  be 
seen  by  the  minutes  of  the  last  Annual  Meeting,  Broth- 
ers Moseley  and  Utley  were  also  associated  with  Brother 
Newton  in  theological  training,  the  writer  making  a 
fourth  in  the  Faculty.  Still  later,  upon  the  arrival  of 
Brother  T.  W.  B.  Demaree,  Brother  Utley 's  place  was 
filled  by  him,  the  latter  having  his  hands  full  with  the 
other  department,  language  study,  and  the  duties  of 
Mission  Treasurer. 

Again  we  copy  from  the  report: 

One  school  hour  every  morning  is  given  up  to  the 
study  of  the  iScriptures.  The  object  of  the  school  is  to 
build  up  Christian  character.  The  spirit  of  the  school 
is  intensely  evangelistic  and  aggressive.  Seven  out  stati<3ns 
are  kept  up  by  our  Christian  students,  some  of  them 
traveling  as  far  out  as  eighty  miles  by  steamer  and  rail. 
It  is  truly  an  inspiring  sight  to  see  these  young  evan- 
gelists going  forth  to  the  help  of  the  struggling  Churches 
which  have  no  pastors.  The  presence  of  an  active  Y.  M. 
C.  A.  organization  and  a  daily  evening  prayer  meeting 
help  to  give  the  institution  an  atmosphere  of  healthy 
devotion,  which  more  than  supplements  the  work 
done  in  the  class  room.  And  now  the  crowning  bless- 
ing of  all  has  been  a  remarkable  series  of  manifesta- 
tions of  God's  Holy  Spirit  to  us  individually  first,  a 
pentecostal  outpouring  upon  the  Oita  Church  three 

350      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

hours  afterward  in  the  second  place,  and  ten  days  later 
in  great  and  abundant  measure  upon  our  boys'  school, 
the  work  of  grace  never  ceasing  until  four  young  men 
were  called  to  the  ministry  and  two  women  to  the  Bi- 
ble woman's  work— these  four  from  Oita  Church— and 
until  not  one  student  was  left  in  the  dormitory  who 
did  not  profess  faith  in  Christ.  A  class  of  twelve  are 
now  candidates  for  baptism.  The  writer,  being  an  eye- 
witness and  an  unworthy  recipient  of  these  gracious 
blessings,  is  constrained  to  cry  out  with  the  Psalmist: 
"  Bless  the  Lord,  O  my  soul :  and  all  that  is  within  me, 
bless  his  holy  name! " 

Brother  Utley,  who  has  charge  of  the  Aca- 
demic Department,  thus  wrote  of  the  evan- 
gelistic work  of  these  native  students  of  the 
Kwansei  Gakuin,  as  the  boys'  school  at  Kob6 
is  called: 

Pursuing  their  studies  during  the  week  with  untiring 
industry,  at  its  close  they  gather  their  bedding  and 
Bibles,  and  go  out  into  the  surrounding  cities  and  vil- 
lages and  preach  the  gospel  to  their  kindred  and  friends. 
It  is  an  encouraging  scene  to  witness  their  informal 
meetings  Monday  night  after  their  return.  They  tell 
of  triumphs,  disappointments,  trials,  and  victories ;  of 
probationers,  prayer  meetings,  and  Sunday  schools,  and 
seldom  fail  to  bring  with  them  calls  for  more  expe- 
rienced and  better  informed  workers  to  follow  up  the 
work  initiated  by  themselves.  Beginning  with  less 
than  twenty  students,  and  hoping  to  reach  only  thirty, 
with  boarding  accommodations  for  onlj'-  twenty-four,  I 
have  now  to  report  nearly  twice  the  number  begun 
with.    The  dormitory  is  full.    Every  boarder  is  a  con- 

^fissions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  351 

verted  follower  of  the  Lord  Jesus,  and  nearly  all  of  the 
day  pupils.  The  students  go  away  to  their  homes  thor- 
oughly evangelistic  in  spirit,  burning  with  their  glorrious 
secret,  and  open  numerous  avenues  through  which  the 
missionary  may  enter  into  their  towns  and  their  homes. 

The  statistical  report  for  the  year  closing 
September  4,  1889,  gives  the  follov^^ing  re- 
sults: Stations,  5;  out  stations,  12;  married 
missionaries,  5;  female  married,  5;  male  sin- 
gle, 3;  female  single,  1;  total,  14;  adults  bap- 
tized, 102;  children,  13;  members,  232;  net  in- 
crease, 68;  probationers,  48;  local  preachers 
and  exhorters,  8;  theological  students  in  school, 
7;  total  preparing  for  the  ministry,  12;  Sun- 
day schools,  18;  scholars,  485. 

The  fourth  annual  meeting  of  the  Japan 
Mission  was  convened  in  the  Methodist 
Church,  Kobe,  September  3,  1890,  by  Bishop 
A.  W.  Wilson.  The  most  important  events 
that  marked  the  year  since  their  third  annual 
meeting  was  the  arrival  of  the  long-expected 

Eev.  T.  W.  B.  Demaree,of  the  Kentucky  Con- 
ferei^ce,  reached  Kobe  November  4, 1889;  Miss 
Laura  Strider,  of  Virginia,  December  3, 1889; 
and  Miss  Y.  M.  Kin,  M.D.,  December  4,  1889 
(Miss  Kin  was  already  in  the  field  when  em- 
ployed by  the  Board);  Miss  Mary  C.  Bice,  of 

352      Umid  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

California,  January  29,  1890;  Eev.  W.  E. 
Towson  and  wife,  of  the  Pacific  Conference, 
February  20,  1890;  Kev.  W.  A.  Wilson,  of 
North  Carolina,  June  24,  1890;  and  Miss 
Kate  Harlan,  who  was  in  the  field  a  self-sup- 
porting missionary  when  she  Was  placed  on 
the  roll  of  our  mission  force.  These  additions 
to  their  numbers  added  greatly  to  the  confi- 
dence of  the  missionaries  who  had  been  hold- 
ing their  ground  for  over  two  years. 

The  reports  at  the  annual  meeting  indicated 
that  our  brethren  and  sisters  had  not  only  cul- 
tivated diligently  fields  already  occupied,  but 
had  extended  their  lines  into  the  regions  be- 
yond. We  wish  we  had  space  for  the  full 
text  of  their  reports. 

Dr.  J.  W,  Lambuth,  presiding  elder  of  the 
Kobe  District,  called  attention  to  the  pressing 
want  of  a  resident  preacher  and  wife,  and  a 
native  preacher  at  Osaka.  The  native  Chris- 
tians of  the  town  and  of  the  island  of  Shi- 
koku  earnestly  called  for  a  resident  mission- 
ary, who  should  be  accompanied  by  a  native 
preacher.  The  work  at  Tadotsu  and  sur- 
rounding country,  which  was  on  the  island  of 
Shikoku,  would  require  the  entire  time  of  a 
missionary  and  a  native  preacher.  The  peo- 
ple asked  at  least  for  a  native  preacher.    They 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  353 

were  endeavoring  to  build  a  church.  They 
had  placed  in  the  hands  of  Dr.  Lambuth  seven 
armors  and  over  twenty  swords  to  be  sold  and 
the  money  used  for  that  purpose.  He  had 
spent  much  time  in  Himeji  and  the  country 
around,  and  considered  it  essential  that  the 
country  to  the  west  and  north  of  Kob6  and 
Himeji  be  immediately  occupied.  It  em- 
braced a  country  that  for  two  hundred  miles 
had  been  scarcely  touched  by  any  foreign 
missionary.  He  had  licensed  two  young  men 
to  preach  and  four  to  exhort,  who  were  doing 
good  work.  He  had  prepared  twelve  tracts 
on  Scripture  emblems  for  publication. 

The  report  of  Brother  Moseley  for  the  Kobe 
Circuit  speaks  largely  of  the  pulpit  labors  of 
Brother  Yoshioka.  Every  month  new  proba- 
tioners gave  in  their  names  and  members 
were  added  to  the  Church.  Two  Sunday 
schools  in  the  city,  with  scholars  of  all  ages, 
reported  an  average  attendance  of  fifty.  The 
ladies  of  the  Mission  conducted  Sunday  schools 
among  adjoining  villages.  One  conducted  by 
Mrs.  W.  E.  Lambuth  was  held  in  the  street, 
as  no  one  would  rent  a  room.  One  of  her 
songs  was  "Come  to  Jesus,"  which  won  for 
her   among   the  children  the  title  of  "Mrs. 

Come  to  Jesus." 

354      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

The  Kwansei  Gakuin,  with  J.  C.  C.  Newton 
in  charge  of  the  Biblical  Department,  and  N. 
W.  Utley  in  charge  of  the  Academic  Depart- 
ment, amid  many  discouragements  did  effect- 
ive work.  In  addition  to  other  duties,  Dr.  W. 
K  Lambuth  and  Brother  Mosely,  with  Broth- 
er Demaree,  had  classes  in  this  school. 

A  dispell  sary  for  women  and  children  was 
opened  in  Hioga  February  25,  1890,  by  Miss 
Y.  M.  Kin,  M.D.,  which  promises  important 

In  addition  to  the  duties  of  Treasurer, 
Brother  Towson  had  charge  of  Osaka  Circuit. 
Four  regular  services  were  held  each  week. 
He  had  a  class  of  bright  young  men  who  met 
daily  for  Bible  study.  During  the  year  T.  M. 
Datte,  who  had  been  laboring  for  several 
years  among  the  Japanese  in  San  Francisco 
as  interpreter  and  evangelist,  was  licensed  to 
preach.  He  was  the  second  native  local 
preacher  in  the  Mission. 

.  The  ladies  of  the  Kobe  District  all  ren- 
dered effective  service  in  Sunday  schools,  day 
schools,  and  night  schools.  The  women  they 
trained  for  Bible  work  will  lead  many  of  these 
heathen  sisters  to  the  cross. 

The  Hiroshima  District,  in  charge  of  W,  E. 
Lambuth;  reported  healthy  growth.     In  Hi- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  355 

loshima  a  most  commodious  and  well-located 
church  had  been  built,  besides  buildings  for  a 
girls'  boarding  school.  Miss  Gaines  (who  was 
in  charge  of  the  school),  aided  by  Miss  Bice 
and  Brother  Waters  (who  was  also  the  pastor 
of  the  charge),  reported  twenty-three  enrolled 

Dr.  Dukes,  seconded  by  Mrs.  Dukes  and 
Miss  Strider,  had  carried  on  the  work  vigor- 
ously at  Mateuyama.  His  boys'  school  grew, 
and  his  chapel  was  crowded  with  hearers. 

At  Oita  Dr.  Wainright  and  wife  had  a 
year  of  hard  work  and  a  season  of  hot  perse- 
cution. Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth  went  to  their 
aid.  In  their  darkest  hour  the  missionary 
cried  earnestly  to  God  for  help.  The  Holy 
Spirit  was  poured  out  on  the  little  band;  a  re- 
vival wave  swept  over  their  Church;  sinners 
were  convicted,  and  some  were  converted. 
The  native  Christians  were  filled  with  wonder, 
and  said  to  each  other:  "We  have  never  seen 
it  on  this  wise  before."  Out  of  their  company 
three  were  called  to  preach  the  gospel  to  their 
people.  Around  Oita  there  are  a  million  and 
a  half  of  idolaters.  Calls  came  in  to  Dr. 
Wainright  from  many  villages,  but  his  du- 
ties in  Oita  would  not  allow  him  to  go. 

November  12,  1890,  Eev.  J.  M.  Rollins,  of 

356      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

the  St.  Louis  Conference,  and  his  wife  reached 
Japan.  The  Mission  now  reported:  Stations, 
6;  out  stations,  15;  adult  baptisms,  77;  mem- 
bers, 318;  net  increase,  87;  probationers,  157; 
local  preachers  and  exhorters,  11;  preparing 
for  the  ministry,  13;  Sunday  schools,  21; 
scholars,  617. 

In  1891  the  Mission  was  reenforced  by  the 
arrival  of  Eev.  Simeon  Shaw,  of  the  South 
Georgia  Conference,  and  his  wife,  who  reached 
the  field  April  1;  and  Kev.  W.  A.  Davis,  of  the 
Missouri  Conference,  who  landed  at  Kobe 
September  1.  They  gave  the  Mission  at  that 
time  a  force  of  13  male  missionaries,  11  wives 
of  missionaries,  and  4  single  lady  mission- 

In  December,  1890,  Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth, 
owing  t-o  the  failing  health  of  his  wife,  re- 
turned, under  a  leave  of  absence  from  the 
Board,  to  the  United  States.  Many  years  of 
toil,  exposure,  and  sickness  in  the  trying  cli- 
mate of  China  and  Japan  had  prostrated  and 
broken  her  health.  If  prayer  will  prevail,  the 
health  of  this  devoted  missionary  will  be  re- 
stored, that  she  may  close  her  mission  in  the 
field  to  which  she  had  gladly  consecrated  her 

In  October,  1891,  a  cablegram  from  Dr.  J. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.  357 

W.  Lambutli  to  Bishop  Wilson  announced  the 
destruction  by  fire  of  our  girls'  boarding 
school  in  Hiroshima.  The  value  of  the  school 
to  our  work  called  for  prompt  action.  After  a 
brief  council  with  the  bishop  in  charge  and 
Dr.  W.  K.  Lambuth  it  was  decided  to  raise 
the  fund  needed  to  restore  the  house  by  spe- 
cial effort,  and  the  Secretary  cabled  to  Dr.  J.  W. 
Lambuth  the  word,  "Eebuild."  The  Bud- 
dhists of  Hiroshima,  who  rejoiced  over  our  loss, 
will  in  due  time  look  on  the  walls  of  another 
Christian  school  on  the  site  of  the  old  one. 

The  report  of  the  Japan  Mission  for  1891-92, 
as  found  in  the  Forty-sixth  Annual  Eeport  of 
the  Board,  exhibits  a  most  encouraging  ad- 
vance in  all  the  lines  of  work.  The  Mission 
now  has  5  native  preachers,  14  local  preach- 
ers, 17  theological  students,  24  Bible  women 
and  other  helpers,  40  native  teachers,  381  na- 
tive members,  128  probationers,  23  Bible 
classes,  248  students,  34  Sunday  schools,  and 
902  scholars. 

Miss  Harlan  was  called  home  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1891  by  important  interests,  and 
Brother  Utley  in  October  of  the  same  year 
by  failing  health.  We  trust  the  way  will  soon 
be  opened  for  their  return,  and  that  the  Board 
ere  long  may  be  able  to  send  out  the  reen  force- 

358      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ments  this  field  so  greatly  needs.     The  follow- 
ing table  gives  the 

Roll  of  the  Mission. 




Rev.  J.  W.  Lambuth 

Rev.  0.  A.  Dukes 

Rev.  W.  R.  Lambuth 

Rev  C.  B.  Moseley 


S.  W.  Missouri. 







W.  N.  Carolina. 

St.  Louis. 

N.  Georgia. 



Miss  N  B  (iraines         .      ... 


Rev.  B.  W.  Waters 


Rev.  J.  C.  C.  Newton 

S.  H,  Wainright,  M.D 

Rev.  N.  W.  Utley 

Miss  Y.  M.  Kin,  M.D 

Rev.  T.  W.  B.  Demaree 

Miss  L.  C.  Strider 


Rev.  W.  E.  Towson 

Miss  M.  F  Bice         


Miss  Kate  Harlan 


Rev.  W.  A.  Wilson 

Rev.  J.  M.  Rollins 


Rev.  S.  Shaw 


Rev.  W.  A.  Davis    




In  1756  Mr.  Wesley  called  the  attention  of 
the  Conference  to  the  demands  of  destitute 
regions  in  England  and  Ireland,  and  a  fund 
was  raised  to  aid  in  sending  them  the  gospel. 
This  was  the  beginning  of  Home  Missions 
among  the  Methodists  of  England.  In  1812 
Bishop  Asbury  began  to  call  on  the  people  for 
subscriptions  for  the  support  of  ministers 
where  they  could  not  otherwise  be  sustained. 
All  these  subscriptions  were  entered  in  a  small 
pocket  memorandum  book,  and  the  money  was 
used  in  the  destitute  regions  of  the  regular 
work  and  in  new  circuits  on  the  western  fron- 
tier. This  may  be  considered  the  beginning 
of  Home  Missions  in  the  Methodist  Church 
in  America. 

About  the  year  1812  "Bishop  Asbury  began 
to  solicit  subscriptions  for  the  support  of  min- 
isters on  circuits  where  they  could  not  other- 
wise be  sustained,  which  subscriptions  he  en- 
tered in  a  pocket  memorandum  book  that  he 


360       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

always  carried  with  him  for  that  purpose." 
This  fact  may  explain  the  reason  why  the  an- 
nual reports  designate  1812  as  the  date  of  the 
origin  of  the  Domestic  Missions  of  Episcopa- 
lian Methodism. 

In  1819,  when  our  Church  organized  its  Mis- 
sionary Society,  its  field  was  altogether  in  this 
country:  among  the  Indians,  the  colored 
people,  and  destitute  regions  of  our  regular 
work.  It  was  not  until  1833  that  our  Church 
entered  the  foreign  field,  and  sent  Melville  B. 
Cox  to  Liberia,  Africa.  It  1835  it  also  com- 
menced mission  work  in  South  America. 
With  the  exception  of  these  two  missions,  our 
missionary  operations  were  confined  to  the 
home  field  until  after  1844,  when  the  Church 
was  divided.  It  was  not  until  1848  that  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  entered 
the  foreign  field. 

From  the  annual  report  of  the  Board  of 
Missions  for  1846  we  find  the  southern  branch 
of  the  Church  had  the  following  Home  Mis- 
sions within  its  bounds:  Missions  among  the 
destitute  regions  of  regular  work;  Missions 
among  the  people  of  color;  Indian  Missions; 
Texas  Mission;  German  Mission;  French  Mis- 
sions in  Louisiana. 

In  former  Hand  Boohs  we  have  given  brief 

Home  Missiofis  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.      361 

summaries  of  the  missions  among  the  people 
of  color,  the  Indians,  the  Texas  mission,  and 
the  French  mission  in  Louisiana.  It  remains 
that  we  should  give  some  account  of  the  mis- 
sions among  the  destitute  regions  of  the  reg- 
ular work,  the  German  missions,  and  the  mis- 
sions in  the  West. 

Missions  in  Destitute  Eegions  of  the  Keg- 
ULAR  Work. 

In  1846  we  had  in  Southern  Methodism  47 
missions  in  destitute  regions  of  the  regular 
work,  46  missionaries,  and  8,996  members. 
The  annual  reports  fail  to  show  how  much 
was  expended  at  that  period  in  each  depart- 
ment, but  for  all  the  Home  Missions  the  col- 
lections were  $68,529.24.  Of  this  less  than 
one-half  was  expended  for  the  missions  in  the 
destitute  regions  among  the  white  people. 
The  largest  part  of  the  collections  was  em- 
ployed in  supporting  the  missions  among  the 
colored  people. 

In  1861  the  annual  report  showed  257  mis- 
sions, 210  missionaries,  and  43,676  members. 

At  the  General  Conference  of  1846  both 
Home  and  Foreign  Missions  were  committed 
to  a  Board  of  Managers,  which,  in  conjunction 
with  the  bishops,  determined  the  fields  that 

362      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

were  to  be  occupied,  selected  the  missionaries, 
and  distributed  the  amount  to  be  raised  for 
their  support  among  the  Annual  Conferences. 
In  1866  the  General  Conference  divided  the 
mission  work  of  the  Church  into  two  depart- 
ments, and  provided  for  the  organization  of 
two  Boards,  one  having  charge  of  the  home 
and  the  other  of  the  foreign  field.  In  1870 
the  missions  of  the  Church  were  again  placed 
under  one  Board  of  Managers.  In  1874  the 
constitution  was  again  changed,  giving  to  the 
missionary  operations  of  the  Church  their 
present  organization.  The  General  Board  has 
charge  of  the  foreign  missions  and  all  others 
not  provided  for  by  the  Annual  Conferences. 
Each  Annual  Conference  is  required  to  organ- 
ize a  Board  of  Missions  auxiliary  to  the  Gen- 
eral Board,  which  shall  have  control  of  the 
missions  it  may  establish  with  the  consent  of 
the  President  of  the  Conference  within  its 
bounds  and  of  the  funds  raised  for  its  sup- 
port. This  system  has  its  advantages.  As 
the  management  is  distributed  among  the 
Conference  Boards,  there  is  no  expense  for  sal- 
aries; and  the  cost  per  cent,  of  administration 
under  the  missionary  economy  of  the  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church  is  among  the  smallest 
of  all  the  missionary  organizations  in  England 

Howe  Missions  of  the  M.  K.  C,  S.       863 

and  America.  Placing  the  responsibility  of 
supporting  the  missions  within  its  bounds  on 
each  Annual  Conference  may  also  spring  the 
preachers  and  people  forward  in  their  sup- 
port. These  advantages  may  be  offset  by 
other  considerations.  This  plan  dissevers  the 
connectional  bond  so  far  as  this  department 
of  our  Home  Missions  is  concerned.  The 
older  and  more  thoroughly  established  Con- 
ferences are  released  from  their  obligation  to 
help  the  new  and  feeble  Conferences.  The 
Christian  principle  that  the  strong  should  help 
the  weak  is  withdrawn  from  this  important 
field  of  Christian  effort,  and  the  weaker  Con- 
ferences in  the  older  States  and  the  vast 
fields  opening  in  the  West  are  deprived  of 
that  immediate  and  direct  support  their  ne- 
cessities demand.  It  is  true  the  constitution 
in  a  measure  provides  for  these  weaker  Con- 
ferences by  placing  under  charge  of  the  Gen- 
eral Board  all  missions  "  not  provided  for  by 
the  Annual  Conferences."  Whether  this  pro- 
vision is  the  wiser  plan  may  be  a  question 
that  calls  for  earnest  thought. 

We  have  made  earnest  efforts  to  obtain  ac- 
curate reports  respecting  the  number  of  mis- 
sions in  destitute  regions  of  the  regular  work 
each  Conference  Board  is  supporting  in  each 

864      ^[(tnd  Booh  of  Meiliodist  Missions. 

of  the  Annual  Conferences.  The  fullest  re- 
port we  have  obtained  is  that  of  1890.  It 
gives  417  missions,  406  missionaries,  and  65,- 
448  members.  As  twelve  Conferences  made 
no  reports,  we  can  safely  estimate  that  we  have 
600  missionaries  in  this  field  and  100,000  mem- 

German  Missions. 

In  1842  Dr.  William  Winans,  of  Mississip- 
pi, called  the  attention  of  the  missionary  au- 
thorities to  the  importance  of  establishing  a 
mission  among  the  Germans  who  were  land- 
ing by  thousands  every  year  in  New  Orleans. 
Rev.  Philip  Schmucker  was  sent  to  open 
the  work.  He  organized  a  class,  but  soon 
returned  North,  leaving  the  mission  in  charge 
of  a  young  local  preacher  who  had  been 
licensed  by  Dr.  Winans,  then  presiding  elder 
of  the  New  Orleans  District.  The  labors 
of  Rev.  C.  Bremer  were  greatly  blessed,  and 
he  soon  succeeded  in  building  a  comfort- 
able house  of  worship  and  organizing  the 
first  German  Methodist  Church  in  New  Or- 
leans. In  the  annual  report  of  1846  we  find 
in  connection  with  the  New  Orleans  German 
Mission  the  names  of  C.  Bremer  and  N. 
Breckwedel,  missionaries,  1  Church,  90  mem- 
bers, 1  Sunday  school  and  50  members.     At 

Home  Missions  of  the  M.  E.  (7.,  S.      365 

Carrolltoii  15  members  were  rei)orted,  7  at 
Lafayette,  and  27  at  Mobile.  Total  members, 
139.  Eev.  D.  Derick  was  at  work  in  Charles- 
ton, S.  C,  and  Eev.  H.  P.  Young  at  Galveston, 
Tex.  Mr.  Young  encountered  some  perse- 
cution from  his  countrymen.  On  one  occa- 
sion a  crowd  w^ho  were  filled  with  beer  en- 
tered the  congregation  and  broke  up  the  serv- 
ices. This  violation  of  the  rights  of  the 
human  conscience  met  prompt  rebuke.  The 
leader  was  summoned  the  next  morning  before 
the  Mayor  of  the  city,  who  heard  the  facts  and 
sent  the  offender  to  jail.  After  three  days  he 
sent  to  Mr.  Young  and  asked  him  to  pray  for 
him  and  to  intercede  in  his  behalf  with  the 
Mayor.  It  was  cheerfully  done,  and  he  was 

In  1847  Mr.  Schmucker  revisited  New  Or- 
leans and  was  greatly  impressed  with  the  im- 
portance of  the  mission  and  the  success  of  the 
young  local  preacher  he  had  left  in  charge 
five  years  before.  Three  thousand  Germans, 
fresh  from  the  Fatherland,  reached  its  wharfs 
while  he  was  in  the  city.  The  missionary 
met  them  with  Bibles  and  tracts  and  a  kind 
invitation  to  the  house  of  God.  Some  were 
in  the  congregation  the  following  Sabbath. 

Brother  Bremer  had  undertaken  a  new  mis- 

366      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

sion  in  the  lower  part  of  the  city,  but  his  work 
was  done.  He  died  September  14,  1847.  His 
death  was  a  great  loss  to  the  mission.  The 
membership  of  the  New  Orleans  Mission  de- 
clined from  220  in  1847  to  44  in  1848.  In  1849 
Charleston  disappeared  from  the  annual  re- 
port. J.  M.  Hofer  appeared  in  charge  of  the 
First  and  John  Pauly  in  charge  of  the  Second 
Mission  in  New  Orleans,  with  116  members. 
The  work  in  Texas  was  expanding.  C.  Kot- 
tenstien  reported  93  members  in  Galveston, 
and  C.  Grote  reported  46  in  Victoria.  H.  P. 
Young  had  opened  work  at  Seguin  and  a 
mission  was  started  at  La  Grange.  In  1850 
the  name  of  E.  Schneider  was  added  to  the 
missionary  force.  Peter  Moelling  had  charge 
of  the  Galveston  Mission  in  1852.  In  his  re- 
port he  tells  of  a  revival  in  which  Rev.  N.  A. 
Cravens,  pastor  of  the  American  congregation, 
helped  him,  in  which  eleven  were  happily 
converted.  In  1854  the  membership  in 
Louisiana  and  Texas  was  589.  In  1855  a  mis- 
sion was  opened  in  Louisville,  Ky.,  under  the 
charge  of  C.  Quelmelz.  He  reported  38 
members.  _  Another  was  opened  in  Nashville, 
Tenn.,  P.  Barth,  pastor.  Under  the  direction 
of  the  General  Conference,  and  authority  of 
the  Board,  a  German  paper  was  established 

Home  Missmis  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.       367 

in  Galveston,  with  Peter  Moelling  as  editor. 
It  proved  an  efficient  auxiliary  to  the  evan- 
gelical labors  of  the  preachers.  There  were 
now  eight  missions  in  Texas,  four  in  New  Or- 
leans, one  each  in  Mobile,  Louisville,  and 
Nashville,  and  one  just  established  in  Mobile. 
In  1856  the  German  Missions  were  organized, 
into  a  district,  with  Rev.  J.  W.  De  Vilbiss  as 
presiding  elder.  He  reported  for  that  year 
a  net  increase  of  126.  In  1857  Rev.  H.  P. 
Young,  with  about  50  members  in  Galveston, 
withdrew,  and  united  with  the  Presbyterian 
Church.  About  100  conversions  and  acces- 
sions to  the  Church  were  reported  from 
Texas.  In  1855  the  completion  of  a  new  brick 
church  in  New  Orleans  was  reported.  In 
1860  a  mission  was  commenced  in  St.  Louis 
with  four  preachers.  They  reported  50  mem- 
bers. In  1861  there  were  3  missions  in  New 
Orleans,  13  in  Texas,  1  each  in  Louisville,  Mo- 
bile, Nashville,  St.  Louis,  Hannibal,  and 
Glasgow.  Then  came  the  war.  The  fidelity 
of  the  German  missionaries  during  those  days 
of  trial  is  worthy  of  all  praise.  With  every 
industry  in  the  country  crippled  and  some 
destroyed,  the  Church  could  only  partially 
support  its  missions,  and  the  families  of  the 
faithful  missionaries  encountered  many  pri- 

368      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

vations.  The  writer  remembers  one  of  the 
German  preachers  in  Texas  whose  family  for 
many  months  had  nothing  on  their  table  but 
corn  bread  and  part  of  the  time  black  coffee. 
He  never  murmnred.  When  Conference  met 
he  was  in  his  place  ready  for  the  toil  and  sac- 
rifice of  another  year.  John  Pauly  alone  held 
his  ground  in  New  Orleans,  We  remember 
when  the  storm  was  over  and  he  was  sent  to 
help  build  up  the  German  work  in  Texas,  how 
he  thrilled  us  with  the  story  of  his  experience 
when  he  and  his  wife,  for  want  of  a  better 
home,  slept  in  a  church  steeple  in  New  Or- 
leans, while  holding  his  little  band  together. 
He  had  in  him  the  material  out  of  which 
apostles  were  made. 

Many  both  among  the  American  and  Ger- 
man preachers,  in  those  dark  days  that  lin- 
gered after  the  war,  were  doubtful  whether 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  could 
sustain  the  German  work.  In  1866,  prior  to 
the  meeting  of  the  General  Conference  in 
New  Orleans,  a  convention  of  German  preach- 
ers was  held  in  Bastrop  County,  Tex.,  to  con- 
sider whether  they  would  remain  with  the 
Southern  Church  or  accept  overtures  from 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  (North). 
As  the  meeting  was  within  the  district  of  the 

Home  Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.      .369 

writer,  he  was  invited  to  attend.  Rev.  F.  Vor- 
denbaumen,  who  still  lives,  a  Nestor  in  his 
Conference,  presided.  Letters  were  read  from 
high  officials  of  the  Church  (North),  in  which 
the  salaries  that  could  be  paid  the  German 
preachers  in  Texas  were  stated.  The  writer, 
who  was  then  Secretary  of  the  Conference 
Board,  was  asked  what  might  be  expected 
from  the  Southern  Methodist  Church?  He 
frankly  adniitted  that  in  the  impoverished 
state  of  the  Church  we  could  not  hope  to  be 
able,  at  least  for  many  years,  to  pay  such  sal- 
aries as  were  offered  in  the  letters.  The 
Southern  Methodist  preachers  expected  to 
continue  their  work  among  their  own  people, 
ruined  as  they  were  in  fortune,  trusting  in 
God  for  a  support.  If  the  German  preachers 
were  ready  to  share  the  lot  of  their  mother 
Church,  their  American  brethren  out  of  their 
poverty  would  gladly  do  all  in  their  power  for 
the  support  of  the  German  Mission.  The 
question  was  earnestly  and  prayerfully  dis- 
cussed, the  vote  was  taken,  and  almost  unani- 
mously they  decided  to  share  the  shattered 
fortunes  of  their  "  mother  Church."  A  letter 
was  prepared  and  sent  to  the  General  Confer- 
ence by  the  writer,  giving  the  Church  the  as- 
surance of  the  devotion  of  their  German 

270      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

the  Pacific  Ocean.  In  view  of  the  vast  extent 
of  the  field  it  was  deemed  wise,  under  the  au- 
thority of  the  General  Conference,  to  divide 
the  territory  into  two  Annual  Conferences. 
The  eastern  section  retained  the  name  of  the 
Mexican  Border  Mission  Conference.  It  em- 
braced the  States  of  Tamaulipas,  Nuevo  Leon, 
Coahuila,  and  the  Mexican  population  in 
West  Texas  south  of  the  Pecos  Eiver.  The 
western  section  took  the  name  of  the  North- 
west Mexican  Conference,  embracing  the  States 
of  Chihuahua,  Durango,  Sonora,  Sinaloa,  and 
the  Territory  of  Lower  California,  and  the 
Mexican  population  on  the  American  side  of 
the  border  north  and  west  of  the  Pecos  Kiver. 

We  crossed  the  river  in  1873,  and  now  we 
are  three  bands. 

The  statistics  of  Central  Mexico  Mission 
Conference  for  1892  are  as  follows:  Local 
preachers,  28;  members,  2,948;  net  gain  dur- 
ing the  year,  375;  infants  baptized,  239;  adults 
baptized,  315;  number  of  churches,  30;  value, 
$56,464;  amount  paid  preachers,  $31.24;  paid 
bishops,  $34.45;  paid  Conference  claimants, 
$67.04;  collected  for  Foreign  Missions,  $354.37 ; 
Church  Extension,  $119.24;  number  of  Sun- 
day schools,  65;  pupils,  139;  day  schools,  14; 
pupils,  349;  paid  for  literature,  $65.57. 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S,  271 

For  the  Mexican  Border  Missiou  Conference 
for  the  same  year  the  statistics  show:  Local 
preachers,  22;  members,  1,535;  infants  bap- 
tized, 153;  adults  baptized,  170;  Sunday 
schools,  QQ;  officers  and  teachers,  126;  schol- 
ars, 1,558;  day  schools  and  colleges,  6,  with  29 
teachers  and  553  students  of  both  sexes.  Col- 
lected for  Conference  claimants,  $181;  for  I'or- 
eign  Missions,  $594;  for  Church  Extension, 
$226;  education,  $35.21;  Bible  cause,  $186.62. 

The  Northwest  Mexican  Mission  Conference 
statistical  report  for  1892  records  the  follow 
ing:  The  Conference  consists  of  6  missionaries, 
11  native  ministers,  and  8  local  preachers,  with 
a  membership  of  657.  There  have  been  84  chil- 
dren and  70  adults  baptized.  Sunday  schools, 
22;  teachers,  53;  scholars,  605.  Collected  for 
Missions,  $514;  Church  Extension,  $104;  value 
of  6  churches,  $13,500;  of  parsonages,  $10,500. 
The  MacDonell  Educational  Institute  has 
4  teachers,  80  scholars,  and  property  worth 
$10,000.  The  institution  is  at  Durango.  Pal- 
more  Institute,  Chihuahua,  has  5  teachers,  42 
scholars,  and  property  valued  at  $12,000.  El 
Paso  Institute  has  3  teachers,  125  scholars, 
and  property  worth  $850.  Nogales  Seminary 
has  3  teachers,  90  pupils,  and  property  valued 
at  $2,000. 

372      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

by  their  fellow-countrymen.  As  a  result  their 
piety  was  of  strong  and  vigorous  fiber  and 
their  zeal  for  their  religion  warm  and  active. 
One  of  the  presiding  elders  in  Texas  reported 
a  family  altar  in  the  house  of  every  member 
in  his  district.  Their  Conference  reports 
would  have  served  as  models  to  the  entire 
Church.  It  was  a  rare  thing  for  a  preacher 
to  report  a  deficit  in  his  collections. 

The  General  Conference  of  1886  authorized 
the  absorption  of  the  German  missions  in 
Louisiana  and  Mississippi  in  the  Conferences 
in  which  they  were  located.  In  the  judgment 
of  thoughtful  men  the  mission  in  this  part 
of  the  work  had  not  developed  in  strength  nor 
increased  in  numbers  as  a  healthy  state  of 
things  would  indicate.  The  cessation  of  Ger- 
man immigration  to  New  Orleans  was  assigned 
as  one  cause.  The  Americanization  of  the 
children  of  German  Methodists  was  another. 
They  were  educated  in  American  schools, 
mingled  in  American  society,  married  into 
American  families,  spoke  the  English  lan- 
guage, and  hence  many  felt  no  special  attrac- 
tion toward  the  Church  of  their  parents  when 
the  worship  was  in  the  German  language  and 
the  congregations  limited  to  that  race.  It 
was  hoped  that  by  bringing  the  preachers  and 

'      Home  Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.      373 

people  into  closer  relations  with  their  Ameri- 
can brethren,  and  by  providing  English  as 
well  as  German  preaching  for  their  congrega- 
tions, the  Americanized  children  of  German 
Methodists  could  be  held  to  the  Church  of 
their  parents.  That  we  are  failing  In  a  large 
measure  to  hold  the  young  people  of  our 
German  congregations  presents  to  both  our 
American  and  German  preachers  a  question 
for  earnest  and  prayerful  consideration.  The 
entire  mission,  in  1886,  reported  22  preachers. 
The  Louisiana  District  reported  437  members; 
the  West  Texas,  481;  and  the  Central  Texas, 
390.     Total,  1,328. 

In  1888  the  Texas  Mission  was  called  to 
mourn  the  death  of  Kev.  Charles  Grote.  He 
was  a  man  of  God  and  useful  in  winning  souls 
for  Christ.  In  1891  the  German  Mission  in 
Texas  reported  18  missionaries  and  1,016 
members.  Their  preachers  are  a  noble  body 
of  men.  They  are  working  under  many  diffi- 
culties, but  the  least  is  the  fact  that  the  Board 
of  Missions,  burdened  with  many  claims  on 
its  treasury,  has  been  unable  fo.r  years  to 
make  the  liberal  appropriation  this  work  so 
greatly  needs.  They  have  but  little  symi^athy 
from  their  own  people,  and  hence  cannot  en- 
gage in  aggressive  work  unless  their  Ameri- 

274      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

of  the  priests,  who  wished  to  secure  and  de- 
stroy the  Bibles.  Careful  inquiry  satisfied 
them  that  this  was  not  the  case.  The  mis- 
sionaries were  also  active  in  the  circulation  of 
tracts  specially  suited  to  the  wants  of  Brazil. 
As  thousands  of  sailors  visited  Bio,  the  mis- 
sionaries preached  on  the  deck  of  some  vessel 
every  Sunday.  Much  interest  was  taken  in 
the  work  by  many  English  and  American  cap- 
tains. A  British  flag  was  floated  from  the 
vessel  where  the  service  was  to  be  held,  and 
the  sailors  gathered  gladly  to  the  place  of  re- 
ligious worship. 

The  success  of  the  Mission  awakened  oppo- 
sition among  the  priests,  w^ho  published  many 
gross  misrepresentations  of  the  missionaries 
and  their  work.  Their  hostility  made  but  lit- 
tle impression  on  the  people,  and  the  mission- 
aries moved  quietly  on,  assured  that  the  gov- 
ernment would  protect  them  so  long  as  their 
operations  were  within  the  restrictions  of  the 
laws  of  Brazil. 

In  one  of  Mr.  Kidder's  tours  through  the 
country  he  visited  Sao  Paulo,  being,  it  is  said, 
the  first  Protestant  missionary  who  had 
reached  that  region.  He  also  visited  Bahia, 
Pernambuco,  Maranhao,  Para,  and  other 
points  to  the  north  and  on  the  banks  of  the 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  C,  S.  275 

Amazon.  He  preaclied  the  first  Protestant 
sermon  ever  delivered  on  the  waters  of  the 
Amazon,  and  introduced  and  circulated  the 
Scriptures  in  the  Portuguese  language  on  the 
whole  Eastern  coast  and  in  the  principal  cities. 

He  was  diligently  preparing  himself  for  the 
work  by  the  stady  of  the  Portuguese  language, 
when,  owing  to  the  death  of  his  wife  in  1840, 
he  returned  home  with  his  motherless  son. 
Mr.  Spaulding  continued  his  work  until  1861, 
when  the  financial  embarrassments  of  the 
Board  occasioned  his  recall. 

As  evidence  of  the  influence  these  early  Meth- 
odist missionaries  exerted  during  their  brief 
sojourn  in  this  field,  Kev.  H.  C,  Tucker,  one 
of  our  missionaries  now  laboring  in  Brazil,  in- 
forms us  that  he  found  a  few  years  ago  in  a 
second-hand  bookstore  in  Eio  a  work  in  the 
Portuguese  language,  entitled,  "The  Metho- 
dist and  the  Catholic."  It  was  written  by  a 
Catholic  priest,  and  was  designed  to  expose 
what  it  styled  the  errors  and  evil  eff^ects  of 
the  doctrine  taught  by  the  Methodists.  The 
missionaries  had  certainly  aroused  the  fears 
of  the  priests.  Their  efforts  to  alarm  the  peo- 
ple did  much  to  call  the  attention  of  thought- 
ful minds  in  Brazil  to  the  work  of  the  mis- 
sionaries, and,  no  doubt,  aided  in  preparing 

376      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

one  of  the  strongest  and  purest  men  in  tli« 
Church.  Brother  Wynne  was  a  preacher  of 
one  year,  and  Brother  Pollock  a  presiding 
elder  of  ability  and  experience.  The  Church  is 
wise  when  it  sets  apart  its  strongest,  wisest,  and 
purest  men  for  the  mission  field.  As  the  move- 
ment was  conditioned  on  special  collections 
for  its  support,  the  missionaries  were  instruct- 
ed to  devote  some  time  in  raising  the  necessary 
funds.  In  February,  1850,  Dr.  Boring  wrote 
to  the  Secretary  that  their  appeals  had  been 
successful  and  they  would  have  enough  for  a 
parsonage  besides.  A  supply  of  Methodist 
books  and  Sabbath  school  publications  was 
secured  and  also  a  donation  of  Bibles  and 
Testaments  from  the  American  Bible  Society. 
They  left  New  Orleans  February  28,  1850 
A  trip  to  California  in  that  day,  by  way  of 
Panama,  was  a  more  serious  affair  than  a  voy- 
age to  China  at  the  present  time. 

The  missionaries  reached  the  field  in  April, 
1850,  and  opened  work  at  San  Francisco,  Sac- 
ramento, and  Stockton.  They  soon  organized 
three  circuits,  which  were  'supplied  by  local 
preachers.  Ill  health  soon  compelled  Pollock 
to  return  home.  Dr.  Boring  took  charge  of 
San  Francisco,  Wynne  of  San  Jose,  C.  Grid- 
ley  of    Stockton.     Sacramento  City,  Sonora, 

Home  Missions  of  the  M.  E.G.,  S.      377 

Colima,  Mad  Canyon,  and  Nevada  City  were 
left  to  be  supplied.  The  first  year  closed 
with  over  three  hundred  members. 

Encouraged  by  the  results  of  the  first  year's 
labors  and  the  outlook,  Dr.  Boring  appealed  to 
the  Church  at  home  for  a  sufficient  force  and 
means  to  form  a  Conference  at  once.  The 
Board  approved  the  call,  and  each  Conference 
was  called  on  for  a  missionary,  whose  duty  it 
should  be,  before  starting  to  the  field,  to  raise 
within  the  limits  of  their  respective  Confer- 
ences one  thousand  dollars  for  outfit  and 
travel  and  the  support  of  the  mission. 

The  Pacific  Annual  Conference  was  organ- 
ized in  San  Francisco  April  15,  1852,  Dr.  J. 
Boring,  Superintendent  of  the  mission,  pre- 
siding. It  had  eighteen  preachers  on  its  roll. 
The  work  was  divided  into  two  districts  with 
23  appointments,  and  294  members.  Dr.  Bor- 
ing was  editor  of  the  Christian  Observer. 

The  presence  of  the  venerable  Bishop  Soule 
at  the  Conference  of  1853  added  greatly  to 
the  zeal  of  the  preachers.  The  mission  re- 
ported 25  preachers,  28  appointments,  and  587 
members.  From  this  date  the  Pacific  Confer- 
ence has  been  reckoned  in  the  regular  roll  of 
Conferences.  Its  charges  have  been  self-sup- 
porting, with  the  excej^tion  of  special  appoint- 

378      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ments  which  have  needed  and  received  assist- 
ance from  the  General  Board.  In  1891  it  re- 
ported 77  traveling  preachers,  45  local  preach- 
ers, and  6,060  members. 

In  1860  the  Oregon  District  reported  268 
members,  and  the  Jacksonville  District  had 
been  formed.  No  reports  were  received  dur- 
ing the  war,  but  the  preachers  were  faithful 
to  their  charge,  for  in  1866  this  region  re- 
ported 14  itinerant  preachers,  12  local  preach- 
ers, and  about  500  members.  The  General 
Conference  of  that  year  authorized  the  organ- 
ization of  the  region  north  of  Scott's  Moun- 
tain, with  Oregon  and  Washington  Territory, 
into  an  Annual  Conference  under  the  name  of 
the  Columbia  Conference.  A  large  portion 
of  the  region  was  then  unoccupied  by  other 
Churches.  In  1869  the  Umatilla  District  was 
formed,  which  embraced  the  upper  waters  of 
the  Columbia  River.  This  in  a  few  years  in- 
cluded Walla  Walla,  in  AVashington  Territo^ 
ry.  In  1882  this  Conference  reported  22  itin- 
erant preachers,  25  local  preachers,  and  1,470 
members.  In  1890  the  General  Conference 
provided  for  the  division  of  this  Conference 
into  the  Columbia  and  East  Columbia  Confer- 
ences. In  1891  the  Columbia  Conference  re- 
ported 21  itinerant  preachers,  14  local  preach- 

Horiic  Missions  of  flie  M.  E.  C,  S.     -  379 

ers,  and  1,305  members;  the  East  Columbia,  21 
itinerant,  27  local  preachers,  and  1,348  members. 

As  the  population  on  the  Pacific  moved 
soutliward,  the  Conference  extended  its  lines 
until  the  Los  Angeles  District  was  formed. 
This  field  was  mission  ground,  and  the  Board, 
as  far  as  its  means  allowed,  sustained  the  ef- 
forts of  the  pioneer  preachers.  In  1870, 
under  authority  from  the  General  Conference, 
the  Los  Angeles  Conference  was  formed.  It 
was  divided  into  three  districts,  one  within 
the  bounds  of  Arizona.  It  reported  19  itiner- 
ants, 17  local  preachers,  and  875  members.  The 
statistics  for  1891  are:  Traveling  preachers, 
35;  local  preachers,  30;  members,  2,012. 

The  "  three  missionaries "  that  made  up 
the  "  California  Mission  "  in  1850  have  grown, 
in  1892,  into  four  Annual  Conferences,  154 
traveling  preachers,  116  local  preachers,  and 
10,621  members. 

Our  preachers  on  the  Pacific  Coast  are  a 
noble  and  self-sacrificing  band.  The  men 
who  lay  the  foundation  of  the  Church  of 
Christ  in  a  new  country  must  look  for  their 
reward  beyond  the  boundaries  of  time.  The 
Church  in  future  days  will  share  the  results  of 
their  labors,  but  will  faintly  appreciate  its  in- 
debtedness to  these  faithful  pioneer  preachers. 

380      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

As  the  vast  region  which  now  includes 
Kansas,  Nebraska,  Colorado,  New  Mexico, 
Wyoming,  Montana,  and  Idaho  was  filling  up 
from  the  Eastern  states,  a  large  per  cent,  of 
the  adventurous  population  were  from  the 
Southern  states,  the  obligation  of  the  Church 
to  follow  them  with  the  gospel  was  clear 
and  imperative.  The  General  Conference 
of  1870  provided  for  the  formation  of  a 
Conference  which  would  include  the  vast  un- 
occupied field  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains. 
At  the  meeting  in  July  of  that  year  Bishop 
McTyeire  notified  the  Board  that  under  this 
authority  he  would  organize  a  great  mission- 
ary Conference,  to  be  called  the  Western 
Conference,  and  must  have  men  and  means. 
The  Board  appropriated  $3,000.  The  Confer- 
ence was  organized.  In  1872  it  had  extended 
its  operations  to  Kansas,  Nebraska,  Colorado, 
and  Montana,  and  reported  in  the  field  61 
preachers  and  a  net  increase  during  the  year 
of  622  members.  The  Board  has  never  been 
able  to  make  the  appropriations  the  enlarge- 
.  ment  of  this  field  has  demanded,  and  as  the 
support  from  the  people  has  been  meager,  the 
preachers  and  their  families  have  endured 
great  privations.  In  1874  the  General  Con- 
ference formed  out  of  this  vast  territory  the 

Home  Missions  of  the  M.  E.  C,  S.     .  381 

Denver  Confereuce,  which  embraced  the  Ter- 
ritories of  Colorado,  Montana,  and  New  Mex- 
ico. The  work  in  Montana  was  remote  from 
the  rest  of  the  field,  and  in  1878  the  General 
Conference  provided  for  another  division  of  the 
territory,  and  the  Montana  Conference  was 
organized.  The  preachers  in  that  field  have 
held  their  ground  under  heavy  difficulties.  In 
1891  the  Conference  reported  14  traveling- 
preachers,  6  local  preachers,  and  532  members. 

During  these  years  railroads  have  opened 
this  vast  territory  and  brought  distant  points 
near  to  each  other.  The  stream  of  population 
passed  down  into  New  Mexico,  where  the 
Mexican  population  that  remains  presents  an 
additional  demand  on  the  missionary  zeal  of 
the  Church.  Tn  1890  the  Denver  Conference 
was  again  divided,  and  with  some  territory 
from  Texas  the  New  Mexico  Conference  was 
formed.  Out  of  the  Mission  Conference  or- 
ganized by  Bishop  McTyeire  we  now  have 
the  Western,  Denver,  Montana,  and  New 
Mexico  Conferences,  with  75  traveling  preach- 
ers, 59  local  preachers,  and  5,673  members. 

The  immense  population  that  was  pouring 
into  the  northwest  and  west  frontiers  of 
Texas  led  these  Conferences  in  1881  to  ask 
the  Board  for  aid  in  providing  this  region 

382      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

with  religions  privileges.  The  work  was  so 
extensive  that  their  Conferences  were  nnable 
to  meet  all  its  demands.  The  appropriation 
that  was  made  and  continued  has  greatly  as- 
sisted in  developing  the  New  Mexico  Confer- 
ence and  the  vast  frontier  of  Texas. 

No  field  which  looks  to  onr  Mission  Board 
for  help  promises  larger  results  than  our 
Western  work.  The  Texas  Mission,  which 
was  opened  by  Ruter,  Fowler,  and  Alexander 
in  1836,  reported  in  1891  573  traveling 
preachers,  922  local  preachers,  and  135,513 
members.  As  the  outgrowth  of  the  Cali- 
fornia Mission,  opened  in  1850,  and  the 
Western  Conference,  organized  in  1870,  we 
have  229  traveling  preachers,  175  local 
I)reachers,  and  16,394  members.  The  net  re- 
sults from  the  expenditure  of  men  and  means 
in  the  Western  work,  including  the  early 
Texas  Mission  and  the  regions  east  and  west 
of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  may  be  summed  up 
as  follows:  Traveling  preachers,  802;  local 
preachers,  1,097;  members,  151,801.  About 
one-sixth  of  the  traveling  preachers  and 
about  one-eighth  of  the  members  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  are  the 
outgrowth  of  these  missions. 



BY    MRS.   W.   S.   BLACK. 

The  great  problem  of  "  woman's  work  for 
woman"  commenced  its  solution  over  forty- 
three  years  ago.  In  March,  1849,  Dr.  Olin 
preached  a  sermon  before  the  members  of  the 
Baltimore  Conference.  His  home  during 
the  session  of  the  Conference  was  at  the  resi- 
dence of  Mrs.  William  Wilkins,  on  Charles 
Street.  A  lady  friend  of  the  family,  the 
President  of  the  "Female  Auxiliary  of  the 
Foreign  Evangelical  Society,"  stepping  in, 
mission  work  was  discussed,  and  Dr.  Olin  in- 
quired why  she  worked  outside  her  own 

"  Because  there  is  no  avenue  for  woman's 
work  in  the  M.  E.  Church,"  she  replied. 

He  said  with  emphasis:  "  Create  one." 

"How?  "  was  asked. 

"Organize  an  association  for  missionary 

"In  what  field? "  was  the  next  question. 


384     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

"  China  is  now  opened  for  missionary  en- 
terprise," said  Dr.  Olin.  "Work  for  China; 
form  your  society  and  I  will  speak  at  your 
first  anniversary." 

The  outgrowth  of  this  conversation  was  the 
organization  of  the  "  Female  China  Missionary 
Society  of  Baltimore,"  which  was  the  first 
"  woman's  "  independent  organization  in  this 
country,  and  from  which  all  kindred  organi- 
zations in  sister  Protestant  Churches  have 

In  1858  came  these  words  from  Dr.  Went- 
worth,  then  missionary  to  China — a  sentiment 
then  first  brought  to  view,  noiv  occupying  the 
foreground  of  mission  work:  ''China  needs 
an  army  of  icomen,  ready  to  lay  down  their  lives^ 
if  need  be,  for  their  own  sex.''  The  result  of 
this  appeal  was  the  establishment  of  the 
"Baltimore  Female  Seminary"  in  Soochow, 
China.  Soon  after  the  war  a  society  was  or- 
ganized by  the  ladies  of  Trinity  Church,  Bal- 
timore, called  "Trinity  Home  Mission," 
which  was  soon  changed  to  the  name  of 
"The  Woman's  Bible  Mission  of  the  M.  E. 
Church,  South." 

In  April,  1872,  organization  upon  a  broader 
basis  was  effected,  membership  dues  fixed  at 
2   cents  per  week,    or   $1  per  annum,    and 

Woman's  Missionary  Society,  M.  E.  C,  S,  385 

arrangements  made  for  holding  regular  meet- 
ings. The  visits  of  Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth,  of 
missionary  fame,  to  this  society  in  1876  in- 
creased the  interest  in  and  contributions  to 
the  cause  of  Foreign  Missions. 

In  April,  1874,  largely  through  the  zeal  and 
effort  of  Mrs.  M.  L.  Kelley,  some  of  the  Metho- 
dist women  of  Nashville,  Tenn.,  formed  them- 
selves into  an  organization  known  as  a  "  Bible 
Mission"  with  two  distinct  objects:  one,  to 
furnish  aid  and  Bible  instruction  to  the  poor 
and  destitute  of  the  city;  the  other,  to  send 
pecuniary  aid  to  foreign  missionary  fields. 
This  Woman's  Missionary  Society  in  three 
years,  besides  securing  a  home  for  the  poor 
of  the  city,  and  originating  the  "Mission 
Home  "  (an  institution  for  the  benefit  of  fall- 
en women),  contributed  $3,000  for  the  Chris- 
tian elevation  of  the  women  of  China.  To 
this  work  Mrs.  Kelley  dedicated  her  every 
treasure:  prayers,  labor,  money,  friends, 
child,  grandchild.  She  died  October  27, 
1877,  nearly  seventy-two  years  old.  Her  last 
message  to  her  granddaughter,  who,  as  the 
wife  of  a  missionary,  had  just  set  sail  for 
China,  was:  "  Hold  out  to  the  last  for  Jesus!  " 

A  similar  society  was  about  the  same  time 
organized  at  Warren,  Ark.,  and  in  1876  an- 

386     Hcmd  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

other  at  Broad  Street  Church,  Richmond,  Va. ; 
others  at  Mineral  Springs  and  Pine  Bluff, 
Ark.,  Glasgow,  Mo.,  Macon,  Ga.,  Louisville 
and  Morganfield,  Ky.,  and  Franklin,  N.  C. 
In  New  Orleans,  La.,  a  society  of  ladies  had 
for  several  years  been  vforking  for  the  Mexi-^ 
can  Mission.  The  interest  in  woman's  work 
in  Missions  seemed  increasing  throughout 
Southern  Methodism.  In  flourishing  Church- 
es, in  sparsely  settled  districts,  unaided  often 
save  by  the  guidance  and  influence  of  the 
Holy  Spirit,  the  women  were  organizing 
themselves  into  Missionary  Societies,  until 
1878  found  more  than  twenty  Woman's  Mis- 
sionary Societies  in  the  M.  E.  Church,  South, 
doing  specific  work.  In  May,  1878,  acting 
under  this  growing  impulse,  a  number  of 
representative  women  of  the  M.  E.  Church, 
South,  met  in  Atlanta,  Ga.,  during  the  session 
of  the  General  Conference,  which  body,  under 
God,  answered  the  prayers  of  his  "hand- 
maidens" by  organizing  the  Woman's  Mis- 
sionary Society  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South, 
under  the  provisions  of  the  Constitution  in- 
corporated in  the  Discipline,  the  bishops  and 
Missionary  Secretaries  appointing  a  General 
Executive  Association  to  be  governed  "  there- 
after as  by-laws  and  regulations  to  be  adopt- 

WonudCs  M/'ssionarfj  Society^M.  E.  C,  S\  387 

eel  by  the  Association  shall  provide;  and  Con- 
ference Societies,  to  be  constituted  in  accord- 
ance with  provisions  of  such  by-laws  and 

The  following  is  taken  from  the  General 
Conference  Daily  Christian  Advocate^  May  25, 

General  Executive  Association — Officers. 

President. — Mrs.  Juliana  Hayes,  304  North  Strieker 
Street,  Baltimore,  Md. 

Vice  Fresidcnts. — Mrs.  R.  Paine,  Mrs.  G.  F.  Pierce,  Mrs. 
H.  H.  Kavanaugh,  Mrs.  W.  M.  Wightman,  Mrs.  E.  M. 
Marvin,  Mrs.  D.  S.  Dogget,  Mrs.  H.  N.  McTyeire,  Mrs. 
J.  C.  Keener. 

Corresponding  Secretary.— Mrs.  D.  H.  McGavock,  Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Treamrer,— Mrs.  James  Whitworth,  101  South  Spruce 
Street,  Nashville,  Tenn. 

Managers. — Mrs.  Frank  Smith,  University  of  Virginia; 
Miss  Melissa  Baker,  Baltimore,  Md.;  Mrs.  R.  M.  Saun- 
ders, Norfolk,  Va.;  Mrs.  Samuel  Cupples,  St.  Louis, 
Mo. ;  Mrs.  Witten  McDonald,  Carrollton,  Mo. ;  Mrs.  E. 
E.  Wiley,  Emory,  Va.;  Mrs.  H.  D.  McKinnon,  Mineral 
Springs,  Ark.;  Mrs.  B.  H.  Moss,  New  Orleans,  La.; 
Mrs.  S.  Henderson,  New  Orleans,  La. ;  Mrs.  W.  H.  Fos- 
ter, New  Orleans,  La.;  Mrs.  LI.  Colquitt,  Atlanta,  Ga.; 
Mrs.  George  W.  Williams,  Charleston,  S.  C;  Mrs.  Dr. 
Lipscomb,  Columbus,  Miss.;  Mrs.  James  Sykes,  Co- 
lumbus, Miss.;  Mrs.  S.  E.  Atkinson,  Memphis,  Tenn.; 
T^Irs.  S.  W.  Moore,  Brownsville,  Tenn. ;  Mrs.  Dr.  Hart- 
ridge,  Florida ;  Miss  Maria  Gibson,  Louisville,  Ky. 

388      Hand  Booh  of  AfetJiodist  Missions. 

The  previously  mentioned  organizations 
(except  the  one  in  New  Orleans  working  for 
Mexico)  became  auxiliary  to  the  newly  or- 
ganized Society,  turning  over  to  its  care  the 
foreign  work  undertaken  by  them.  By  reso- 
lution the  Board  of  Missions  committed  the 
school  for  girls  in  Shanghai,  China,  under  its 
control,  to  the  care  of  the  new^  branch  of  the 
system  of  Missions.  And  thus  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Society  of  the  M.  E.  Church, 
South,  was  fairly  launched,  with  "apparatus 
and  the  openings  for  carrying  on  the  w^ork." 
God's  blessing  v/as  with  the  new  organization. 
He  had  directed  in  the  appointment  of  its 
leaders,  for  among  the  many  intelligent,  con- 
secrated daughters  of  Southern  Methodism 
none  could  have  been  found  more  fully  suited, 
better  equipped  for  the  work  than  Mrs. 
Hayes,  of  Baltimore,  Md.,  and  Mrs.  McGav- 
ock,  of  Nashville,  Tenn.  Said  a  great  man, 
in  speaking  of  the  organization  at  Atlanta: 
"The  fullness  of  time  had  come.  God  had 
selected  his  handmaiden,  Juliana  Hayes,  a 
chosen  instrument,  able  and  consecrated,  to 
lead  the  women  of  the  Southern  Church  in 
bringing  back  to  his  Son  his  promised  inheri- 
tance: the  heathen  world."  Prior  to  the  or- 
ganization at  Atlanta,  Miss  Lochie  Rankin,  of 

Woman's MUsionanj  Sociciy,  J/.  E.  C.,S,  389 

Tennessee,  had  been  assigned  by  tlie  bisliop 
in  charge  of  the  mission  to  the  school  in 
Shanghai.  She  was  immediately  adopted  by 
the  new  Woman's  Missionary  Society  and 
recognized  as  its  first  representative.  This 
school  had  twenty-nine  pupils,  and  several  na- 
tive Bible  women  employed,  and  "thus,"  said 
the  gifted  Corresponding  Secretary,  "a  nucle- 
us was  furnished  us,  round  which  we  could 
center  in  the  dawn  of  our  missionary  morn- 

The  first  meeting  of  the  General  Executive 
Association  of  the  Woman's  Missionary  So- 
ciety of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South,  was  held  in 
Broadway  Church,  Louisville,  Ky.,  May  16, 
1879.  Though  not  quite  a  year  liad  passed 
since  organization,  the  seed  sown  by  the  wom- 
en of  Southern  Methodism  had  been  blessed  of 
God,  and  was  germinating,  budding,  blossom- 
ing, giving  promise  of  a  rich  fruitage  in  the 
near  future.  The  officers,  several  of  the  mana- 
gers, and  delegates  from  the  Missouri,  Ken- 
tucky, Holston,  Tennessee,  Little  Kock,  North 
Georgia,  Alabama,  North  Carolina,  Louisville, 
Baltimore,  Memphis,  and  North  Mississippi 
Conference  Societies,  and  a  number  of  elect 
ladies  and  interested  friends  were  present. 
Mrs.  F.  A.  Butler  was  elected  Recording  Sec- 

390     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

retary.  The  opening  address  of  the  Presi- 
dent, Mrs.  Hayes,  was  peculiarly  appropriate. 
The  venerable  Bishop  Kavanaugh  honored 
the  occasion  with  his  presence.  Dr.  A.  W. 
Wilson,  Missionary  Secretary,  and  Dr.  D.  C. 
Kelley,  member  of  the  Parent  Board,  having 
been  sent  by  the  latter  as  a  committee  to  con- 
fer with  the  Executive  Association,  were  in- 
vited to  occupy  seats  with  the  delegates. 
Mrs.  McGavock,  in  her  carefully  prepared  re- 
port, stated  that  "  from  the  golden  strand  of 
California  and  the  verdant  valleys  and  heaven- 
kissed  peaks  of  Colorado  to  the  gulf-washed 
coast  of  fruitful  Florida,  Auxiliaries  to  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Society  are  in  active  op- 
eration, sending  out  their  streams  of  useful- 
ness and  binding  Christian  hearts  in  closer 
union."  Fifteen  Conference  Societies  had 
been  organized,  with  219  Auxiliaries,  number- 
ing 5,890  members.  Total  receipts  for  the 
year,  $4,014.27.  The  foreign  work  was  repre- 
sented by  one  missionary.  Miss  Lochie  Ptan- 
kin,  Shanghai,  China;  one  boarding  school 
at  Shanghai,  with  25  pupils  and  6  native  Bible 
women.  Interesting  communications  from 
Miss  Eankin,  Dr.  Walter  Lambuth,  and  Mrs. 
J.  W.  Lambuth,  pleading  for  help  that  the 
work  might  be    extended,   w^ere    read;    also 

Woman's  Missioyiary  Society,  M.  E.  C,  S,  391 

letters  from  Eev.  J.  J.  Ransom,  missionary  to 
Brazil,  and  Rev.  W.  M.  Patterson,  mission- 
ary in  the  City  of  Mexico,  praying  the  Wom- 
an's Missionary  Society  to  undertake  work 
in  those  fields.  It  was  decided  to  send  one 
missionary  to  aid  Miss  Rankin;  $1,500  api3ro- 
priated  to  building  a  school  at  Nantziang, 
and  $1,000  recommended  to  be  appropriated 
to  Brazil  and  Mexico,  if  funds  proved  ade- 
quate. A  touching  incident  was  the  recital 
of  the  first  bequest  to  the  Woman's  Missionary 
Society  of  $100,  earned  by  a  fragile  young 
sister  by  teaching  a  little  school,  "to  aid  in 
doing  what  she  would  gladly  have  done,  had 
her  life  been  spared."  Like  the  "alabaster 
box  of  precious  ointment,"  may  its  perfume 
fill  the  wdiole  Church,  quickening  the  hearts 
of  our  Southern  sisters,  and  wherever  the 
name  of  Helen  M.  Finlay  is  spoken,  "  let  this 
be  told  as  a  memorial  of  her." 

May  4,  1880,  the  Woman's  Missionary  So- 
ciety convened  in  Nashville,  Tenn.,  in  their 
second  annual  meeting,  the  officers  and  dele- 
gates from  twenty-two  Conference  Societies 
being  present.  Reports  showed  the  foreign 
work  extending,  while  the  growth  of  the  ho)ne 
w^ork  in  some  sections  was  surprising.  Four 
hundred  and  sixty-five  Auxiliaries  luimbered 

392     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

12,273  members.  The  most  zealous  and  ef- 
ficient President  had  done  faithful  work  in 
the  home  field.  Said  the  Corresponding  Sec- 
retary: "Her  journeyings  were  like  those  of 
Paul,  '  in  weariness,  in  painfulness,  in  watch- 
ings  often,  in  hunger  and  thirst,  in  fastings 
often;'  and  also  like  unto  the  great  apostle's, 
in  that  her  visits  were  a  benediction  to  every 
center  of  the  work.'" 

The  consecrated  Corresponding  Secretary 
was  also  doing  faithful  service.  Compiling 
and  distributing  appropriate  literature,  send- 
ing out  Constitution  and  By-laws  to  points 
far  and  near,  and  with  each  a  kind,  personal, 
instructive  letter,  to  incite  to  cooperation  and 
active  effort,  corresponding  with  the  workers 
abroad,  and  studying  the  interest  of  each 
field  separately  and  its  relation  to  the  whole, 
Mrs.  McGavock  aided  largely  in  securing  the 
marked  success  of  the  Woman's  Missionary 
Society.  Conference  Secretaries,  ofiicers  and 
private  members  of  Auxiliaries  were  also 
working  zealously  and  proving  that  ^^ prayer, 
faith,  and  ivorks  insure  victorij''  During 
the  year  $13,775  was  paid  into  the  treasury. 
The  gift  of  "Louise  Home"  for  the  mission- 
aries in  China  from  a  member  of  Trinity  Anx- 
ilary,  Baltimore,  placed  the  name  of  WilkinSy 

Woman's  Missionary  Sociehj,  M.  E.  C,  S,  393 

already  historic  in  connection  with  the  origin 
of  ''woman's  work  for  woman,"  in  the  ar- 
chives of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Society  of 
the  M.  E.  Church,  South.  The  boarding 
school  at  Nantziang,  ordered  and  intrusted  to 
Dr.  W.  E.  Lambuth,  who  has  ever  been  a 
most  faithful  friend  to  iroman's  work,  was  ad- 
mirably located  in  the  rear  of  "Louise 
Home."  Miss  Dora  Kankin,  who  had  been 
accepted  as  a  missionary,  sailed  for  China 
in  October,  1879,  safely  joined  her  sister, 
and  they  were  in  charge  of  the  boarding 
school  at  Nantziang,  called  "Yoh  le  dong" — 
Pleasant  Home,  or  Happy  School— Clopton 
School  remaining  under  Mrs.  Lambuth's  care. 
The  venerable  Bible  woman.  Qua  Ta  Ta,  who 
fell  asleep  early  in  the  preceding  summer, 
was  the  only  death  reported  among  the  work- 
ers. A  judicious  appropriation  of  $500  had 
been  made  to  aid  Miss  Newman's  school  at 
Piracicaba,  Brazil,  and  $500  used  in  i^lacing 
four  girls  at  Mr.  Norwood's  school  in  Laredo, 
Mexican  Border  Mission.  The  imperative 
need  of  an  official  organ  as  an  essential  requi- 
site to  the  permanent  success  of  the  work 
was  freely  discussed,  resulting  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Advo- 
cate, to  be  published  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  Mrs. 

394     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  3Iissions. 

F.  A.  Butler,  Editor,  with  a  salary  of  $500.  All 
expenses  were  to  be  paid  out  of  receipts  of 
the  paper,  and  the  subscription  price  was 
iixed  at  50  cents  per  annum.  Five  associate 
editors  and  a  Business  Manager  were  also 

Faith  in  God,  who  giveth  the  increase,  and 
full  confidence  in  the  judgment  and  wisdom 
of  the  missionaries  led  to  the  devising  of  lib- 
eral things.  To  the  work  already  under- 
taken in  Shanghai  was  added  an  appropria- 
tion of  $1,500,  $600  for  a  boarding  school  at 
Soochow,  medical  tuition  for  two  missionary 
candidates,  $3,000  for  hospital  and  Bible 
Woman's  Institute,  $300  for  additional  day 
schools,  making  the  total  appropriation  for 
China  $9,672;  to  Mexican  Mission,  $12,592; 
to  Brazil  for  school  purposes,  $1,000;  to  Mex- 
ican Border  Mission,  $1,000.  Total  amount 
of  appropriations,  $24,264.  To  prevent  em- 
barrassment by  delayed  action,  provision  was 
made  for  the  Executive  Board  to  transact  all 
necessary  business  ad  interim,  subject  to  the 
approval  of  the  ensuing  Executive  Association, 
and  some  needed  changes  were  made  in.  the 
By-laws  of  the  Association. 

The  members  of  the  General  Executive  As- 
sociation assembled  at  St.  John  Church,  St. 

Woman's  Mhshnary  Society, M.  E.  C.,fl.  395 

Louis,  Mo.,  May  9,  1881,  for  the  opening  exer- 
cises of  their  third  annual  meeting.  The  sta- 
tistical reports  of  the  home  work  showed 
steady  growth.  In  28  Conference  Societies 
were  numbered  726  Adult  Auxiliaries,  with 
76  Young  People's  and  Juvenile  Societies— a 
total  of  830  Societies  with  21,338  members. 
One  of  the  most  hopeful  signs  was  the  in- 
crease of  juvenile  organizations.  Children 
occupy  an  important  place  in  the  economy 
of  the  Church.  Begin  missionary  educatian 
early;  let  the  foundation  be  w^ell  laid,  then 
add  layer  upon  layer,  line  upon  line,  precept 
upon  precept,  and  beautiful  indeed  will  be 
the  structure  when  complete. 

There  had  been  paid  into  the  treasury 
during  the  year  $19,362.18.  The  foreign 
work  was  enlarging,  notwithstanding  the 
sickness  among  the  devoted  workers.  The 
girls'  boarding  schools  in  Shanghai  and 
Nantziang  were  prospering.  Property  had 
been  bought  in  Soochow  for  the  establishing 
of  a  girls'  boarding  school  there,  and  in  fur- 
therance  of  the  proposed  plan  to  build  a  hos- 
pital at  that  point  also.  Miss  Mildred  Phil- 
ips, of  Missouri,  a  lady  in  every  way  quali- 
fied, had  entered  upon  a  course  of  study  at 
the   Woman's   Medical  College   of    Pennsyl- 

396     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  llissions. 

vania,  preparatory  to  going  to  China  as  a 
medical  missionary. 

In  the  Mexican  Mission  the  two  schools, 
though  small,  had  borne  good  fruit.  Eligible 
lots  for  building  purposes  had  been  donated 
at  Laredo,  Tex.,  a  point  destined  to  be  an 
important  railroad  center  and  crossing  on 
the  Eio  Grande.  The  Central  Mexican  Mis- 
sion had  been  visited  by  Dr.  Wilson,  Mission- 
ary Secretary,  and  his  report  had  increased 
the  interest  in  the  spreading  of  the  work  in 
that  "  wide  open  field." 

In  Brazil  the  school  at  Piracicaba  had  been 
suspended  early  in  the  year  by  the  marriage 
of  Miss  Annie  Newman  to  Rev.  J.  J.  Ransom, 
her  untimely  death,  and  the  failing  health  of 
her  sister,  Mary.  The  visit  soon  after  of  Mr. 
Ransom  to  the  "home  land"  awakened  a 
lively  interest  in  the  Church;  and  when  he 
sailed  for  Rio  Janeiro  March  26,  1881,  he 
took  with  him  four  recruits.  Miss  Mattie  H. 
Watts,  of  Louisville,  Ky.,  having  been  recom- 
mended by  the  Executive  Board  ad  interim^ 
and  appointed  by  Bishop  Keener  to  school 
work  at  Piracicaba,  sailed  with  this  party  of 

Of  the  seven  other  applicants  for  work 
under  the  Woman's  Board,  Miss  Rebecca  To- 

Woman's  Missionarij  Socielj/, M.  E,  C,  S^  397 

land  and  Miss  Annie  Williams,  of  Texas, 
were  accepted  for  the  Mexican  Border  Mis- 
sion; and  Mrs.  Florida  M.  Pitts,  of  Winches- 
ter, Tenn.,  who  had  already  practiced  dentist- 
ry, was  accepted  as  a  medical  missionary  and 
assigned  to  the  Woman's  Medical  College  at 
Philadelphia.  Early  in  the  follov/ing  autumn 
Mrs.  Pitts  entered  upon  her  studies,  but  cir- 
cumstances compelled  her  to  withdraw  from 
entering  the  work  as  a  medical  missionary, 
and  her  services  were  lost  to  the  Society.  The 
following  appropriations  were  made:  China, 
$17,072  ;"Brazil,  $7,500;  Mexican  Border,  $6,- 
500;  $5,500  for  building  college  for  girls,  on 
lots  donated  at  Laredo,  and  for  educational 
purposes  of  the  same;  $1,000  for  Central  Mex- 
ican Mission .  Total  amount  of  appropriations, 
$32,072.  The  new  venture,  the  Woman's  Mis- 
sionary Advocate,  proved  to  be  an  assured  suc- 
cess, the  agent  reporting  total  receipts,  $3,- 
025.39;  total  expenses,  $1,779.88;  net  earn- 
ings, $1,245.51. 

On  the  18th  of  May,  1882,  the  Society  con- 
vened in  McKendree  Church,  Nashville, 
Tenn.,  having  reached  its  first  quadrennial. 
The  borders  of  both  the  home  and  Foreign 
work  had  continued  to  widen  and  spread, 
31  Conference  Societies,  composed  of  1,112 

398      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Auxiliaries,  numbering  26,556  members,  hav- 
ing been  enrolled.  The  Society  supported  2 
missionaries  in  China,  1  missionary  and  1  as- 
sistant in  Brazil,  and  2  missionaries  in  Mex- 
ican Border,  and  had  under  its  care  5  board- 
ing and  10  day  schools,  and  $25,609.44  had 
been  paid  into  the  treasury.  Since  the  last 
annual  meeting  death  had  hushed  the  voices 
of  three  of  the  most  honored  members:  (Mrs. 
Doggett  and  Mrs.  Marvin,  Yice  Presidents; 
and  Mrs.  Davidson,  Corresponding  Secretary 
of  the  Baltimore  Conference  Society),  and  the 
joyous  notes  of  praise  and  thanksgiving  mel- 
lowed down  to  a  minor  chord  of  sadness. 

Miss  Anna  Muse,  of  Atlanta,  Ga.,  was  ac- 
cepted as  a  missionary  and  assigned  to  work 
in  China.  Mrs.  S.  Burford  was  also  accepted 
and  associated  with  her  sister.  Miss  Williams, 
in  Laredo  Seminary,  while  Miss  Blanche  Gil- 
bert, of  Virginia,  was  recommended  for  the 
Central  Mexican  Mission.  Miss  Nora  Lam- 
buth  was  associated  with  her  mother  in  Clop- 
tou  School,  Shanghai,  with  half  salary,  the 
full  salary  of  each  missionary  being  $750. 
Miss  Melissa  Baker,  of  Baltimore,  was  ap- 
pointed Treasurer  of  the  Memorial  Fund. 
On  May  24  Bishop  McTyeire  met  with  the  So- 
ciety and  had  read  the  Constitution  which  had 

Wonian's  Misslonarij  Society,  M.  E,  C,  S.  390 

been  adopted  by  the  General  Conference  then 
in  session,  and  given  to  him  by  Bishop  Pierce, 
presiding  officer,  immediately  after  the  read- 
ing of  which  Bishop  McTyeire  was  requested 
to  occupy  the  chair  during  the  election  of  of- 
ficers to  serve  during  the  next  four  years,  re- 
sulting as  follows:  President,  Mrs.  Juliana 
Hayes,  Vice  President,  Mrs.  M.  D.  AVight- 
man;  Corresponding  Secretary,  Mrs.  D.  H. 
McGavock;  Recording  Secretary,  Miss  M. 
L.  Gibsou ;  Treasurer,  Mrs.  James  Whitworth ; 
Auditor,  Mr.  J.  D.  Hamilton.  Mrs.  F.  A. 
Butler  was,  by  acclamation,  reelected  Editor 
of  the  Woman's  Missionarij  Advocate.  The 
presence  of  Miss  Annie  E.  Williams,  repre- 
sentative of  the  woman's  work  in  Laredo, 
added  to  the  pleasure  of  the  meeting. 

The  following  appropriations  were  made: 
China,  $16,845;  Brazil,  $12,500;  Mexican 
Border,  $6,000;  Central  Mexican,  $1,200;  In- 
dian Mission,  $635;  contingent  printing  and 
office  expenses,  $3,550.     Total,  $40,730. 

The  fifth  annual  meeting  of  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Missions  opened  in  Court  Street 
Church,  Lynchburg,  Va.,  June  6,  1883.  Re- 
ports evidenced  satisfactory  growth  in  the 
home  work  and  in  foreign  fields.  There  had 
been  organized  185  Adult  and  99  Juvenile  So- 

400       Rand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

cieties,  making  a  total  of  1,396  upon  the  roll, 
with  a  membership  of  34,128;  supporting  4 
missionaries  in  China,  3  in  Mexican  Border, 
1  in  Central  Mexican  Mission,  1  missionary 
and  2  assistants  in  Brazil;  5  boarding  and  17 
day  schools  were  in  successful  operation,  and 
aid  was  also  being  given  a  school  in  the  In- 
dian Territory.  From  each  field  came  re- 
ports of  thorough  organization,  with  promise 
of  rich  results.  In  China,  under  the  skillful 
management  of  the  consecrated  workers,  the 
schools  had  developed  far  beyond  expecta- 
tions. In  Brazil  the  corner  stone  of  the  col- 
lege at  Piracicaba  was  laid  February  8, 
1883,  with  imposing  honors  and  ceremonies,  in 
which  several  prominent  men  of  that  country 
took  part,  thus  evincing  the  interest  felt  by 
the  Brazilians  in  the  enterprise. 

The  seminary  at  Laredo,  though  not  com- 
pleted, was  opened  October  13,  1882,  by  Miss 
Williams,  assisted  by  Mrs.  Burford,  but  be- 
fore the  meeting  of  the  Board  Miss  Williams 
had  married  Rev.  J.  F.  Corbin^  pastor  of  the 
M.  E.  Church,  South,  in  Laredo.  Miss  Re- 
becca Toland  was  appointed  to  Laredo  Semi- 
nary, and  Mrs.  Burford  recommended  to  go  to 
Monterey,  and  with  her  sister,  Mrs.  Corbin, 
open   a  day  school   there.     Miss   Nannie  E. 

Woman's  Missionary  Societij,  M.  E.  C,  &  401 

Holding,  of  Somerset,  Ky.,  was  accepted  by 
the  Board  as  a  missionary,  and  assigned  to 
work  in  the  Laredo  Seminary.  Miss  Jennie 
C.  Wolfe,  of  Alabama,  and  Miss  Mattie  B. 
Jones,  of  Norcross,  Ga.,  missionary  candi- 
dates, were  also  accepted.  Miss  Jones  was 
appointed  to  Mexico  as  a  colleague  for  Miss 
Blanche  Gilbert,  and  Miss  Wolfe  to  China. 
Miss  Mildred  M.  Philips,  who  had  graduated 
with  honor  March  15,  would  spend  one  year 
in  the  woman's  hospital,  where  she  could 
have  large  opportunities  for  improvement  and 
experience,  and  the  following  spring  sail  for 
Soochow,  China,  where  the  hospital  and  dis- 
pensary were  being  prepared.  In  response 
to  an  earnest  appeal  from  Mrs.  S.  J.  Bryan, 
teacher  in  Seminole  Academy,  all  available 
funds  having  been  already  applied  to  existing 
work,  a  special  contribution  of  $1,200  was 
pledged  by  different  members  of  the  Board 
for  their  respective  Conference  Societies. 
The  following  appropriations  were  made: 
China,  $11,168;  Mexican  Border,  $6,250; 
Central  Mexico,  $8,150;  Brazil,  $4,750;  print- 
ing and  office  expenses,  $3,350.  Grand  total, 

June  5,  1884,  witnessed  the  opening  exer- 
cises   of    the    sixth    annual    meeting    of   the 

'402     Hand  Book  of  3Iethodist  Uissioris. 

Woman's  Board  of  Missions  in  Walnut  Street 
Church,  Kansas  City,  Mo.  For  the  first  time 
since  its  organization  the  detaining  hand  of 
the  Master  had  been  laid  upon  two  of  the  of- 
ficers, the  able  and  consecrated  Corresponding 
Secretary  and  the  efficient  Treasurer  being 
absent  because  of  sickness.  No  new  work 
had  been  undertaken  during  the  year,  because 
of  the  heavy  tax  already  upon  the  missiona- 
ries. The  work  had  developed  and  grown  be- 
yond their  strength,  and  reenf orcements  were 
greatly  needed.  The  following  statistics 
comprised  the  summary  of  the  home  work: 
Adult  Auxiliaries,  67,  numbering  1,061  mem- 
bers, and  62  Young  People's  and  Juvenile  So- 
cieties, with  2,398  members  added,  making  a 
total  of  1,528  Societies,  with  37,482  members. 
The  resignation  of  Mrs.  Sarah  Burford  on 
the  Mexican  Border,  was  accepted.  The  un- 
conditional resignation  of  Mrs.  J.  W.  Lam- 
buth,  who  had  done  such  faithful  service  at 
Clopton  School,  Shanghai,  left  the  Board  no 
choice  but  to  accept,  which  was  done  after 
passing  fitting  and  well-deserved  eulogies 
upon  one  to  whom  was  due,  in  large  measure, 
the  success  of  this  school.  Miss  Dona  Ham- 
ilton, of  Texas,  Miss  Jennie  M.  Atkinson,  of 
Alabama,   and   Miss   Laura   A.  Haygood,  of 

Woman''  s  Miss ionarij  Society y  M,  E,  C,  S.  '403 

Georgia^  were  accepted  as  missionaries,  and 
appointed  to  work  in  China.  Miss  Mildred 
Philips,  medical  missionary,  would  defer 
sailing  for  her  appointed  work  in  Soochow 
until  fall,  and  it  was  decided  to  send  with  her 
an  assistant.  An  appropriation  of  $23,940 
was  made  to  China.  Miss  Mary  W.  Bruce 
was  appointed  to  reenforce  Brazil,  and  an  ap- 
propriation of  $5,600  made  to  that  field,  $14,- 
600  to  the  Mexican  Border,  $6,400  to  Central 
Mexico,  $1,200  to  the  Indian  Mission,  and 
$3,500  for  contingent  expenses,  total  amount 
of  appropriation  being  $52,740.  A  thrilling 
incident  of  this  meeting  was  the  offering  of 
herself  by  Miss  Lou  E.  Philips  to  the 
Board.  The  rich  gift  was  gratefully  accepted 
and  Miss  Philips  subsequently,  at  a  special 
meeting  of  the  Local  Board,  appointed 
as  the  assistant  of  her  sister.  Dr.  Mildred 
Philips.  The  President,  Mrs.  Hayes,  beauti- 
fully emphasized  two  points  in  the  annual  re- 
port— viz. :  the  baptism  of  the  Holy  Ghost  on 
the  Conference  at  Nantziang,  and  the  con- 
version of  scholars  in  the  various  mission 
schools  of  the  foreign  field,  for  which  devout 
thanks  were  given. 

It  being  the  centenary  year  of  the  organic 
existence  of  American  Methodism,  wise  plans 

404     Hand  Book  of  llethodid  Missions. 

were  devised  for  raising  a  "  Centenary  Monu- 
mental Fund,"  for  the  establishing  of  a  col- 
lege for  girls  at  Kio  de  Janeiro.  The  salary 
of  the  editor  of  the  Woman'' s  Missionary  Ad- 
vocate was  increased  to  $100  per  month,  with 
authority  to  employ  assistance  when  needed, 
and  pay  for  the  same  out  of  subscription  re- 
ceipts. Miss  Marcia  Marvin's  presence  and 
earnest  words  increased  the  interest  felt  in 
the  Indian  Mission,  and  during  the  discussion 
of  the  work,  she  arose  and  offered  herself  as  a 
centenary  gift  to  the  Seminole  Seminary,  in  a 
manner  which  brought  to  mind  her  honored 
father,  Bishop  Marvin.  Much  precious  com- 
munion in  Christ  was  enjoyed  during  the  en- 
tire meeting.  Mrs.  Whitworth  having  re- 
signed, Mrs.  R.  Weakley  Brown  had  been 
elected  in  the  interim,  as  Treasurer,  and  re- 
ported 138,873.52  as  the  total  amount  received 
during  the  year.  Miss  M.  Baker,  Treasurer 
of  the  Memorial  Fund,  reported  $556.34  re- 
ceived since  last  report,  making  a  total  in 
hand  of  $2,308.13. 

As  in  the  "olden  time"  the  seventh  year 
was  to  the  people  of  Israel  the  year  of  jubilee, 
so  with  glad  hearts  the  Woman's  Missionary 
Society  exchanged  joyous  greetings  in  Church 
Street  Church,  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  on  the  even- 

Woman's  Missionary  Socieff/,  M.  E.  C.,S.  405 

ing  of  June  4,  1885.  At  no  previous  annual 
meeting  had  tliere  been  as  great  cause  for  re- 
joicing, as  shown  by  the  carefully  prepared 
report  of  the  Corresponding  Secretary.  In 
no  year  had  so  much  money  been  paid  unto 
the  Lord  by  his  handmaidens;  in  none  had 
so  many  consecrated  themselves  to  the  work. 
In  the  home  field  the  growth  had  been  steady, 
415  Auxiliaries,  with  5,478  members,  having 
been  added,  which  increased  the  number  of 
Societies  to  1,947,  with  a  total  membership  of 
43,096.  In  some  Conferences  juvenile  organ- 
izations had  been  effected,  working  in  perfect 
harmony  with  and  reportmg  to  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Society.  North  Carolina  had  se- 
lected for  the  name  of  her  juvenile  workers 
"Bright  Jewels;"  South  Carolina,  "Palmet- 
to Leaves;"  Holston,  "Little  Workers;"  and 
Kentucky,  "Soul-loving  Society."  Another 
most  encouraging  feature  was  the  formation 
in  mission  fields  of  societies  contributing 
money  to  send  the  word  of  life  to  those  be- 
yond, still  shrouded  in  darkness.  There  were 
two  of  these  in  Mexican  Border,  one  in  Bra- 
zil, and  four  in  the  Indian  Territory.  In 
some  schools  and  colleges  the  spirit  of  God 
had  begun  to  move  upon  and  develop  the 
forces  in  this  important  element.     The  plan 

406      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

of  publishing  a  monthly  leaflet,  to  be  issued 
quarterly  in  advance  for  the  use  of  Auxilia- 
ries, Miss  M.  L.  Gibson,  editor  and  publisher, 
had  worked  admirably.  The  6,000  copies  of 
the  Sixth  Annual  Keport  ordered  published 
and  distributed  gratuitously  had  proven  a  fruit- 
ful "seed  sowing."  The  Woman's  Missionary/ 
Advocate,  with  an  ever  increasing  circulation, 
had  won  "golden  opinions"  for  the  editor 
and  the  cause  she  espoused.  There  were  em- 
ployed 15  missionaries,  4  assistants,  2  Bible 
women,  1  medical  missionary,  and  1  trained 
nurse;  7  boarding  schools  with  276  pupils, 
and  10  day  schools  with  241  pupils,  a  total  of 
617  pupils  under  the  control  of  the  Board. 
Eeports  from  the  missionaries  proved  that 
plans  had  been  wisely  laid,  and  the  work  far- 
reaching,  with  present  gratifying  results. 
The  total  amount  paid  during  the  year  was 

The  sisterly  greetings  from  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Societies  of  the  Baptist  and  Pres- 
byterian Churches  found  responsive  echoes 
in  the  hearts  of  the  members,  voiced  by  the 
President  in  beautiful,  well-chosen  words. 
With  peculiar  pleasure  the  Board  arose  to 
greet  its  first  missionary:  Miss  Lochie  Ean- 
kin,  from  China,  who  had  been  invited   "to 

Woman's  Missionary  Societ//,  M.  E.  C,  S.  407 

come  apart  and  rest  awhile  "  from  lier  ardu- 
ous labors,  and  Miss  Blanche  Gilbert,  from 
Mexico.  Eev.  and  Mrs.  C.  F.  Reid,  from 
China  Mission,  added  to  the  pleasure  of  the 
Board  by  their  presence.  As  questions  of 
grave  importance  connected  with  the  affairs 
of  the  Central  Mexican  Mission  demanded 
immediate  and  careful  consideration,  all  mat- 
ters pertaining  to  this  field  were  referred  to  a 
special  committee.  After  a  full  investigation, 
the  decision  of  the  bishop  in  charge  in  with- 
drawing Misses  Gilbert  and  Jones,  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  Woman's  Board,  from  San 
Luis  Potosi  was  accepted  with  "becoming 
dignity  and  Christian  grace,"  the  Board  at  the 
same  time  expressing  *'its  unimpaired  confi- 
dence in  the  integrity  of  its  representatives, 
and  the  assurance  to  them  that  in  this  unfor- 
tunate termination  of  well-laid  plans  for  useful- 
ness in  Mexico  it  gave  them  full  sympathy  with- 
out a  trace  of  blame."  It  was  unanimously 
decided  that  Misses  Gilbert  and  Jones  be  left 
without  an  appointment  for  the  present,  they 
sustaining  to  the  Woman's  Board  of  Missions 
the  relation  of  returned  missionaries.  A  plan 
was  submitted  by  Miss  Haygood  to  the  women 
of  Southern  Methodism  to  form  a  joint  stock 
company  to  pay  into  the  treasury  during  the 

408      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missioyis. 

next  year  $25,000  outside  of  all  regular  dues, 
to  establish  a  Girls'  High  School  and  Home 
and  Training  School  for  Missionaries  at 
Shanghai.  Eight  hundred  and  twenty-seven 
shares  were  at  once  pledged!  Mrs.  Park, 
having  spent  three  months  in  the  school  at 
Laredo,  gave  valuable  information  concerning 
the  Seminary  and  teachers,  and  was  tendered 
resolutions  of  thanks  for  the  able  and  satis- 
factory manner  in  which  she  had  carried  out 
the  wishes  of  the  Board  in  superintending 
the  enlargement  of  the  school  building.  The 
value  of  real  estate  owned  by  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Society  of  the  M.  E.  Church, 
South,  was  shown  to  be  as  follows:  In  China, 
$30,100;  Mexican  Border,  $18,500;  Central 
Mexico,  $7,700;  Brazil,  $18,800.  Total,  $75,- 
200.  The  appropriation  to  China  was  $22,- 
780;  to  Mexican  Border,  $6,250;  to  Brazil, 
$16,000;  to  Indian  Territory,  $1,800;  contin- 
gent, printing,  and  office  expenses,  $3,500; 
travel  and  half  salaries  of  two  returned  mis- 
sionaries, $997.  Total,  $51,327!  The  Cor- 
responding Secretary  was  instructed  to  pre- 
pare a  report  of  the  work  of  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Society  to  the  General  Confer- 
ence, to  convene  in  Kichmond,  Va.,  May,  1886. 
At  the  close  of  its  second  quadrennium,  the 

Womaji's  Missioyiary  Society,  M.E.  C.,S,  .409 

Woman's  Missionary  Society  met  in  St. 
John's  Church,  Augusta,  Ga.,  June  10,  1886, 
in  the  opening  session  of  its  eighth  annual 
•meeting,  Mrs.  Hayes  presiding,  and  other 
officers  present.  Miss  Watts,  missionary  to 
Brazil,  with  Mile.  Eennotte,  who  for  five 
years  had  been  assisting  her  in  Collegio  Pira- 
cicabano,  and  Miss  Dora  Kankin,  from  China, 
were  welcomed  with  loving  pride.  The  So- 
ciety was  reported  healthful  and  vigorous. 
The  home  work  was  represented  by  1,406 
Auxiliaries  and  more  than  45,000  members. 
The  mite  box,  that  eloquent  but  silent  plead- 
er for  Jesus'  sake,  was  coming  into  use,  and 
gathering  up  the  "fragments,  that  nothing  be 

Miss  Lochie  Kankin,  having  been  greatly 
refreshed  by  her  brief  visit  to  the  home  land, 
after  nearly  seven  years'  toil  in  China,  had 
returned  to  her  loved  employ  in  October, 
1885.  Miss  Blanche  Gilbert  had  been  ap- 
pointed to  Laredo'  and  Miss  Mattie  Jones  to 
Piracicaba,  Brazil.  No  new  missionaries  had 
gone  to  the  foreign  fields,  while  every  letter 
from  the  overburdened  workers  called  plead- 
ingly for  "help."  Buildings  were  overflow- 
ing and  pupils  being  turned  away.  The  plan 
so  enthusiastically  received   and  adopted   at 

410      Tland  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

the  seventh  annual  meeting,  to  found  a  home 
for  new  missionaries,  in  connection  with  a 
high  school  for  girls  at  Shanghai,  had  met 
with  great  favor.  Miss  Lochie  Rankin  was 
busy  with  her  boarding  school  of  fifty  girls  at 
Pleasant  College,  Nantziang,  and  her  sjster 
Dora  in  preparing  sixty  boys  for  higher  educa- 
tion in  the  Anglo-Chinese  College.  In  Soo- 
chow  the  schools  were  likewise  prospering, 
and  Dr.  Philips,  during  the  absence  of  Drs. 
Lambuth  and  Park  especially,  "in  labors 
abundant."  Miss  Baldwin,  the  trained  nurse 
taken  out  by  Dr.  Philips,  after  several  months 
of  acute  illness,  had  returned  home.  The  work 
at  Laredo  was  "lengthening  its  cords  and 
strengthening  its  stakes."  The  "Laredo  Band," 
a  Missionary  Society  among  the  pupils,  had 
sent  over  $50  to  the  Treasurer  at  Nashville. 
In  Brazil,  the  workers,  though  mourning  the 
death  of  an  invaluable  helper  and  sympa- 
thizer, Eev.  J.  W.  Koger,  paused  not  in  their 
wearisome  labors.  Mr.  Kbger,  since  May, 
had  received  25  persons  into  the  Church,  7  of 
whom  were  inmates  of  Collegio  Piracicabano. 
It  was  pleasant  to  hear  Miss  Watts,  fresh 
from  the  field,  tell  how  the  school  had  become 
self-supporting  during  the  first  year,  and  that 
out  of  the  school  fund  fences  had  been  built 

Woman's  Missionary  Society,  M.E.  C.,S.  411 

and  improvements  added  to  the  amount  of 
several  hundred  dollars.  Good  work,  with 
satisfactory  results,  was  reported  from  the 
Indian  Territory.  The  total  amount  received 
by  the  Treasurer  for  the  year  was  $51,588.76; 
amount  received  by  the  Treasurer  of  the 
Memorial  Fund,  $275.09.  The  Board  ac- 
knowledged by  fitting  resolutions  their  great 
indebtedness  to  Dr.  Young  J.  Allen,  mission- 
ary in  China,  for  his  valuable  assistance  in  sus- 
taining and  directing  their  w^ork,  and  for  his 
tender  care  and  consideration  for  the  young 
ladies  sent  out  by  them.  Dr.  Allen  was  ap- 
pointed attorney,  with  power  to  attend  to  all 
business  of  the  Board  in  China  Mission,  and 
the  bishop  in  charge  was  requested  to  make 
Dr.  Allen  superintendent  of  all  work  under  the 
care  of  the  Woman's  Board  in  that  field.  Due 
acknowledgment  of  the  valuable  services  of 
Mrs.  A.  P.  Parker,  who  had  given  herself  as  a 
freewill  ottering  to  the  Woman's  Board  of 
Missions  for  several  years,  and  rendered  most 
efficient  aid,  was  made  in  a  resolution  of 
thanks,  and  the  paying  of  her  traveling  ex- 
penses to  the  United  States  on  a  visit. 

The  gratifying  action  of  the  late  General 
Conference  in  regard  to  the  Woman's  Mis- 
sionary  Society,   having  concurred  in  every 

412      Hmid  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

point  of  the  memorial  presented  by  the 
Board,  was  read  by  the  Corresponding  Sec- 
retary, with  the  following  indorsement  of 
woman's  work  by  the  highest  official  body  in 
the  Church,  words  deemed  by  the  women  of 
the  Missionary  Society  of  unspeakable  worth: 

The  Woman's  Missionary  Society,  organized  eight 
years  ago,  has  done  well,  unexpectedly  well,  in  its  col- 
lections, marvelously  well  in  its  administration,  mag- 
nanimously well  in  its  relation  to  and  its  cooperation 
with  the  Parent  Board,  gloriously  well  in  its  achieve- 
ments in  the  fields  of  its  operations ;  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  That  the  success  of  the  Woman's  Mission- 
ary Society,  organized  eight  years  ago,  has  demon- 
strated the  wisdom  of  that  movement,  and  is  cause  of 
devout  gratitude.  What  they  have  done  has  been 
done  in  excess  of  what  would  probably  have  been  done 
during  the  same  period  by  the  Church  at  large. 
Where  they  have  been  most  successful  in  their  home 
work  and  their  zeal  has  been  most  actively  displayed, 
there  is  not  only  no  diminution  of  the  general  collec- 
tions, but  rather  an  increase.  That  it  is,  therefore, 
every  way  desirable  that  our  godly  women  be  encour- 
aged to  a  continuance  of  their  zeal,  and  that  to  this  end 
our  preachers  and  people  everywhere  should  cooperate 
with  them  as  their  other  duties  will  allow. 

A  pleasant  incident  of  this  meeting  was  the 
undertaking  by  the  Juvenile  Missionary  Soci- 
ety of  St.  John's  Church  (in  which  the  meet- 
ing was  held)  to  furnish  $200  to  provide  a 
missionary  boat  for  the  comfort  and  conven- 

Woinan's  Missionary  Society,  M.E.  (7.,aS\  413 

ieuce  of  the  Misses  Eankin,  and  a  pledge 
from  three  ladies  to  procure  a  surrey  for  the 
use  of  Miss  Watts,  Collegio  Piracicabano. 
Miss  Emma  Kerr,  of  Brownsville,  Tenn.,  was 
accepted  and  recommended  to  the  Nurses' 
Training  School  of  the  Woman's  Hospital,  at 
Philadelphia,  to  become,  assistant  to  Dr.  Phil- 
ips at  Soochow.  Appropriations  for  the  year 
amounted  to  $69,770. 

The  ninth  annual  meeting  of  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Missions  was  held  in  Catlettsburg, 
Ky.,  June  11-17,  1887.  The  presence  o£ 
Bishop  Wilson,  fresh  from  the  China  field, 
was  an  inspiration  to  the  body  of  women, 
across  whose  hearts  a  dark  shadow  had  fallen. 
December  10,  1886,  Dora  Eankin,  after  seven 
years  of  unremitting  service  to  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Society  of  the  M.  E.  Church, 
South,  at  the  age  of  twenty-five  years,  re- 
ceived the  summons  "Enter  thou  into  the  joys 
of  thy  Lord."  Bishop  Wilson  testified  that 
"  her  work  and  worth  will  hardly  be  known 
until  the  righteous  Judge  shall  declare  them." 
The  bereft  sister  was  bravely  discharging  her 
own  duties  and  a  part  of  the  work  which  had 
been  undertaken  by  her  sister.  The  gloom  of 
the  hour  was  brightened  by  the  evidence  of 
the  Spirit's  glorious  power. 

414     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

There  were  in  Pleasant  College  seven  ap- 
plicants for  baptism,  and  the  oldest  pupil  in 
the  high  school  had  declared  his  desire  to 
unite  with  the  Church.  In  Shanghai  five 
additional  day  schools  had  been  opened 
and  the  work  in  other  respects  broadened, 
though  at  a  cost  to  the  health  and  strength 
of  the  little  handful  of  missionaries.  From 
Soochow  was  sent  a  most  interesting  and 
gratifying  report  of  Dr.  Philips's  work,  and 
the  boarding  and  day  schools  in  charge  of 
Miss  Lou  Philips.  Surely  and  steadily  the 
work  at  Laredo  Seminary,  Mexican  Border, 
was  advancing.  After  a  visit  of  several 
days,  and  careful  examination  into  the  inter- 
nal management  as  well  as  to  the  location, 
buildings,  etc.,  Bishop  Key  said:  "For  each 
and  all  I  have  nothing  but  admiration  and 
praise."  Bishop  Granbery,  while  on  a  tour 
of  inspection  in  Brazil,  wrote  of  CoUegio  Pi- 
racicabano:  "  I  am  delighted  with  the  college, 
buildings,  grounds,  teachers,  mode  of  in- 
struction, success  already  achieved,  and  pros- 
pects of  growing  usefulness."  Miss  Watts  re- 
turned to  her  work  there  in  May,  1887.  The 
bishop  strqngly  commended  the  contemplated 
school  at  Rio.  The  work  of  the  Woman's  Board 
having  been  concentrated  at  Harrell  Interna- 

Woman's  3Iissionary  Society,  3LE.  C.,S.  415 

tional    Institute,   at    Muskogee,  Ind.   T.,  the 
Principal,  Eev.  T.  F.  Brewer,  submitted  to  the 
Board  a  liiglily  interesting  history  and  report. 
Mrs.  J.  P.  Campbell,  of  Los  Angeles,  Gal., 
and   Miss    Kate   Pi.    Eoberts,    of  Nashville, 
Tenn.,  had  been  accepted  as  missionaries  and 
sent  to  China  in  March,  1887.     The  minutes  of 
the  first  organized  annual  meeting  of  the  rep- 
resentatiA^es  of  the  Woman's  Board  in  China, 
presided  over  by  Bishop  Wilson,  a  new  fea- 
ture in  the  foreign  work,  were  recommended 
as  good  reading.     The  presence  of  Miss  Hold- 
ing in  the  interest  of  Laredo,  that  institution 
having  for  the  second  time  outgrown  its  ac- 
commodations, quickened    the   sympathy  of 
the  Board  to  painful  intensity,  as  enlargement 
could   not   be    met    by    appropriation.     The 
amount  needed  was  $7,000,  and  Miss  Holding 
was  given  permission  to  make  individual  ap- 
peals for  the  securing  of  that  amount.     The 
week  before  Christmas  was  appointed  a  spe- 
cial season  of  prayer  and  self-denial,  and  daily 
prayer  at  eventide,  to  gain  the  outpouring  of 
the  Holy  Spirit,  pledged.     It  was  stated  that 
the  fund  for  the  proposed  Home  and  Training 
School  at  Shanghai  had  been  raised,  and  that 
Pvio  College  had  become  a  real  monument  of 
centenary^offerings.     Miss  Lula  H.  Lipscomb, 

416      Hand  Book  of  Mefliodist  Missio 


of  the  North  Mississippi  Conference,  and  Miss 
Ada  E-eagan,  of  the  Tennessee  Conference,  were 
accepted  and  appointed  to  Ciiina;  Miss  Mar- 
cia  Marvin,  of  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  was  accepted  for 
matron  of  Collegio  Piracicabano,  Brazil.  The 
proposal  of  Miss  Lelia  Roberts  to  place  her- 
self and  school  at  Saltillo,  Mexico,  under  the 
Woman\s  Board,  was  accepted.  Miss  Bettie 
Hughes,  of  Meridian,  Miss.,  was  also  accepted 
for  work  in  China.  Ten  missionaries  had  of- 
fered and  been  accepted  and  appointed  since 
the  death  of  Miss  Dora  Rankin,  for  whom 
touching  memorial  services  were  held  by  her 
sisters,  who,  amid  their  tears,  thanked  the 
all-wise  Father  that  the  new-made  grave  in 
China  was  as  a  magnet  drawing  the  hearts  of 
the  young  women  of  the  Church  to  that  be- 
nighted land.  Appropriate  resolutions  were 
ordered  drafted  and  sent  to  the  Emperor  of 
China  through  Dr.  Y.  J.  Allen,  as  a  testimo- 
nial of  the  appreciation  by  the  Board  as  a 
religious  body,  of  the  grand  and  gracious  lib- 
erty he  had  proclaimed  to  his  subjects,  open- 
ing wide  his  gates  to  the  religions  of  the 
world.  The  home  work  numbered  2,000 
Auxiliaries,  with  46,999  members;  amount 
received  by  the  Treasurer,  $48,092.63.  Miss 
Baker  reported  the    Memorial   Fund  having 

Womcm's  Missionary  Society,  M.E.  C.,S.Al 7 

been  increased  $199.25.  She  had  remitted  to 
the  Treasurer  of  the  Woman's  Board  of  Mis- 
sions, to  be  applied  to  "Davidson  Memorial 
Training  School  for  Girls,"  to  be  founded  in 
Shanghai,  China,  $2,000.  Balance  on  hand 
May  1,  1887,  $1,303.56.  Total  appropriations 
for  ensuing  year,  $66,487. 

The  opening  exercises  of  the  tenth  annual 
meeting  of  the  Woman's  Board  in  McKen- 
dree  Church,  Nashville,  Tenn.,  May  3,  1888, 
marked  with  a  "  white  stone  "  the  first  decade 
of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Society.  The 
fact  that  it  was  the  seventy-fifth  birthday  an- 
niversary of  the  able  and  faithful  President, 
who  had  presided  at  every  annual  meeting, 
made  the  occasion  doubly  memorable.  Other 
facts  tended  to  make  this  the  third  testing  by 
the  Board  of  Nashville  hospitality,  and  the 
tenth  anniversary,  notable:  the  presence  of 
the  College  of  Bishops;  the  Board  of  Missions; 
Dr.  Allen,  who  had  been  for  nearly  thirty 
years  a  missionary  in  Shanghai,  China;  Miss 
Toland,  from  Mexican  Border  Mission,  who, 
for  the  first  time  in  seven  years,  had  laid 
aside  her  work  for  a  season  of  much-needed 
rest;  Miss  Jennie  Wolfe,  who,  for  several 
years  had  been  employed  by  the  Woman's 
Board  in  the  Indian  Territory,  with  Miss 

418      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Augusta  Wilson,  sister  of  Bishop  Wilson,  and 
Miss  Ella  Granbery,  present  as  missionary 
candidates,  made  the  occasion  peculiarly  in- 
teresting. The  statistics  presented  showed  a 
gratifying  increase  in  the  home  work,  there 
being  2,399  Auxiliaries,  numbering  56,783 
members,  besides  life  members,  honorary  life 
members,  and  life  patrons.  The  young  peo- 
ple and  children  had  outrun  their  elders  in 
zeal  and  enthusiasm. 

Miss  N.  E.  Holding  came  home  in  May  to 
recruit  her  failing  health,  having  for  four 
years  rendered  faithful  service  as  Principal 
of  Laredo  Seminary,  returning  in  October 
greatly  benefited.  The  money  needed  by 
her  for  the  much- desired  addition  to  the 
building  had  come  to  her  in  small,  special 
gifts,  made  precious  by  love  and  prayer,  and 
the  house  was  built,  dedicated  "Hall  of 
Faith,"  and  stands  as  an  object  lesson  to  her 
pupils  of  trusting  God  for  all  things  needed. 
Miss  Holding's  appeal  for  $600  additional 
help  as  a  loan  was  responded  to  by  a  pledge 
of  $1,500  as  a  gift  from  fifteen  Conference  So- 
cieties. Appreciative  thanks  were  tendered 
Misses  Mason  and  Holderby,  of  Catlettsburg, 
Ky.,  for  one  year's  service  in  Laredo  Semina- 
ry, freely  and  cheerfully  given  by  them. 

Worna7i's  Missionary  Society,  M.E.C.^S.  419 

The  presence  of  Rev.  A.  H.  Sutherland, 
missionary  from  Mexican  Border,  gave  added 
interest  to  the  meeting,  he  being  called  the 
"  right  arm  of  the  Woman's  Board  of  Missions  " 
in  that  field.  Words  from  Bishop  Galloway  in- 
creased the  interest  felt  in  the  "red  man." 
Harrell  Institute,  at  Muskogee,  had  passed 
through  a  most  prosperous  year,  and  addition- 
al buildings  were  much  needed. 

The  reenforcements  sent  to  China  had 
cheered  and  strengthened  the  burdened 
hearts  and  weary  hands  of  the  brave,  faithful 
missionaries.  In  September,  1887,  Miss 
Emma  Kerr,  Miss  Lula  Lipscomb,  Miss  Ad- 
die  Gordon,  Miss  Bettie  Hughes,  and  Miss 
Ada  Reagan  sailed  for  Shanghai.  In  Brazil 
the  work,  amid  many  hindrances,  was  advan- 
cing. Miss  Marcia  Marvin  had  gone  out  in 
July,  1887,  and  was  at  her  post  in  Rio.  From 
every  field  came  the  cry:  "Helpers  are  a  ne- 
cessity, and  must  be  sent  at  an  early  day." 
Miss  A.  F.  Wilson  was  accepted  and  appoint- 
ed to  Harrell  Institute.  Miss  Kate  Warren, 
of  St.  Louis,  was  recommended  as  a  teacher 
for  Harrell  Institute.  Miss  Ella  Granbery 
was  accepted  and  appointed  to  Brazil,  she 
having  already  given  one  year's  service  there. 
A  communication  from  the  Business  Commit- 

420      Hdud  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

tee  of  the  General  Missionary  Conference,  to 
be  held  in  London,  June  9-19,  1888,  contain- 
ing a  request  for  the  a^jpointment  of  one -or 
more  delegates  to  represent  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Missions  at  said  Conference,  was 
read  and  Mrs.  Hayes  elected  as  delegate. 

The  resignation  of  Miss  Jennie  Wolfe, 
for  five  years  a  missionary  of  the  Board,  be- 
cause of  failing  health,  was  accepted  with  as- 
surances of  their  sympathy  and  continued 

In  addition  to  the  $1,500  to  Laredo,  over 
$1,000  was  pledged  to  other  specific  work  in 
the  Mexican  Border  by  Conference  Societies. 
The  Board  appropriated  to  China  $23,837; 
Mexican  Border,  $9,800;  Brazil,  $10,550;  In- 
dian Territory,  $5,950;  for  medical  students, 
$1,000;  to  Dr.  Allen,  $500;  expenses  of  dele- 
gate to  London,  $300.  Total,  $54,937.  There 
had  been  forwarded  to  the  Treasurer  $69,- 
729.65.  McKendree  Auxiliary  had  paid 
$1,500  of  this,  $284  of  which  was  a  contribu- 
tion from  Dr.  W.  A.  Candler,  assistant  editor 
of  the  Christian  Advocate. 

May  1,  1889,  witnessed  the  opening  exer- 
cises of  the  eleventh  annual  meeting  in  Eighth 
Street  Church,  Little  Bock,  Ark.  The  ven- 
erable President  embodied  in  her  comprehen- 

Woman's  MissiGnan/  Society,  MJl\C.,S.  421 

sive  address  an  interesting  report  of  the 
World's  Missionary  Conference  in  London, 
July,  1888,  at  wliicli  she  represented  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Society  of  the  M.  E. 
Church,  South.  The  Eecording  Secretary 
being  absent,  Mrs.  Trueheart  was  appointed 
Secretary  i^ro  tern.  Keports  showed  no 
marked  extension  in  any  field,  while  the  work 
seemed  steadily  growing  in  each.  Miss  Gran- 
bery  had  sailed  for  Brazil,  and  Miss  Wilson 
had  entered  upon  her  work  in  the  Indian 
Territory.  Miss  Clara  Chrisman,  of  Missis- 
sippi; Miss  Ella  Yarrell,  of  Virginia;  Mrs. 
Brelsford,  of  Kentucky,  and  Miss  Lyda  How- 
ell, of  North  Georgia,  were  appointed  to  Bra- 
zil. Miss  Chrisman,  while  hastening  to  New 
York  to  sail  with  the  other  missionaries,  met 
a  tragic  death  in  the  Johnstown  flood.  A  dark, 
heavy  shadow/  was  thrown  over  the  hearts  of 
the  women  she  was  to  have  represented,  and 
reaching  across  the  seas,  was  felt  in  the  mis- 
sion school  where  she  was  to  have  labored. 
Touching  memorial  services  were  held 
throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the 
Southern  Church  over  the  death  of  this  gifted, 
consecrated  young  woman.  Her  memory  will 
ever  be  as  "  precious  ointment  poured  forth." 
Miss  Sallie  Phillips,  of  Louisiana,  went  before 

422     Hand  Book  of  3Iethodist  Missions, 

the  Local  Board,  was  recommended  to  the 
bishop  in  charge  to  j&ll  the  vacancy,  and  be- 
fore the  next  meeting  of  the  Board  was  at 
work  in  Brazil. 

Miss  Lizzie  Wilson,  of  Kentucky,  and  Miss 
Flora  Baker,  of  North  Georgia,  were  assigned 
to  Laredo  Seminary;  Mrs.  A.  E.  McClendon 
was  also  sent  to  Laredo  Seminary.  Miss 
Ella  Tydings,  of  Florida,  was  sent  to  Saltillo, 
Mexico,;  Miss  Helen  Kichardson  and  Miss 
Lula  Ross  were  appointed  to  China;  Miss 
Mary  McClellan,  of  Brookhaven,  Mississippi, 
had  sailed  for  China  in  August,  1888. 

Miss  Bennett,  of  Kentucky,  introduced  the 
subject  of  a  training  school  so  forcibly  as  to 
secure  the  indorsement  of  the  Board,  by  ap- 
pointing her  their  agent  to  fully  investigate 
the  subject  and  secure  funds.  At  this  meet- 
ing China  had  earnest,  eloquent  pleaders  in 
the  person  of  Miss  Anna  Muse,  who  had 
spent  seven  years  of  service  in  that  benighted 
land,  and  of  Mrs.  A.  W.  Wilson,  who,  with 
her  husband,  the  bishop,  had  visited  and  ex- 
amined into  the  work.  Miss  Holding  spoke 
touching  words  for  beautiful,  sin-cursed  Mex- 
ico. The  marriage  of  Miss  Addie  Gordon,  a 
missionary  of  the  Board,  to  Rev.  Mr.  Burke, 
of   Soochow,   was   reported.     With   regret  it 

Woman's  Missionary  Society,  M.  E.  C,  S.  423 

was  learned  that  the  heavy  work  upon  Dr. 
Allen  forced  him  to  resign  as  superintendent 
of  the  work  under  the  Woman's  Board.  The 
announcement  of  Bishop  McTyeire's  death 
brought  a  sense  of  sadness  and  bereavement 
to  each  member,  which  was  expressed  in  suit- 
able resolutions. 

The  number  of  members  reported  was 
65,466,  a  pleasant  proof  of  the  extension  of 
the  home  work.  Amount  paid  into  the  treas- 
ury, 168,165.34.  Total  amount  of  appropria- 
tions for  the  year,  $61,350. 

At  the  opening  session  of  the  annual  meet- 
ing closing  the  third  quadrennium  of  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Society,  held  at  St. 
John's  Church,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  May  14,  1890, 
there  were  31  missionaries  in  the  foreign 
field,  20  assistants,  37  native  teachers,  10 
boarding  and  31  day  schools,  1,248  pupils,  1 
hospital,  1  medical  missionary,  1  foreign  as- 
sistant and  9  native  assistants,  1,986  Auxili- 
aries, with  41,235  members,  and  995  Juvenile 
Societies,  with  2,991  members;  making  a  total 
of  2,991  Societies,  with  a  membership  of 
72,367,  and  2,067  life  members,  60  honorary 
life  members,  10  life  patrons,  and  $181,000 
worth  of  property.  Total  receipts  for  the 
year,  $75,486.54. 

424     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Miss  Muse  was  enjoying  her  well-earned 
rest  after  seven  years  of  toil.  Miss  Bruce, 
still  suffering  from  the  effects  of  yellow  fever, 
had  also  come  home  to  recuperate.  Dr.  Mil- 
dred Philips,  enfeebled  by  her  five  years  of 
arduous  labor  in  China,  was  granted  the  priv- 
ilege of  returning  home.  She  started,  but 
reaching  Port  Said  just  as  a  vessel  was  leav- 
ing for  Shanghai,  she  transferred  to  that  and 
returned  to  her  post.  In  China,  while  the 
workers  had  suffered  from  sickness  and  heavy 
burdens,  there  had  been  an  increase  of 
schools  and  pupils,  and  an  encouraging  condi- 
tion of  the  work  was  reported.  The  Mexican 
Border  had  been  blessed  with  health  and 
great  prosperity.  Of  Brazil  Bishop  Granbery 
wrote:  "The  Society  has  no  cause  for  dis- 
couragement or  for  relaxation  of  interest  or 
effort  in  respect  to  Brazil."  The  year  which 
had  just  closed  had  been  a  trying  one  to  our 
workers  in  that  field.  A  yellow  fever  epidem- 
ic, the  worst  for  several  generations,  closed 
the  schools  and  scattered  the  faithful  band 
of  workers.  Through  the  mercy  of  God,  all 
were  brought  safely  through,  though  several 
were  dangerously  ill.  After  the  reopening  of 
the  schools,  measles,  whooping  cough,  and  scar- 
letina  appeared.     Amid  all  these  hindrances 

Woman's  Missionary  Sociefij,  M.  E.  C,  S.  425 

good  results  had  been  accomplished  and 
progress  made.  The  government  had  quietly 
passed  from  a  monarchy  into  a  republic.  In 
the  Indian  Territory  there  was  promise  of 
good  fruit.  The  brave,  overburdened  work- 
ers in  every  field  were  pleading  for  increased 
appropriations  and  a  large  reenforcement  of 
laborers,  in  answer  to  which  the  Board  ap- 
propriated to  the  work  $74,607,  and  accepted 
and  appointed  the  following  ladies:  Miss 
Lucy  Harper,  of  Georgetown,  Tex.,  and  Miss 
Mary  Turner,  of  Sharpsburg,  Ky.,  to  the 
Mexican  Border;  Miss  Kate  P.  Fannin,  of 
Blountstown,  Fla.,  to  work  at  Saltillo,  Mexico; 
Miss  Mattie  Dorsey,  of  Charlestown,  W.  Va., 
to  Chihuahua,  Mexico;  Miss  Fannie  Hinds,  of 
Mt.  Sterling,  Ky.,  and  Miss  Mary  L.  Smithey, 
of  Jetersville,  Va.,  to  China.  The  Board  in- 
dorsed the  action  of  the  Local  Board  in  ap- 
pointing Miss  Helen  Kichardson  to  China, 
and  advising  Miss  Pyles  to  continue  at 
school  in  preparation  for  mission  work. 

Several  circumstances  united  to  make  nota- 
ble this  twelfth  meeting  of  the  Board:  the 
session  of  the  General  Conference,  before 
which  went  memorials  for  needed  changes  in 
the  Constitution;  the  presence  of  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  .  Parker,   missionaries,  and   Kev.    C.   K. 

426      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Marshall  (delegate  to  the  General  Confer- 
ence), from  China;  Mrs.  Watkins  and  Miss 
Gilbert,  from  Mexico;  Miss  Mary  Bruce  and 
Eev.  J.  W.  Tarboux,  from  Brazil;  Kev.  N.  W. 
Utley,  from  Japan;  and  the  gifted  young 
women,  bravely  giving  themselves  to  the 
work;  added  to  which  was  the  grand  gift  of 
Rev.  Nathan  Scarritt,  D.D.,  of  Kansas  City, 
Mo.,  of  $25,000,  and  a  suitable  site  in  Kansas 
City  for  a  training  school  for  missionaries 
and  other  Christian  workers,  provided  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Society  would  for  the 
same  object  furnish  $25,000,  made  sacred  a 
few  days  later — May  22 — by  the  death  of  this 
valued  servant  of  God  and  true  friend  to 
woman's  work.  Miss  Bennett,  agent,  reported 
the  wonderful  success  which  had  attended  the 
efforts  of  herself  and  assistant,  Mrs.  Wight- 
man,  having  secured  for  said  training  school 
$11,311.90  in  cash,  with  subscriptions  making 
a  total  of  $36,917.34,  These  ladies  were  con- 
tinued as  agents,  and  in  loving,  grateful  mem- 
ory of  its  most  liberal  donor,  the  institution 
was  named  "  The  Scarritt  Bible  and  Training 
School,'^  and  Bishop  Hendrix  was  elected 
Chairman  of  the  Building  Committee  appoint- 
ed by  the  Board,  Rev.  W.  B.  Palmore  and  Miss 
Belle  Bennett  being  the  other  members. 

Woman's  Missionary  Society,  M.  E.  C,  S,  427 

The  work  having  now  assumed  such  large 
proportions,  it  was  decided  to  increase  the 
number  of  officers;  instead  of  Corresponding 
Secretary  as  heretofore,  to  have  a  "For- 
eign Secretary"  and  a  "Secretary  of  Home 
AJFairs,"  appropriating  to  meet  expenses  of  the 
former  $1,200,  and  of  the  latter  $500.  Mrs. 
McGavock  was  elected  Foreign  Secretary,  and 
Miss  Mary  Helm,  who  had  for  several  years 
been  her  faithful  assistant,  Secretary  of  Home 
Affairs;  the  other  officers  being  reelected  for 
another  term  of  four  years. 

When  the  Woman's  Board  of  Missions  con- 
vened in  Fort  Worth,  Tex.,  June  9,  1891,  and 
reviewed  the  work  of  the  thirteenth  year  of 
its  existence,  it  was  pleasant  to  note  that  more 
women  and  children  of  the  M.  E.  Church, 
South,  than  ever  before  had  enlisted  in  the 
work,  and  more  money  been  paid  into  the 
treasury.  The  statistics  were:  Auxiliaries, 
2,148;  members,  42,563;  Juvenile  Soci-eties, 
1,124,  with  32,917  members;  life  members, 
2,121;  honorary  life  members,  59;  life  pa- 
trons, 9;  amount  paid  into  the  treasury, 
$83,865.72.  Ten  young  ladies  had  been  ac- 
cepted as  missionaries  since  the  previous  an- 
nual meeting,  some  of  whom  had  gone  to 
their  appointed  fields.     Others  were  in  train- 

428     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missiovs. 

ing  schools,  preparing  for  the  work.  Early  in 
the  year  Miss  Yarrell  returned  from  Brazil  on 
account  of  ill  health,  and  Miss  Lou  Philips, 
from  China,  and  Miss  Mattie  Jones,  from 
Brazil,  later  came  home  to  recux^erate.  Most 
encouraging  reports  came  from  the  foreign 
field,  but  the  overburdened  missionaries  were 
still  piteously  pleading  for  help.  Three  of 
the  missionaries  in  China  (Misses  Lipscomb, 
Roberts,  and  Reagan)  had  married,  and  their 
connection  with  the  Board  been  thereby  sev- 
ered. Miss  Dona  Hamilton  had  died  in  Chi- 
na; some  of  the  most  devoted  home  workers 
had  been  called  from  labor  to  rest,  and  others 
were  hovering  between  life  and  death.  Miss 
MoUie  F.  Brown,  of  Austin,  Tex. ;  Miss  Minnie 
Bomar,  of  Marshall,  Tex.;  and  Miss  Kate  C. 
McFarren,  for  some  time  in  the  employ  of 
the  Presbyterian  Board  of  Missions  in  South 
America,  were  accepted.  Miss  Brown  was 
appointed  to  Brazil,  and  Miss  McFarren  to 
Mexico.  Miss  Bomar  was  recommended  to  a 
training  school.  The  resignations  of  Miss 
Muse  and  Miss  Gilbert  were  accepted.  The 
Board  decided  to  publish  a  connectional 
juvenile  paper,  with  Miss  A.  M.  Barnes,  of 
Georgia,  editor;  the  salary  ($750)  to  be  paid 
for    the    ensuing    year    out   of    the    general 

Wo)H(r)i's  Mlsshnarij  Sociefij,  M.  E.  C,  S.  '429 

treasury;  the  name  and  all  matters  pertain- 
ing to  the  publication  of  said  juvenile  i)aper 
to  be  decided  by  the  editor  and  Publishing 
Committee.  Miss  Helm's  resignation  as  Sec- 
retary of  Home  Affairs  because  of  ill  health 
was  not  accepted,  but  a  year  of  rest  was 
granted  the  faithful  officer,  and  Mrs.  Nathan 
Scarritt  was  elected  to  discharge  the  duties  of 
the  office  during  the  time.  Mrs.  Scarritt  de- 
clining to  serve,  Mrs.  S.  0.  Trueheart  was 
elected  by  the  Local  Board  to  relieve  Miss 
Helm  of  the  burdens  of  the  office. 

Miss  Lou  Philips,  late  missionary  of  the 
Board  in  China;  Miss  Mattie  Jones,  repre- 
sentative from  Brazil;  and  Be  v.  J.  J.  Meth- 
vin,  from  the  Indian  Territory,  by  their  ear- 
nest words  and  thrilling  descriptions  of  the 
work,  its  growth  and  needs,  increased  the  zeal 
and  enthusiasm  of  the  Board.  With  much  re- 
gret was  the  announcement  of  the  approach- 
ing marriage  of  Dr.  Mildred  Philips  received, 
as  the  Board  would  thereby  be  deprived  of 
her  valuable  •  services.  The  resignation  of 
Mrs.  ^Y.  G.  E.  Cunnyngham  as  Editor  of 
Leaflets  was  accepted  with  resolutions  of  re- 
gret and  of  appreciation  of  her  six  years  of 
valuable  service  without  remuneration,  and 
Miss  Barnes  was  elected  her  successor.     The 

430     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

amount  of  appropriations  for  the  coming 
year  was  $90,485. 

Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett  reported  for  the 
Scarritt  Bible  and  Training  School  success 
far  beyond  the  most  sanguine  expectations. 
Five  years  had  been  allowed  by  the  generous 
donor  and  founder  of  the  institution  in  which 
to  collect  the  needed  $25,000.  In  two  years 
it  had  been  accomplished,  and  on  May  28 
"a  company  of  missionary  women  and  inter- 
ested friends  had  assembled  at  the  site,  and 
after  solemn  religious  exercises  the  ground 
was  broken  and  actual  work  on  the  Training 
School  begun."  Miss  Bennett  and  Mrs. 
Wightman  were  continued  as  agents,  and 
special  effort  promised  to  secure  Easter  offer- 
ings for  the  benefit  of  the  Training  School. 

The  fourteenth  annual  session  of  the  Board 
convened  for  business  in  Lexington,  Ky., 
June  6,  1892,  with  the  President,  Mrs.  Juliana 
Hayes,  in  the  chair.  Every  officer,  all  the 
Managers  except  one,  24  Conference  Secreta- 
ries, and  4  reserve  delegates,  a  total  of  40 
members,  answering  to  roll  call.  The  37 
Conference  Societies  numbered  3,404  Auxili- 
aries, with  80,963  m^embers.  There  were  be- 
ing supported  29  missionaries:  in  China,  9; 
Mexico,  12;  Brazil,  8.     In  the  Indian  Mission 

Woman  s  Missionarif  Society,  M.  E.  C,  S:  431 

teachers  only  were  employed.  Two  mission- 
aries were  at  home  for  their  health;  seven 
young  women  had  been  accepted  within  the 
year,  and  $66,448.59  was  the  total  amount  of 
collections.  The  Woman's  Missionary  Advo- 
cate was  prosperous,  and  the  new  juvenile 
paper,  the  Little  Worker,  the  name  selected 
by  the  Editor  and  Publishing  Committee,  was 
pronounced  a  success.  In  China  the  work 
had  been  somewhat  interrupted  by  the  un- 
settled condition  of  the  country,  but  38  na- 
tive teachers  and  assistants,  2  Bible  women, 
and  669  children  under  instruction,  showed 
that  the  work  was  advancing,  notwithstand- 
ing the  forced  reduction  of  the  number  of 
workers.  Loud  calls  for  help  came  from  this 
field.  These,  emphasized  by  the  presence  of 
Miss  Hughes,  were  answered  by  accepting 
and  appointing  to  it  Miss  Sallie  B.  Eeynolds, 
of  South  Carolina,  and  Miss  Emma  Gary, 
of  Georgia.  Miss  Martha  Pyles,  of  Missou- 
ri; Miss  Alice  Waters,  of  Tennessee;  Miss 
Sue  Blake,  of  Florida;  and  Miss  Minnie  Bo- 
mar,  of  Texas,  liaving  completed  the  several 
courses  assigned  them  by  the  Board;  and 
Mrs.  Julia  Gaither,  of  Georgia  (who  had 
been  accepted  by  the  Local  Board  and  ap- 
pointed by  Bishop  Wilson  in  November  pre- 

432     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missmis. 

ceding,  but  was  prevented  by  unforeseen  cir- 
cumstances from  sailing  at  the  time  expect- 
ed), were  also  recommended  to  rcenforce  the 
feeble  band  in  China,  and  $29,345  was  appro- 
priated to  that  field.  Of  this  reenforcement. 
Miss  Haygood  wrote:  "We  had  the  great  joy 
of  receiving  them  October  18,  1892.  It  hap- 
pened that  one  or  two  of  the  ladies  were  not 
on  deck  as  the  steamer  n eared  the  wharf. 
You  would  have  faintly  realized  what  the  ab- 
sence of  one  of  the  eight  would  have  meant 
to  us  if  you  could  have  heard  the  call  to  Miss 
Hughes,  'Are  you  all  there?'  and  could  have 
felt  the  relief  that  came  with  the  answer, 
*Yes,  we  are  all  here! '  We  had  a  delightful 
and  profitable  meeting  at  McTyeire  Home  the 
following  evening,  with  all  our  sixteen  ladies 
present,  and  Bishop  Key  presiding.  .  .  . 
We,  the  old  guard,  '  thank  God  and  take  cour- 
age '  because  of  their  coming."  Miss  Jennie 
Atkinson,  having  given  eight  years  of  faithful 
service  to  the  work  in  China,  was  granted 
leave  to  return  home  for  a  season. 

Amid  many  difiiculties  and  some  discour- 
agements in  Mexico,  it  appeared  that  the  true 
religion  of  the  Bible  was  overcoming  the  er- 
rors of  popery.  There  were,  in  addition  to 
the  twelve  missionaries,  16  assistants  and  7 

Woman's  Missionarfj  Society,  M.  E.  C.,S.  433 

native  teachers,  while  935  women  and  chil- 
dren were  being  taught  in  the  excellent 
schools  which  had  been  established  in  seven 
towns  and  cities.  Miss  Delia  Holding,  who 
for  ten  years  had  given  faithful  service  as  a 
teacher,  was  accepted  and  assigned  as  a  iiiis- 
sionanj  to  the  Mexican  Border.  Miss  Wilson, 
missionary  from  Chihuahua;  Miss  Mason,  a 
teacher  in  the  school  at  Saltillo;  and  Miss 
Holderby,  once  a  teacher  in  Laredo,  in  simple, 
earnest  words  presented  forcibly  the  needs  of 
Mexico.  The  appropriation  for  the  ensuing 
year  was  $33,940. 

In  Brazil  the  woman's  work  was  established 
in  Piracicaba,  Eio,  and  Juis  de  Fora. 
There  were  3  boarding  schools  in  successful 
operation,  and  215  pupils  enrolled.  Yellow 
fever  had  hindered  the  work,  and  there  was 
imperative  need  that  two  of  the  workers 
should  return  home  for  rest  and  recuperation. 
Miss  Alice  Moore,  of  Georgia;  Miss  Susan 
Littlejohn,  of  South  Carolina;  and  Miss 
Amelia  Elerding,  of  Wisconsin,  were  accepted 
and  assigned  to  Piracicaba,  Kio,  and  Juis 
de  Fora,  with  an  appropriation  for  Brazil  of 
$11,600.  Permission  was  granted  Misses 
Bruce  and  Marvin  to  return  home  to  regain, 
if  possible,  sufficient  strength  for  the  prose- 

434     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

cution  of  their  work,  and  Miss  Watts  was  also 
granted  leave  to  come,  should  her  health  re- 
quire the  change. 

In  the  Indian  Mission  the  work  had  pro- 
gressed without  interruption.  Almost  every 
needed  improvement  asked  for  was  granted. 
The  total  amount  of  appropriations  for  the 
year  was  $86,810,  of  which  $5,425  was  appro- 
priated to  the  wild  tribes.  A  few  changes 
were  made  in  the  By-laws,  a  revision  of  the 
"  Manual  for  Missionaries  "  ordered,  a  commit- 
tee appointed  to  revise  the  Constitution  and 
submit  the  same  to  the  following  annual 
meeting  of  the  Board,  and  a  resolution  adopt- 
ed that  will  bring  all  missionaries  going  into 
China  and  Brazil  home  to  rest  at  the  end  of 
seven  years.  Miss  Helm  again  tendering  her 
resignation,  it  was  accepted,  and  suitable  res- 
olutions of  appreciation  of  her  valuable  serv- 
ices were  adopted.  Mrs.  S.  C.  Trueheart  was 
elected  Secretary  of  Home  Affairs.  Rev.  C. 
F.  Eeid,  missionary  from  China,  enthusiastic- 
ally presented  the  great  needs  of  that  great 

Mrs.  Callaway  presented  a  memorial  from 
the  North  Georgia  Conference  Society,  pe- 
titioning the  Board  to  enter  Japan.  Mrs. 
Philips  presented  a  memorial  from  the  Flor- 

Woman's  Missionary  Society,  M.  E.  C,  8.435 

ida  Confereuce  Society  to  establish  a  school 
ill  Key  West.  The  Board  decided  that 
"  Japan  is  an  inviting  field,  which  commands 
our  sympathies  and  incites  our  desires  to  en- 
ter; but  obligations  to  work  already  begun  in 
other  fields  must  be  fully  met  before  work 
can  be  undertaken  in  any  mission  not  hitherto 
occupied  by  the  Woman's  Board." 

The  telegram  from  Rev.  W.  B.  Palmore 
asking  the  Board  to  appoint  a  committee  to 
investigate  the  West  Indies  with  a  view  to 
entering  that  field  received  due  consideration. 

Dr.  Palmore  had,  in  a  tangible  form,  shown 
his  interest  in  the  work  of  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Missions,  and  his  suggestions,  en- 
kindled by  his  missionary  zeal,  were  gratefully 
received;  but  because  of  the  large  demand 
upon  the  resources  of  the  Board,  and  also  by 
reason  of  its  policy  to  work  only  in  fields  oc- 
cupied by  the  General  Board,  they  could  not 
be  acted  upon. 

A  communication  from  Mrs.  J.  E.  Ray,  Su- 
perintendent of  the  Woman's  Christian  Tem- 
perance Union  Department  of  Home  and  For- 
eign Missions  to  the  Colored  People,  was  con- 

Much  interest  is  felt  in  this  peoj^le,  and  as 
far  as  comes  within  the  scope  of  the  organi- 

436      Hfoid  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

zatioii  it  will  assist  them  in  forming  societies 
for  tlie  spread  of  the  gospel  among  their  race. 
Letters  from  missionaries  in  the  field  ask- 
ing for  a  construction  of  the  "pledge"  taken 
by  missionary  candidates  were  referred  to  a 
subcommittee.  This  committee,  after  labor- 
ing in  vain  to  find  plainer  language  in  which 
to  express  the  meaning  of  this  pledge,  brought 
in  the  following  resolution,  which  was  adopt- 
ed by  -the  Committee  on  Extension  of  Work: 

Resolved,  That  as  ive  interpret  this  pledge,  every  can- 
didate who  signs  it  promises  to  give  not  less  than  five 
years^  service  to  this  Board.  Nor  do  we  regard  the  re- 
funding of  outfit  and  passage  money  as  canceling  this 
obligation.  Mrs.  C.  W.  Brandon, 

Mrs.  W.  G.  E.  Cunnyngham. 

A  communication  was  read  from  Dr.  I.  G. 
John,  Secretary  of  the  Parent  Board  of  Mis- 
sions of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South,  accompa- 
nying the  following  resolutions,  which  had 
been  adopted  at  a  meeting  of  the  Board  of 
Missions,  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South, 
held  in  the  Mission  Booms  Saturday,  May  4, 
11  A.M.: 

Whereas  the  Woman's  Board  of  Missions  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  will  hold  its  four- 
teenth annual  meeting  in  Lexington,  Ky.,  l^eginning 
June  6;  and  whereas  their  great  work  and  the  work 

Woman's  Missionary  Society y  M.  E.  C,  S.  437 

of  this  Board  are  indissolubly  united  in  effort  and  de- 
sign; therefore, 

Resolved,  That  we  rejoice  over  the  tokens  of  divine 
approbation  that  have  attended  their  work  in  the  dif- 
ferent fields  they  have  entered,  and  devoutly  trust 
that  divine  wisdom  and  grace  will  guide  their  deliber- 
ations at  their  coming  session,  and  that  every  measure 
they  shall  adopt  shall  yield  large  results  in  the  work 
of  our  Lord  in  lands  of  superstition  and  sin. 

Resolved,  That  we  rejoice  that  it  is  our  privilege,  in 
any  way,  to  '*  help  those  women  "  in  the  great  work  to 
which  they  have  been  called,  and  will  not  cease  our 
prayers  that  the  great  Head  of  the  Church  will  be  with 
all  the  work  of  the  Board  and  its  officers,  and  with 
those  consecrated  women  whom  they  are  sending  out 
in  our  Master's  service  in  the  foreign  field. 

Resolved,  That  the  Corresponding  Secretary  of  this 
Board  is  hereby  instructed  to  send  a  copy  of  these  res- 
olutions to  the  Woman's  Board  while  in  annual  ses- 
sion at  Lexington,  Ky. 

In  presenting  to  each  member  of  the  Board 
a  set  of  the  "Missionary  Hand  Books,"  as  far 
as  issued  from  the  press,  Dr.  John  said:  "The 
next  number  should  embrace  a  brief  history 
of  the  origin  and  work  of  the  Woman's  Board. 
It  is  proper,  however,  that  your  Board  shoukl 
choose  its  own  historian.  If  a  history  corre- 
sponding in  size  with  those  now  in  print  can 
be  furnished,  I  will  be  glad  to  embrace  it  in 
the  series,  assuming  all  cost  of  publication." 

On  motion  of   Mrs.   Phillips,  Mrs.    W.   S. 

438       Rand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Black,  Corresponding  Secretary  of  the  North 
Carolina  Conference  Society,  was  appointed 
Historian,  to  prepare  a  brief  history  of  the 
origin  and  work  of  the  Woman's  Board  of 
Missions  for  the  next  number  in  the  series  of 
"Hand  Books"  above  mentioned. 

A  communication  from  Bishop  Keener  was 
read,  suggesting  that  the  "  AVoman's  Board 
wo  aid  do  a  grand  act  and  a  wise  one  to  send 
$25,000  to  Japan  for  the  relief  of  our  friends 
there  who  are  suffering  from  the  earthquake." 
The  Secretary  was  directed  to  answer  Bishop 
Keener's  letter,  assuring  him  of  the  apprecia- 
tion by  the  Board  of  this  token  of  his  confi- 
dence, and  regretting  its  inability  to  comply 
with  the  suggestion  of  the  honored  senior 
bishop  of  the  Church. 

Mrs.  Brandon  offered  the  following: 
Resolved,  That  the  President  of  the  Woman's  Board 
of  Missions  appoint  a  committee  of  five  on  Constitu- 
tion and  By-laws  of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Society ; 
that  this  committee  be  instructed  to  indicate  the  du- 
ties, powers,  and  prerogatives  of  the  Local  Board;  re- 
port of  said  committee  being  subject  to  the  action  of 
the  Woman's  Board  of  Missions  at  the  next  annual 
meeting.  Mrs.  C.  W.  Brandon. 

This  resolution  was  adopted,  and  the  Pres- 
ident appointed  said  committee  as  follows: 
Mrs.    C.    W.    Brandon,    Miss    Maria   Layng 

Woman's  Missionary  Society^  M.  E.  C,  S.  439 

Gibson,  Mrs.  S.  S.  Park,  Mrs.  A.  H.  Strother, 
and  Mrs.  W.  G.  E.  Cunnyngliam. 

Mr.  J.  D.  Hamilton,  after  years  of  "  un- 
wearying kindness  and  faithful  service"  as 
Auditor,  resigning,  Mr.  T.  L.  Weaver,  of 
Nashville,  Tenn.,  was  elected  as  his  successor. 

At  the  memorial  service  held  as  a  tribute  to 
Mrs.  Florence  Malone,  Cori^esponding  Secre- 
tary of  the  White  River  Conference  Society, 
and  Eev.  J.  W.  Lambuth,  of  Japan,  sweet, 
touching  testimonials  of  her  worth  and  char- 
acter were  spoken  by  her  co-workers. 

The  Secretary  records: 

Miss  Gibson  read  the  tribute  to  Rev.  J. 
W.  Lambuth,  which  had  come  from  the  heart 
to  the  pen  of  Mrs.  W.  G.  E.  Cunnyngham,  so 
many  years  his  neighbor  while  a  missionary 
in  China. 

Rev.  C.  E.  Reid  added  his  tribute,  speaking 
strong  words  of  praise  of  the  veteran  mission- 
ary, dwelling  chiefly  on  his  godly  life  and  his 
success  as  a  soul  winner. 

By  request,  Rev.  Walter  Lambuth  spoke 
of  his  father,  and  as  he  told  of  his  consecrat- 
ed life  in  all  its  sweet  humility  no  one  won- 
dered that  he  had  won  from  the  natives  the 
title  of  the  "God-man." 

A  cause  of  thanksgiving  to  the  Board  and 

440     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  3Iissions. 

to  the  Church  at  this  meeting  was  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Scarritt  Bible  and  Training 
School  and  its  equipment  for  work.  An- 
nouncement was  made  that  its  dedication 
and  opening  would  take  place  September  14, 
so  that  henceforth  the  Board  may  send 
thither  its  daughters  that  need  training,  that 
they  may  be  "thoroughly  furnished  unto 
every  good  work." 

At  a  meeting  held  last  July  the  officers  of 
the  Board  of  Managers  elected  were:  Bishop 
E.  K.  Hendrix,  President;  Miss  Belle  H. 
Bennett,  Vice  President;  Mr.  J.  S.  Chick, 
Treasurer;  Mrs.  Julia  E.  Simpson,  Secretary. 

Miss  M.  L.  Gibson  was  elected  Principal; 
Miss  E.  E.  Holding,  Department  of  Bible 
Study;  Miss  E.  C.  Cushman,  Head  Nurse; 
Mrs.  W.  H.  Waldron,  Matron. 

Mrs.  Butler  was  reelected  Editor  of  the 
Woman's  Missionary/  Advocate  and  Miss 
Barnes  of  the  Little  Worker  and  Leaflets. 

The  Treasurer's  books  showed  that  $93,- 
991.73  was  on  deposit  in  the  First  National, 
Commercial  National,  and  City  Savings  Bank, 
of  Nashville.  Total  amount  received  since 
organization,  $651,405.68.  Value  of  property 
owned  by  the  Board  (1891),  $176,300.  The 
Secretary  records  the  following: 

Wommi's  Missionary  Society ^  M.  E.  C,  S.  441 

The  service  on  Thursday  night,  when  ten  mission- 
aries were  presented  to  the  Board,  and  repeated  the 
pledge  in  the  presence  of  a  large  audience,  was  impress- 
ive, and  inspired  a  doxology  from  those  who  had  been 
praying  for  women — a  glad  thanksgiving  that  God 
heareth  and  answereth  the  supplications  of  his  chil- 
dren. Benedictions  were  silently  invoked  on  the  new 
missionaries  as  the  President  delivered  the  solemn 
charge  and  Kev.  C  F.  Reid  addressed  them  as  his  fel- 
low-laborers and  offered  his  congratulations. 

Should  the  venerable  and  beloved  President 
be  spared  to  meet  with  the  Board  another 
year  (the  fifteenth  annual  meeting  blessed  by 
her  presence),  she  will  "wear  fourscore  years 
as  a  crown."  Her  fourteenth  annual  address, 
most  appropriate  to  the  centennial  of  modern 
missions,  was  heard  by  six  persons  only  who, 
as  members,  listened  to  her  first  address 
as  President  of  the  Board  at  Louisville. 
God's  blessing  has  crowned  the  years.  The 
language  of  each  consecrated  worker  is: 

"  Master,  to  do  great  work  for  thee,  my  hand  is  far 
too  weak ; 
Yet,  take  the  tiny  stones  that  I  have  wrought,  just  one 

by  one,  as  they  were  given  by  thee. 
Not  knowing  what  came  next  in  thy  wise  thought, 
Set  each  stone  by  thy  master  hand  of  grace ; 
Form  tlie  Mosaic  as  thou  wilt. 
And  in  thy  temple  pavement  give  it  place." 

Missions  of  tlie  Metliodist  Episcopal  Cliurch. 


Missions  i  Methodist  Episcopal  Cliiircli. 

American  Indians. 
The  missionary  organizations  of  the  two  co- 
ordinate branches  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  are  of  common  parentage.  Both 
point  back  to  the  story  of  John  Stewart,  the 
converted  negro,,  and  his  w^onderful  call  to 
preach  the  gospel  among  the  Wyandots. 
Converted  under  the  preaching  of  Marcus 
Lindsay,  he  soon  felt  an  impulse  to  call  sin- 
ners to  repentance.  It  seemed  to  him  that  he 
heard  a  voice  from  the  Northwest  saying: 
"  You  must  declare  my  counsel  faithfully." 
At  last,  packing  his  knapsack,  he  followed 
what  he  felt  was  the  command  of  his  Master, 
not  knowing  whither  he  would  be  led.  He 
reached  the  Upper  Sandusky,  where  the 
agency  of  the  Wyandots  was  located.  He 
found  among  them  a  colored  man,  a  backslid- 
den Methodist,  whom  he  had  once  known  in 
Kentucky.  Stewart  said  to  him :  "  To-morrow 
I  must  preach  to  these  Indians,  and  you  must 
interpret."     Pointer  protested:  "How  can  I, 


444       Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

without  religion,  interpret  a  sermon?  "  Stew- 
art insisted,  and  the  appointment  was  made. 
Only  one  old  squaw  came,  but  he  delivered 
his  message.  The  next  day  an  old  man  was 
added  to  the  congregation.  On  Sunday  there 
were  eight  or  ten.  Soon  crowds  came  out, 
and  conversions  followed.  Among  them  was 
Robert  Armstrong,  a  white  man  who  had 
been  captured  when  a  lad  and  adopted  into 
the  tribe.  Then  the  noted  chiefs,  Between- 
the-logs,  Mononcue,  and  Scuteash  and  many 
members  of  their  nation.  No  wonder  the 
story  of  this  wonderful  work  among  these  ig- 
norant savages  stirred  the  Church  profoundly. 
It  led  to  the  organization  of  the  Missionary 
Society  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 
The  names  of  Nathan  Bangs  and  Joshua 
Soule,  well  known  to  Methodism,  North  and 
South,  appear  among  its  charter  members. 
The  history  of  that  Society  up  to  1844  is  the 
joint  inheritance  of  both  divisions  of  the  Par- 
ent Church.  When,  in  the  providence  of 
God,  our  Israel  became  two  bands  the  work 
in  the  Indian  Mission  Conference  fell  to  the 
lot  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South. 
That  work  has  been  wonderfully  prospered. 
Our  brethren  of  the  Northern  Conference 
have  not  been  unmindful  of  the  claims  of  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  K.  Church.  445 

Indians  within  their  bounds;  but  have  fol- 
lowed them  with  the  gosj)el  as  they  have 
slowly  receded  from  the  advancing  tide  of  im- 

Having  made  full  proof  of  his  ministry, 
Stewart  was  licensed  to  preach,  and  continued 
his  work  among  the  Indians.  Moses  Hinckle, 
a  colored  man,  was  very  helpful  to  him,  and 
several  local  preachers  from  adjoining  circuits 
rendered  him  efficient  aid. 

Miss  Harriet  Stubbs,  sister-in-law  of  Judge 
McLean,  heard  of  this  work  and  surrendered 
her  home  and  the  refinements  of  civilized 
life,  and  devoted  herself  to  the  instruction  of 
Indian  girls  and  women.  Her  influence 
among  the  dusky  w^arriors  was  wonderful. 
They  styled  her  the  "Pretty  Red  Bird,"  and 
regarded  her  as  an  angel  who  had  been  sent 
by  the  Great  Spirit  to  guide  them  to  the  bet- 
ter land.  She  may  be  regarded  as  the  pioneer 
of  the  woman's  missionary  work  of  American 

In  1819  the  mission  among  the  Wyandots 
was  embraced  in  the  Lebanon  District,  of 
which  Rev.  J.  B.  Finley  wis  i^residing  elder. 
He  held  a  quarterly  meeting  on  Mad 
River  Circuit,  forty  miles  from  Upper  San- 
dusky.    Some  sixty  Wyandots,  with  their  four 

44:6      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

leading  chiefs  and  their  families,  were  pres- 
ent. The  testimony  of  these  native  converts 
left  no  doubt  as  to  the  presence  of  divine 
power  among  these  sons  of  the  forest.  Be- 
tween-the-logs  gave  a  history  of  religion 
among  the  Indians.  He  told  of  the  religion 
of  their  fathers;  then  of  the  coming  of  the 
Catholic  priests,  but  their  teaching  failed  to 
make  the  Indians  good.  Then  the  Shawnee 
prophet  rose,  and  then  the  Seneca  prophet, 
but  they  also  failed  to  make  the  Indians 
better,  and  they  began  to  think  their  old  re- 
ligion was  the  best.  At  last  the  Great  Spir- 
it sent  Stewart.  They  treated  him  badly 
at  first,  but  he  was  patient  and  they  began 
to  listen;  then  Christ  came  down  upon  them 
in  the  council  house.  The  Indians  had 
found  the  grace  of  God  and  had  adopted 
Stewart,  and  wanted  him  to  stay  v/itli  them 

At  the  Conference  of  1820  they  petitioned 
for  a  preacher.  Moses  Hinckle,  Sr.,  was  ap- 
pointed missionary  to  Upper  Sandusky.  He 
was  succeeded  in  1821  by  Rev.  J.  B.  Fin- 
ley.  At  the  first  meeting  to  form  classes 
twenty-three  presented  themselves.  Mr.  Fin- 
ley  inclosed  land,  built  a  sawmill,  taught  the 
Indians  to  farm,  working  with  his  own  hands. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  447 

A  grant  of  $10,000  per  year  by  the  govern- 
ment for  industrial  and  literary  schools  for 
the  Indians,  greatly  advanced  the  work.  Mr. 
Finley  commenced  building  a  mission  house, 
and  appealed  to  the  Church  for  help.  Balti- 
more responded  liberally.  Kev.  John  Sum- 
mer field  employed  his  rare  powers  in  pleading 
the  cause  of  the  Indian  before  his  congrega- 
tions of  children.  Bishop  McKendree  visited 
the  mission  and  greatly  cheered  them  by  his 
counsel.  He  found  a  large  farm  under  culti- 
vation, a  mission  house  completed,  and  over 
200  Indians  who  had  professed  saving  faith  in 

Stewart's  health  gave  way  in  the  thirty- 
seventh  year  of  his  life  and  the  seventh  year 
of  his  missionary  labors.  He  passed  away 
December  17,  1823,  addressing  earnest  exhor- 
tations to  fidelity  to  the  people  among  whom 
he  had  planted  the  gospel. 

Under  instructions  from  the  Conference  of 
1823,  Mr.  Finley,  accompanied  by  "Monon- 
cue,"  Gray  Eyes,  and  Pointer,  visited  the 
Chippeways  on  Saginaw  Eiver,  Michigan. 
They  made  a  favorable  report,  and  Kev. 
Charles  Elliott  was  made  Mr.  Finley's  as- 
sistant. They  extended  their  labors  to  the 
Wyandots  on  the  Huron  River  and  to  the  Ca- 

448      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

nara,  Upper  Canada.  A  class  of  jSfteen  was 
formed,  to  which  twenty-seven  were  added. 
The  year  closed  with  260  members. 

The  health  of  Mr.  Finley  was  broken  down 
by  labor  and  privations,  and  in  1827  Eev. 
James  Gilruth  took  his  place.  The  same  year 
"  Between-the-logs "  closed  his  faithful  life. 
He  was  a  wise  chief  and  a  useful  local  preach- 
er. At  his  death  there  were  about  300  Indian 
members,  with  four  native  local  preachers,  fif- 
teen class  leaders,  and  70  children  in  school. 
In  1832  the  tribe  sold  their  lands  in  Ohio,  and 
about  seven  hundred  in  number  moved  to  the 
junction  of  the  Kansas  and  Missouri  Kivers, 
where  a  remnant  of  the  nation  live,  having  ac- 
quired the  right  of  citizenship  and  to  hold 
their  land  in  severalty. 

Among  the  Oneidas  in  New  York  a  work 
was  commenced  in  1829  by  a  converted  Mo- 
hawk youth  from  Canada.  More  than  a  hun- 
dred were  converted.  The  work  spread  to  the 
Onondagas.  In  1831  it  reported  130  mem- 
bers. The  larger  portion  of  these  Indians  re- 
moved to  Green  Bay,  Wisconsin,  where  they 
were  followed  by  the  faithful  missionary, 
while  mission  work  was  continued  among 
the  remnant  who  remained  in  New  York. 
Mission   work  was   commenced   in  1830  and 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         449 

carried  on  for  several  years  among  the  Shaw- 
nee, Kansas,  and  Delaware  tribes. 

Methodist  preachers  frequently  visited  and 
preached  among  the  Mohawks,  who  were 
settled  on  Grand  Eiver,  Upper  Canada.  In 
1822  the  Genesee  Conference,  which  then  in- 
cluded Upper  Canada,  sent  Rev.  Alvin  Tor- 
ry  to  open  a  mission  among  them.  Supersti- 
tion and  heathenism  prevailed,  but  the  mis- 
sionary was  welcomed  everywhere,  and  a  few 
souls  were  converted.  In  the  settlement  there 
was  a  young  man  named  Seth  Crawford,  who 
felt  called  to  learn  the  language  and  devote 
his  life  to  labor  with  this  people.  At  a  meet- 
ing held  while  Mr.  Torry  was  at  Conference, 
two  women  were  deeply  convicted.  While  one 
of  them  knelt  with  her  children  around  her 
at  home  aiid  prayed,  a  daughter  fifteen  years 
old  and  the  mother  were  converted.  On  Sun- 
day the  assembly  broke  out  into  sobs  and 
cries.  Crowds  flocked  to  the  church.  On 
Mr.  Torry' s  return  twenty  united  with  the 
Church.  The  work  spread  to  the  neighbor- 
ing tribes  and  settlements.  Among  the  con- 
verts was  a  Chippewa  youth  named  Peter 
Jones.  He  had  attended  school,  and  before 
a  great  while  felt  called  to  preach.  He  had 
rare  gifts,  and  became  a  power  among  his 

450      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

people.  In  1825  the  mission  reported  150 

About  four  score  years  ago  a  trapper  west  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains,  after  witnessing  the  re- 
ligious ceremonies  of  the  Flathead  Indians, 
said  to  one  of  the  chiefs:  "  Your  worship  is  all 
wrong.  In  the  far  East  the  white  man  has  a 
book  which  tells  of  the  true  God,  and  how  to 
worship  him  aright."  After  much  talk  re- 
specting these  words,  the  chiefs  of  the  tribe 
sent  four  of  their  number  to  the  East  in 
search  of  the  Holy  Book  that  would  teach 
them  how  to  worship  God.  After  a  weary 
march  of  3,000  miles,  often  through  hostile 
tribes,  they  reached  St.  Louis.  Two  of  them 
died,  worn  out  by  exposure  and  fatigue.  The 
others  made  inquiry  for  the  Book  of  God.  It 
is  said  they  were  directed  to  the  Catholic 
priests,  who  were  not  ready  to  furnish  them 
the  book;  and  they  started  back  with  sad 
hearts.  It  is  not  known  whether  they  reached 
the  tribe  with  the  story  of  their  disappoint- 
ment or  died  on  the  way. 

While  in  St.  Louis  they  told  their  story  to 
Gen.  Clark,  whom  they  had  seen  when  he  was 
exploring  the  Pacific  Coast.  He  mentioned 
the  fact  to  others.  The  story  reached  the 
press   and  stirred  the   heart  of  Dr.   Wilbur 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  451 

Fisk.  He  at  once  wrote  an  appeal,  headed 
"Hear!  hear!  Who  will  respond  to  the  call 
from  beyond  the  Eocky  Mountains?"  He 
wrote  to  Jason  Lee,  then  a  missionary  among 
the  Indians,  and  said:  "Money  shall  be  forth- 
coming.    I  will  be  bondsman  for  the  Church." 

The  call  aroused  the  Church.  Lee  and 
others  volunteered.  The  money  was  forth- 
coming, the  missionaries  reached  the  field,  and 
the  Book  of  God  and  faithful  missionaries 
have  since  been  teaching  the  Indians  west  of 
the  Eocky  Mountains  how  to  worship  God. 

The  first  company  of  missionaries  to  that 
distant  field  consisted  of  Eev.  Jason  Lee  and 
his  nephew,  Eev.  Daniel  Lee,  and  Messrs. 
Cyrus  Shepard,  T.  S.  Edwards,  and  P.  L.  Ed- 
wards, laymen.  They  left  St.  Louis  April  25, 
1834,  and  reached  Walla  Walla,  on  the  Colum- 
bia Eiver,  September  1  of  that  year.  Jason 
Lee  preached  the  first  sermon  at  Vancouver 
September  28.  The  mission  was  maintained, 
and  reenforced,  with  varied  fortunes,  until  the 
tide  of  immigration  poured  in,  the  Indian 
tribes  yielded  to  the  superior  race,  and  the 
Indian  missions  were  merged  into  the  regular 
work  of  Annual  Conferences. 
^  It  is  a  fact  worthy  of  record  that  when  the 
title  to  the  immense  domain  now  held  by  the 

452      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

United  States  in  that  northwestern  portion  of 
its  boundary  was  in  dispute  with  Great  Brit- 
ain, according  to  the  testimony  of  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Interior,  the  missionaries  of  the 
American  Board  and  the  Methodist  Church, 
who  had  established  their  stations  among  the 
Indians  in  various  parts  of  the  country,  and 
who  attracted  thither  the  tide  of  American 
emigration  turned  the  scale  in  favor  of  our 
government,  resulting  in  the  establishment  of 
the  Territorial  Government  of  Oregon,  wholly 
American  in  its  interests,  which  continued  to 
exercise  all  the  functions  of  government  over 
the  territory  and  its  six  or  eight  thousand  in- 
habitants until  the  erection  of  the  Territory 
of  Oregon  by  Congress  by  the  act  of  August, 

The  missions  among  the  Indian  tribes, 
which  were  commenced  among  the  Wyandots 
in  1816,  have  been  continued  as  these  people 
vanished  before  the  stronger  race,  but  rem- 
nants of  these  tribes  and  relics  of  former  mis- 
sions now  remain.  There  are  still  stations 
among  the  Oneidas,  Onondagas,  Tonawandas, 
and  other  tribes  in  New  York;  among  the 
Chippewas   and   Ottawas,   of   Michigan;   the 

*  See  Reed's  *'  History  of  the  Missions  of  Missionary 
Society  M.  E.  Church,"  p,  136. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  CMirch.         453 

Oneidas,  of  Wisconsin;  the  Navajos,  in  New 
Mexico  and  Arizona,  and  the  Yakima  natives 
on  the  Columbia  River  and  other  tribes  in 
California  and  on  Pnget  Sound.  The  appro- 
priations for  all  these  missions  in  1892 
amounted  to  $13,550. 

In  1879  work  was  commenced  in  the  Indian 
Territory,  It  was  organized  into  a  Confer- 
ence in  1889.  In  1892  it  reported  17  members 
of  Conference,  928  members,  and  389  on  pro- 


The  mission  in  Liberia  was  opened  by  Rev. 
Melville  B.  Cox,  of  the  Virginia  Conference, 
who  reached  Monrovia  March  7,  1833,  and 
closed  his  labors  September  21  of  the  same 
year.  January  1,  1834,  Rev.  Rufus  Spaulding 
and  Rev.  Samuel  O.  Wright  and  their  wives 
and  Miss  Sophronia  Farrington  reached  Mon- 
rovia and  resumed  the  work.  February  4 
Mrs.  Wright  finished  her  work.  She  was 
joined  in  the  home  of  the  redeemed  by  her 
husband  March  29.  In  May  sickness  forced 
Mr.  Spaulding  to  return  home.  Miss  Far- 
rington, a  frail  woman,  worn  with  sickness, 
held  the  post.  In  February,  1835,  Rev.  John 
Seys  went  out  as  Superintendent  of  the  mis- 
sion.    He  was  accompanied  by  a  young  col- 

454      Hmicl  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ored  local  preacher  named  Francis  Burns. 
He  readied  Liberia  October  18,  1834.  The 
mission  was  reenf  orced  in  July,  1835,  by  the  ar- 
rival of  Rev.  J.  B.  Barton.  The  General  Con- 
ference of  1836  legalized  the  Liberia  Annual 
Conference,  v/ithout  the  right  of  a  represen- 
tation in  the  General  Conference.  In  1836 
Mr.  Seys  again  visited  the  United  States  for 
reenf orcements,  and  returned  in  October  with 
Bev.  Squier  Chase  and  Bev.  George  S.  Brown, 
a  colored  local  preacher.  The  same  year 
Dr.  S.  M.  E.  Goheen  joined  the  mission  as  a 
medical  missionary.  Mrs.  Ann  Wilkins  and 
Mrs.  Boers  went  out  in  the  same  vessel. 
Mrs.  Wilkins  became  the  faithful  and  suc- 
cessful Principal  of  the  school  at  Millsburg. 
In  1838  W.  P.  Jayne  reached  the  field.  The 
mission  now  reported  17  missionaries,  male 
and  female,  and  421  members. 

Then  came  trouble  with  the  authorities,  in 
which  Mr.  Seys  and  Dr.  Goheen  represented 
the  rights  and  work  of  the  mission.  These 
troubles  led  to  the  return  of  Dr.  Goheen  and 
the  resignation  of  Mr.  Seys  as  Superintendent, 
who  returned  to  the  United  States  with  his 
family  in  1841.  His  presence  was  needed  in 
the  mission,  however,  and  he  was  reappoint- 
ed and  reached  Monrovia  Janaury  11,  1844. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Clmrcli,  455 

Mr.  Seys  resumed  his  work  with  character- 
istic zeal.  The  mission  was  enlarged,  stations 
being  opened  at  several  new  points  in  the  in- 
terior. The  Superintendent  made  extensive 
trips,  traveling  on  foot  and  preaching  in  vil- 
lages where  the  voice  of  the  missionary  had 
never  been  heard  before.  But  climate  and 
toil  were  telling  upon  his  strength.  The 
health  of  his  wife  forbade  her  return  to  the 
field,  and  he  again  resigned  the  superintend- 

In  the  fall  of  184:5  Eev.  J.  B.  Benham  was 
appointed  Superintendent  of  the  mission,  and 
Eev.  W.  B.  Williams  Principal  of  the  Monro- 
via Seminary,  with  Rev.  W.  B.  Hoyt  as  assist- 
ant. They  sailed  from  Norfolk  November  4, 
1845.  They  entered  vigorously  on  their  work, 
but  Mr.  Williams  Avas  stricken  by  the  fatal 
fever,  and  died  January  5, 1846.  Mr.  Hoyt  had 
charge  of  the  Seminary,  but  his  wife  sank 
under  the  climate  and  returned  home  in  Au- 
gust. Soon  his  own  health  failed,  and  he  re- 
turned in  1847.  Miss  Laura  Brush  reached 
Africa  to  assist  Miss  AVilkins  in  her  school  at 
Millsburg.  She  suffered  greatly  from  the 
fever,  but  survived  and  did  good  service  for 
several  years.  The  Conference  met  in  Mon- 
rovia Dec-ember  8, 1847.     It  reported  965  mem- 

456      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

bers.  Failing  health  compelled  the  resignation 
of  Superintendent  Benham.  Kev.  N.  S.  Bas- 
tion was  appointed  Superintendent,  and  ar- 
rived in  the  field  with  his  wife  and  child  Sep- 
tember 19,  1849.  Early  in  1850  he  returned, 
leaving  wife  and  child  buried  in  African  soil. 
The  bishop  appointed  Eev.  Francis  Burns, 
who  had  gone  out  with  Mr.  Seys  in  1835,  to 
preside  at  the  Liberia  Conference  January 
3,  1851.  They  directed  the  division  of  the 
Conference  into  the  Monrovia,  Cape  Palmas, 
and  Bassa  Districts.  The  Liberia  Conference 
Seminary  was  opened  in  February,  1853,  with 
Kev.  J.  W.  Home  Principal  and  Mr.  Gibson 
assistant.  Many  of  its  pupils  have  become 
useful  both  in  the  government  and  Church 
in  Liberia.  Mr.  Home  was  forced  by  the  fe- 
ver from  the  mission  in  1855,  and  Mr.  Gib- 
son was  left  in  charge  of  the  school.  Mr. 
Home  recovered  his  health,  and,  with  his 
wife,  returned  to  the  field,  but  death  closed 
his  labors  in  1855. 

The  visit  of  Bishop  Scott  to  the  Liberia 
Conference  in  1853  was  of  great  value  to  the 
mission.  He  ordained  several  preachers  who 
were  entitled  to  the  ordinance.  The  financial 
interests  of  the  mission  were  adjusted,  and 
the  growing  disposition  among  the  preachers 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Chnrch,  457 

to  seek  political  preferment  was  rebuked.  In 
October,  1854,  Mrs.  Ann  Wilkins,  returning 
to  Liberia  from  a  visit  to  the  United  States, 
took  with  her,  by  appointment  of  the  Board, 
Miss  Staunton,  Miss  Brown,  and  Miss  Kil- 
patrick.  Miss  Staunton  yielded  to  the  mala- 
ria, and  died  in  April,  1856.  The  others  sur- 
vived and  rendered  efficient  service. 

The  embarrassment  arising  from  the  want 
of  ordained  native  preachers  became  a  matter 
of  great  concern.  To  send  out  a  bishop  an- 
nually to  perform  this  duty  not  only  involved 
large  expenditure,  but  the  visit  was  one  of 
great  danger  from  the  coast  fever.  The  ques- 
tion came  before  the  General  Conference  of 
1856.  After  careful  consideration  the  re- 
strictive rule  was  so  amended  as  to  allow  the 
General  Conference  to  appoint  a  missionary 
bishop  for  any  of  its  foreign  missions,  limit- 
ing his  jurisdiction  to  the  field  to  which  he 
might  be  appointed.  The  amendment  re- 
ceived the  constitutional  majority  in  the  Gen- 
eral Conference  and  Annual  Conferences.  It 
authorized  the  Liberia  Conference,  under  the 
direction  of  the  bishop  in  charge,  to  elect  a 
bishop  for  Liberia.  At  its  session  held  in 
January,  1858,  the  Liberia  Conference  elected 
Hev.  Francis  Burns.     He  was  ordained  at  the 

458      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

General  Conference,  October  4,  1858,  Bishops 
Janes  and  Baker  officiating. 

Bishop  Burns  was  a  wise  and  efficient  offi- 
cer. He  realized  the  importance  of  making 
the  Church  in  Liberia  a  missionary  Church. 
He  said  the  extension  of  the  work  among  the 
native  tribes  was  a  "condition  both  of  our 
spiritual  life  and  our  growing  usefulness.  If 
we  stay  here,  we  die."  His  work  was  soon 
done.     He  died  April  18,  1863. 

The  General  Conference  of  1864  authorized 
the  election  of  a  successor  to  Bishop  Burns. 
Rev.  John  W.  Roberts  was  elected  by  the  Li- 
beria Conference  in  1866,  and  ordained  in 
New  York  City  June  20  by  Bishops  Scott 
and  Janes.  He  superintended  the  work  of 
the  mission  with  wisdom  and  zeal  until  Janu- 
ary 30,  1875,  when  he  died  at  Monrovia  dur- 
ing the  session  of  the  Conference,  which  met 
at  Greenville,  in  the  Sinoe  country. 

Li  1876  Bishop  Haven  visited  the  mission, 
accompanied  by  Rev.  J.  T.  Gracey,  formerly 
of  the  India  Mission.  He  visited  nearly  all 
the  principal  stations,  being  careful  not  to  re- 
main on  shore  at  night,  thus  avoiding  as  far 
possible  the  deadly  malaria.  His  visit  was  a 
great  benefit  both  to  the  financial  and  spirit- 
ual interests  of  the  Church  and  Conference. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  Church.         459 

He  sought  to  impress  on  the  preachers  the 
importance  or  aggressive  missionary  work  in 
the  interior.  He  engaged  Eev.  0.  A.  Pit- 
man, of  Monrovia,  to  visit  the  country  as  far 
as  Boporo,  and  report  the  prospects  of  a  mis- 
sion in  that  region.  Mr.  Pitman,  with  Dr. 
E.  W.  Blyden  and  others,  visited  the  interior. 
They  passed  through  the  Vey  coiiutry,  dis- 
tributing several  copies  of  the  Arabic  New 
Testament  among  the  believers  in  the  Koran. 
At  Barbahsue,  within  a  day's  walk  from  Mon- 
rovia, the  land  began  to  rise.  As  they  as- 
scended  the  air  became  colder,  and  at  More 
Lar,  about  fifty  miles  from  the  coast,  the  air 
was  exhilarating  and  the  country  abounded 
in  cool  and  shady  brooks.  At  Boporo  the 
chief  met  them  cordially  and  promised  to 
open  the  way  for  Christian  work.  They 
returned  greatly  encouraged  and  reported 
favorably  respecting  a  mission  in  that  new 
but  open  field.  Bishop  Haven  appointed 
Kev.  Joel  Osgood,  who  arrived  in  Monrovia 
February  13,  1877.  He  reached  his  field  in 
five  days.  He  was  accompanied  by  Mr.  Pit- 
man, who,  after  seeing  him  provided  for,  left 
him  in  the  wilderness.  Upward  of  fifty  re- 
sponded to  Bishop  Haven's  call  for  volun- 
teers.    He  selected  Piev.   E.  J.   Kellogg  as 

460      Rand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Principal  of  the  Monrovia  Seminary,  and  Rev. 
M.  Y.  Bovard  as  Superintendent  of  the  Bo- 
poro  Mission.  Mr.  Bovard  sailed  from  New 
York  in  March,  1878.  He  reached  the  field 
in  due  time,  and  found  Osgood  at  his  outpost. 
They  found  the  climate  pleasant  and  com- 
paratively healthy.  The  statistics  of  1879 
furnish  the  following  items:  1  foreign  mis- 
sionary, 2  ladies  from  the  Woman's  Society, 
50  local  preachers,  1,962  members,  306  proba- 
tioners. Interior  Africa:  1  foreign  mission- 
ary, 1  day  school,  25  scholars. 

In  1880  the  Liberia  "Conference  took  incip- 
ient steps  toward  an  independent  organization. 
The  General  Committee  had  from  year  to  year 
reduced  the  appropriation  to  this  field  from 
$37,000  to  $4,500.  In  distributing  t]ie  appro- 
priations the  committee  had  sought  to  remand 
some  of  the  stronger  charges  to  their  own  re- 
sources. Its  aim  was  to  develop  that  spirit 
of  self-reliance  which  is  essential  to  a  self- 
perpetuating  Church  in  any  land.  A  clear 
but  kind  statement  of  the  facts  w^as  sent  to 
Liberia.  The  measure  adopted  by  the  Con- 
ference was  submitted  to  the  laity,  and  very 
few  votes  were  cast  for  independence. 

Rev.  R.  J.  Kellogg,  Principal  of  Monrovia 
Seminary,  returned  home,  and  Mr.  R.  P.  Mai- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  461 

lett  was  sent  out  to  take  liis  place.  Miss 
Mary  A.  Sharpe  had  coutinned  her  success- 
ful labors  among  the  Kroos  in  the  suburbs  of 
Monrovia.  Kev.  Joel  Osgood  continued  his 
work  in  the  interior,  though  he  had  been  much 
interrupted  by  a  fearful  war  between  the 
tribes.  He  had  been  able  to  keep  about 
twenty  children  in  his  school  and  do  some 
evangelistic  work.  At  the  Conference  held  in 
January,  1881,  five  young  men  were  admitted 
on  trial,  and  a  net  increase  of  82  full  members 

The  mission  suffered  a  great  loss  in  the 
death  of  Rev.  J.  S.  Payne,  who  died  January 
31,  1882.  He  had  held  the  office  of  President 
of  the  Republic  during  two  terms,  and  had 
served  the  Church  in  connection  with  the 
mission  forty  years.  He  died  in  great  peace 
with  the  whole  Conference  around  his  bed- 
side. The  "Woman's  Society  also  lost  Miss 
Michener.  She  had  surrendered  a  desirable 
position  as  teacher  in  Philadelphia  to  answer 
a  call  to  open  a  school  in  the  Bassa  District. 
At  a  farewell  meeting  she  said :  "  I  have  been 
asked,  if  I  knew  that  I  should  die  from  the 
effects  of  the  climate,  would  I  still  persist  in 
going.  I  can  only  answer,  yes!  If  I  can  be 
the  humble  means  of  the  conversion  of  one 

462      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

soul  in  that  land  before  my  death,  I  would  go; 
for  that  one  might  be  the  instrument  in  God's 
hands  of  bringing  many  precious  immortal 
souls  to  Christ."  Rev.  Joel  Osgood  held  his 
ground  faithfully  until  he  was  stricken  down 
by  the  fever  and  forced  to  return  to  the 
United  States.  At  the  Conference  in  Jan- 
uary, 1882,  only  seventeen  were  assigned  ap- 
pointments. There  was  discouragement  at 
home  and  in  the  field.  A  more  hopeful  spirit 
prevailed  at  the  Conference  of  1883.  Two 
were  admitted  on  trial  and  a  net  increase  of 
199  members  reported.  The  Liberia  Confer- 
ence met  January  28,  1884,  at  Cape  Palmas, 
Eev.  C.  A.  Pitman  presiding.  Rev.  Daniel 
Ware  was  elected  clerical  delegate  to  the 
General  Conference.  The  members  reported 
were  2,337,  with  35  Sunday  schools  and  2,178 
scholars.  Rev.  William  Taylor  was  elected 
"Misioiiary  Bishop  for  Africa"  by  the  Gen- 
eral Conference,  and  was  ordained  w^itli  the 
other  bishops  elect. 

Bishop  Taylor  presided  at  the  Liberia  Con- 
ference January  29,  1885.  Dr.  W.  R.  Sum- 
mers, Levin  Johnson,  Revs.  Taylor  and  C. 
L.  Davenport  were  received  into  the  Confer- 
ence, being  designed  for  a  field  southward 
which.  Bishop  Taylor  afterward  opened.     A 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  463 

letter  from  Bishop  Taylor  written  November 
16  stated  that  five  stations  had  been  estab- 
lished in  Angola  and  one  in  Masuba.  "In 
four  of  these  there  is  an  ordained  minister 
and  in  two  preacliing  men."  Their  health 
had  been  wonderfully  preserved. 

The  Conference  met  February  4,  1886,  at 
Edina,  Bishop  Taylor  in  the  chair.  The  ap- 
pointments within  Liberia  embraced  seven 
districts,  with  27  aj^pointments,  some  of  them 
"  to  be  supplied  "  by  local  preachers.  A  new 
field  was  opened  called  the  "  South  Central 
Africa  District,"  which  was  later  divided  into 
the  Upper  Congo  and  Angola  Districts. 

The  reports  of  the  Confereuce  of  1887  were 
full  of  encouragement.  The  work  of  Sister 
Mary  A.  Sharpe  in  the  Kroo  tribe  was  warmly 
commended.  Over  twenty  have  been  con- 
verted, of  whom  fourteen  were  baptized  by 
Bishop  Taylor  during  the  Conference.  The 
membership  reported  was  2,518,  with  387  pro- 
bationers. The  latter  item  indicates  the  ag- 
gressive character  of  the  work. 

The  report  of  the  South  Central  Africa 
District  made  to  the  General  Committee  in 
1889  embraced  the  operations  of  Bishop 
Taylor  since  liis  first  arrival  in  Africa  in 
1884     Before  he  sailed  he  had  engaged  forty 

464      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

missionaries,  male  and  female,  to  devote  their 
lives  to  the  redemption  of  Africa.  He  met 
them  on  the  west  coast  and  proceeded  to 
Loanda,  the  capital  of  Angola,  a  Portuguese 
province.  He  penetrated  the  interior  300 
miles  from  Loando^  planting  stations  along 
the  ronte.  He  bought  property  and  built  an 
iron  house  at  Loanda,  to  serve  both  as  a  home 
and  mission.  It  was  under  charge  of  Eev.  C. 
Ratcliff,  with  a  good  missionary  force.  At 
Dondo,  at  the  head  of  navigation  on  the  Co- 
anza  River  250  miles  from  its  mouth,  a  good 
mission  property  was  secured,  and  schools 
and  other  missionary  agencies  established  un- 
der the  charge  of  Rev.  C.  Davenport.  Sixty 
miles  farther,  at  Malange,  S.  Mead  had  charge 
of  a  station.  Further  east  was  N'Hange 
Pepo,  under  the  care  of  W.  P.  Dodson.  An- 
other station  was  located  still  farther  east  at 
Pungo  Andongo.  These  stations  were  de- 
signed to  extend  to  the  Kassai  River.  A  station 
was  established  at  Mamba,  on  the  coast  north 
of  the  Congo,  in  the  French  possession.  An- 
other was  planted  at  Kabinda,  still  farther 
north,  near  the  gateway  of  the  Congo  State. 
Another  point  was  the  Cavalla  River.  The 
seaport  of  this  mission  is  Cape  Palmas, 
Liberia.     The   Cavalla   is   a   navigable  river 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  465 

which  runs  through  a  good  country  fringed 
with  native  villages.  In  this  region  Bishop 
Taylor  found  seventeen  kings  who  asked  for 
missionaries.  A  supply  of  missionaries  were 
allotted  to  this  field  and  sent  forward. 

The  central  point  of  the  bishop's  operations 
was  the  Congo.  He  had  secured  a  steamer, 
but  owing  to  the  call  for  transportation  by 
Stanley's  expedition  to  Stanley  Falls,  on  the 
occasion  of  the  Arab  invasion  at  that  time,  he 
was  unable  to  .convey  the  material  235  miles 
by  land  around  the  fall  to  Stanley  Pool.  The 
bishop,  had  been  at  work,  however.  He  had 
penetrated  into  the  country  along  this  route 
and  established  several  stations. 

The  report  of  1890  reveals  marked  advance. 
The  new  mission  work  was  divided  into  the 
Congo  District,  Cape  Palmas  and  Cavalla  Dis- 
trict, and  the  Angola  District.  There  were  48 
missionaries  in  these  three  districts,  16  of 
whom  were  members  of  the  Conference.  Of 
the  32  who  were  not  members  12  were  single 
ladies.  Usually  there  were  two  single  ladies 
at  a  station,  but  at  three  points  they  were 
alone.  Judging  from  some  incidents  the 
bishop  relates,  they  have  not  only  faith  but 
pluck.  Miss  Annie  Whitfield  was  at  Tatika, 
on  the  Cassala  Eiver.  She  had  adopted  a 

4:66      Hand  Book  of  MetliocUst  Missions. 

little  family  of  heathen  children.  Several 
had  been  converted.  An  old  leopard  made 
himself  an  nnwelcome  visitor,  growling  around 
the  house  at  night.  Miss  Whitfield  had  no 
gun,  but  prepared  a  large  torch.  At  night 
their  visitor  came  purring  in  the  bushes  a 
few  rods  from  the  door.  The  torch  was 
lighted,  the  door  thrown  open,  and  the  lonely 
missionary  rushed  out,  swinging  the  torch  in 
the  dense  darkness.  A  rush  was  heard,  and 
the  leopard  disturbed  them  no.  more. 

Miss  Agnes  McAllister  held  the  station  at 
Garaway,  on  the  Kon  coast,  teaching  a  large 
school.  Thirty  of  her  people  had  been  con- 
verted. A  neighboring  tribe  attacked  the 
the  town.  The  people  rallied  and  drove  their 
assailants  away,  but  several  of  the  Garaway 
people  were  killed  and  twenty-two  wounded. 
When  the  smoke  cleared  away  Miss  Agnes 
went  to  the  field  with  needle  and  bandages. 
The  first  she  found  was  a  man  with  a  wound 
to  the  bone  in  his  back  a  foot  long.  The  car- 
penter of  the  mission  came  to  help  her,  but 
his  nerve  failed  till  he  saw  her  quietly 
stitching  the  gaping  wound.  It  was  bound 
up  and  then  she  turned  to  another  and  an- 
other, like  an  angel  of  mercy.  She  w^aited 
and  watched  with  the  wounded  and  dying  for 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         467 

a  week,  and  then  went  back  to  lier  work  in  the 
mission.  No  wonder  those  savage  people 
listened  to  her  message. 

Kev.  Eckman,  of  Sastown,  had  another  ex- 
perience. He  had  a  revival  at  which  175 
were  converted.  While  he  was  away  the 
devil  (or  conjurer)  came  into  town  and  made 
the  old  king  believe  that  Eckman  was  a  spy, 
and  would  soon  bring  in  an  army  landed  as 
freight  in  boxes  and  barrels,  kill  them  all,  and 
take  their  country.  The  king  called  his  old 
men  in  council  'and  resolved  to  burn  the 
church,  tear  down  the  mission  home,  and  kill 
the  missionary.  There  were  about  a  hundred 
Methodist  young  men  who  heard  of  it,  and 
forming  in  line  they  drove  the  old  men  home. 
The  next  morning  the  missionary  returned, 
and  the  devil  determined  to  drive  him  away. 
He  came  to  the  mission  home  and  pranced 
around  in  the  garden,  trampling  and  destroy- 
ing the  vegetables.  Eckman  ordered  the 
young  men  to  seize  him.  He  was  tied  with  a 
half -inch  rope,  with  the  ends  long  enough  for 
halter  and  lash.  He  was  driven  through 
town  up  and  down  before  the  houses.  When 
he  was  untied  the  people,  who  had  lost  their 
fear  of  him,  drove  him  from  their  town. 
They  called  a  council  of  the  tribe  and  passed  a 

468      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

law  that  the  devil  should  never  come  to  town, 
and  another  that  drinking  sas-wood  poison 
for  witchcraft  should  end. 

Among  all  these  missionaries  on  the  western 
coast  but  one  death  during  the  year  is  re- 
ported. Some  had  held  their  posts  three 
years  with  good  health.  From  the  results 
given  in  this  report,  West  Africa,  after  the 
missionary  ascends  from  the  coast,  is  as 
healthy  as  China  or  Japan. 

In  1892  the  old  Tiberian  work  reported  28 
members  of  Conference,  and  29  missionaries 
not  members  of  the  Conference,  2,765  mem- 
bers of  the  Church,  and  144  probationers. 

In  1891  the  new  work  reported  271  mem- 
bers, 50  x^i'obationers,  30  parsonages,  and 
property  valued  at  $51,500.  In  1892  it  re- 
ported two  districts  and  6  stations. 

South  America. 
In  1832  the  General  Conference  recom- 
mended the  establishment  of  a  mission  in 
South  America.  Not  long  afterward  a  letter 
was  received  from  a  member  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  in  Buenos  Ayres,  stating 
that  he  had  formed  a  small  class,  and  asking 
for  a  missionary.  The  Board  responded,  and 
Bev.  Fountain  E.  Pitts  was   appointed.     He 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  469 

started  in  July,  1835.  He  found  the  class 
still  in  existence.  It  consisted  of  eight  or  ten 
members.  He  reorganized  it  as  a  society, 
and  after  being  licensed  to  i^reach  by  the  gov- 
ernment he  opened  worship  in  the  home  of 
an  American  lady.  On  his  return  he  recom- 
mended the  establishment  of  missions  in  Rio 
de  Janeiro  and  Buenos  Ayres. 

In  December,  1836,  Rev.  John  Dempster 
reached  Buenos  Ayres.  The  land  was  under 
the  iron  rule  of  Gov.  Rosas.  He  treated  the 
missionary  with  courtesy,  but  required  him  to 
confine  his  labors  to  foreigners.  Mr.  Demp- 
ster possessed  rare  endowments,  and  his  labors 
and  reports  encouraged  the  Board  to  enlarge 
its  appropriations  for  the  mission.  In  1838 
he  visited  Montevideo.  His  favorable  report 
led  the  Board  to  send  to  that  point  Rev.  W. 
H.  Norris  as  teacher  and  preacher.  In  1838 
H.  A.  Wilson  was  sent  to  Buenos  Ayres  to 
open  a  school  of  high  grade.  The  school 
was  reenforced  in  1840  by  the  arrival  of  Rev. 
O.  A.  Howard  and  wife.  The  school  opened 
encouragingly,  but  owing  to  financial  embar- 
rassment the  Board  in  1841  recalled  its  mis- 
sionaries. This  action  occasioned  great  sor- 
row in  the  field.  The  congregation  at  Mon- 
tevideo petitioned  Bishop  Hedding  to  return 

470      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

Mr.  Norris,  and  pledged  his  support.  A  So- 
ciety called  the  "  Society  for  the  Promotion 
of  Christian  Worship"  offered  the  use  of  their 
church  and  parsonage.  He  was  returned,  and 
on  January  3,  1843,  the  church  was  dedicated 
and  his  work  resumed.  Though  the  country 
was  disturbed  by  civil  war  during  the  greater 
part  of  Mr.  Norris' s  stay,  yet  the  Church  was 

In  1847  Mr.  Norris  returned  and  Eev.  D. 
D.  Lore  was  sent  out.  Under  his  labors 
there  was  marked  advance  in  the  work.  He 
was  succeeded  in  the  superintendency  in  1854 
by  Eev.  G.  D.  Carrow.  As  all  restraints  on 
religion  were  removed  by  the  revolution  which 
closed  in  1855,  Mr.  Carrow  urged  the  exten- 
sion of  the  work  into  the  adjoining  country. 
Rev.  H.  R.  Nicholson  was  sent  out  in  1856. 
Owing  to  the  failure  of  Mrs.  Carrow's  health, 
the  Board  relieved  him,  and  in  December, 
1856,  Rev.  W.  Goodfellow  was  made  Superin- 
tendent of  the  mission.  He  was  instructed 
to  give  special  attention  to  the  Spanish  work, 
and  also  to  plan  the  organization  of  the 
Church  outside  and  beyond  the  local  "So- 
ciety," by  which  it  had  so  long  been  controlled. 
This  involved  the  loss  of  financial  support, 
but  the  result  was   salutary,  and  the  super- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  ChurcJi.  471 

intenclency  of  Mr.  Goodfellow,  which  contiu- 
aed  until  1869,  was  very  successful.  In  1860 
the  w^eek  of  prayer  resulted  in  the  conversion 
of  several  young  men,  who  became  active  and 
useful  in  the  work.  Among  them  was  John 
F.  Thompson,  who  has  been  styled  the  "  apos- 
tle to  the  Spanish  people  in  the  Argentine 
Kepublic."  In  1863  the  mission  reported 
eighty  members  and  nineteen  probationers. 
In  1868  the  Board  secured  valuable  property 
in  Buenos  Ayres  for  $30,699  in  gold,  and  in 
1872  a  beautiful  church  building  was  dedi- 
cated to  the  worship  of  God. 

In  1864  Eev.  T.  Carter  and  family  reached 
Buenos  Ayres.  He  assisted  in  the  work  in 
that  city  until  the  way  was  opened  for  a  mis- 
sion in  Eosario,  a  city  of  30,000  souls,  in  the 
province  of  Santa  Fe.  By  1865  he  had  a 
church  completed  at  a  cost  of  $3,000,  without 
aid  from  the  Board.  In  1865  Mr.  Carter 
opened  a  day  school  in  his  own  house.  When 
the  church  was  finished  the  school  was  re- 
moved into  one  of  its  rooms.  A  number  of 
the  scholars  were  from  leading  families.  The 
truths  of  the  gospel  were  presented  and  many 
young  men  of  Eosario  were  brought  within  its 
influence.  In  1866  Eev.  J.  W.  Shank  arrived 
and  began  work  in  Buenos  Ayres  and  the  ad- 

472      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Misswns. 

jacent  region.  Cordova,  an  old  stronghold  of 
the  Jesuits,  was  added  to  the  work.  In  April, 
1866,  Rev.  D.  F.  Suavain  was  at  work  in  Es- 

In  October,  1866,  Rev.  J.  F.  Thomson, 
having  spent  four  years  in  the  Ohio  Wesleyan 
University,  returned  to  the  field  and  entered 
vigorously  on  the  Spanish  work.  Early  in 
1867  he  learned  that  there  was  a  widow  lady 
in  the  "Boca,"  a  place  near  Buenos  Ayres, 
who  was  anxious  for  religious  services  in  her 
house.  This  lady,  Dona  Fermina  Leon  de 
Aldeber,  had  been  born  in  Patagonia,  one  of 
the  most  southerly  towns  of  the  Argentine 
Republic.  A  lady  from  Spain  was  by  strange 
fortune  led  to  that  extreme  southern  border 
of  civilization,  who  had  a  New  Testament 
which  she  dearly  prized.  She  opened  a 
school,  and  Fermina  Aldeber  was  one  of  her 
pupils.  When  this  young  lady  was  married 
to  Senor  Aldeber  her  teacher  presented  her 
that  Testament  as  a  gift  of  priceless  value. 
It  became  her  support  in  sorrow.  She  was 
now  a  widow  with  four  children,  and  teaching 
school.  She  had  heard  of  a  clergyman  at 
Buenos  Ayres  who  was  preaching  in  Spanish 
the  gospel  she  had  found  in  her  New  Testa- 
Inent.     Her  invitation  to  preach  in  her  home 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         473 

was  accepted,  and  soon  regular  service  was 
commenced.  Sunday  school  and  day  school 
were  established  and  maintained  for  ten  years, 
when  smallpox  compelled  the  lady  to  move 
her  school  to  the  city.  Among  the  converts 
in  the  "  Boca  "  was  Jose  Cordoza,  a  dissipated 
sailor.  The  moral  change  was  thorough.  He 
not  only  labored  for  the  sujoport  of  his  family, 
but  preached  and  exhorted  wherever  he  went, 
and  was  instrumental  in  leading  many  to  the 
cross.  During  the  yellow  fever  scourge  of 
1871,  with  Mr.  Maul,  another  convert  of  the 
mission,  he  was  instrumental  in  saving  more 
lives  than  many  of  the  physicians,  while  point- 
ing the  dying  to  the  Lamb  of  God.  In  1875 
he  removed  to  a  colony  in  the  Gran  Chaco. 
He  carried  his  religion  with  him,  and  the 
light  kindled  in  the  schoolroom  in  the  "  Boca" 
is  burning  on  that  northern  frontier. 

Dr.  Goodfellow  was  very  anxious  to  open 
work  in  the  Spanish  language,  and,  as  soon  as 
Mr.  Thomson  had  prepared  himself,  the 
work  was  commenced.  The  first  sermon  was 
preached  in  Buenos  Ayres  and  aroused  a 
great  interest,  and  a  crowded  congregtion 
greeted  him  in  the  evening  service.  Judges, 
lawyers,  and  physicians  mingled  with  the 
common  people  to   hear  the  gospel  in  their 

474      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

own  language.  In  1868  he  alternated  between 
Buenos  Ayres  and  Montevideo.  In  the  latter 
place  the  Masons  offered  him  the  use  of  their 
schoolroom,  but  it  soon  became  too  small  for 
the  congregations.  In  1869  a  theater  was 
purchased  for  a  church,  and  a  monthly  sub- 
scription of  $117  being  raised  for  his  support, 
he  devoted  liis  whole  time  to  Montevideo. 
His  success  aroused  the  attention  of  the 
priests,  one  of  whom,  Father  Maurento,  chal- 
lenged him  to  debate.  At  its  close  the  large 
audience  by  a  rising  vote  indorsed  the  heretic. 

June  4,  1868,  Rev.  H.  G.  Jackson  reached 
Buenos  Ayres  to  take  charge  of  the  English- 
speaking  congregation  aud  thus  enable  Dr. 
Goodfellow  to  devote  his  entire  time  to  the 
superin  tendency.  Dr.  Goodfellow's  health 
and  that  of  his  wife  soon  declined,  and  he  was 
compelled  the  following  year  to  ask  a  release. 
His  administration  had  been  very  successful. 
Mr.  Jackson  was  appointed  Superintendent. 
A  change  in  policy  w^as  adopted.  The  German 
and  French  Missions,  as  well  as  the  English 
charges,  were  made  self-supporting.  Mission- 
ary efforts  were  confined  to  the  Si3anish-speak- 
ing  population. 

In  1870  Rev.  T.  B.  Wood  arrived  in  Buenos 
Ayres.     Mr.    Carter    having    returned   home, 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  475 

Mr.  Wood  succeeded  him  in  Eosario  to  carry 
on  the  English  work  until  his  knowledge  of 
the  language  would  prepare  him  to  open  a 
Spanish  mission. 

The  English  charge  in  Buenos  Ay  res  re- 
mained under  charge  of  Dr.  Jackson  until 
1878.  The  old  church  was  sold  for  $40,000 
and  another  completed  at  a  cost  of  over  $60,- 
000.  In  1878  the  property  in  Bitfenos  Ay  res 
was  estimated  at  $117,000.  After  Mr.  Thom- 
son in  1870  took  charge  of  the  Spanish  work 
in  Montevideo,  Dr.  Jackson  had  charge  of  the 
Spanish  work  in  Buenos  Ayres. 

In  a  single  year  Mr.  Wood  was  able  to 
'preach  to  the  Spanish  congregation  at  Eosa- 
rio. A  Sunday  school  was  also  opened.  In 
1873  the  Consulate  at  Eosario  was  vacant,  and 
without  his  knowledge  Mr.  Wood  was  recom- 
mended and  appointed.  As  the  position  gave 
him  influence  and  assured  protection  to  the 
mission,  it  was  accei^ted,  and  he  proved  an  ef- 
ficient officer. 

In  1874  Miss  J.  E.  Chapin  and  Miss  L.  B. 
Demming  were  sent  out  by  the  Woman's  So- 
ciety. They  began  work  under  Mr.  Wood's  di- 
rection with  great  promise  of  usefulness.  In 
1876  they  were  directed  by  their  Board  to 
commence    separate    work.     In    1875    J.    E. 

476      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Wood,  a  brother  of  Thomas  B.,  was  sent  to 
Rosario  and  entered  with  great  zeal  on  his 
duties.  In  1878  Dr.  Jackson  at  his  own  re- 
quest was  relieved  of  the  super intendency, 
and  Rev.  Thomas  B.  Wood  was  appointed  his 
successor.  At  that  time  the  mission  reported 
342  members,  6  Sunday  schools,  and  730 

In  1880  the  superintendent  visited  Uruguay, 
and  was  greatly  encouraged  by  the  outlook. 
The  occasional  preaching  of  Juan  Correa  won 
converts  who  were  gathered  by  Mr.  Wood  into 
a  class.  The  new  work  at  Colonia  was  sup- 
plied by  Francisco  Pensoti,  who  had  aban- 
doned his  trade  to  tell  his  people  of  a  Saviour 
who  could  pardon  sin  without  the  interven- 
tion of  the  priest.  The  people  were  supply- 
ing his  wants.  They  brought  to  his  wife 
milk,  eggs,  wheat,  and  other  supplies;  so  they 
had  no  lack.  The  mission  was  being  wisely 
pushed  on  the  line  of  self-support.  As  the 
work  expanded  the  call  on  the  Board  for  re- 
enforcements  became  more  urgent. 

The  Spanish  work  which  was  commenced 
by  Mr.  Thompson  in  1867,  with  one  meml)er, 
in  1881  outnumbered  the  English  four  to 
one.  The  more  gifted  native  members  were 
ripening  into  efficient  workers  in  all  depart- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  ^11 

ments  of  church  enterprise.  In  1882  a  reviv- 
al, chiefly  in  the  Spanish  congregation,  great- 
ly advanced  the  spiritual  condition  of  the 
mission,  and  brought  to  it  many  important 

In  1883  there  was  a  net  increase  of  fifty- 
seven  in  the  membership.  The  temper  of 
the  general  public  toward  the  mission  was 
more  favorable  than  ever,  but  the  priesthood 
were  hostile.  The  arrival  of  Kev.  Thomas  H. 
Stockton  and  family  greatly  cheered  the  mis- 
sion. He  was  assigned  to  the  English  con- 
gregation in  Buenos  Ayres.  In  the  town  of 
Porongos,  Uruguay,  Correa,  the  efficient  na- 
tive preacher,  was  assailed  by  a  mob  with 
shouts  of  "  Death  to  the  Protestants."  The 
mutiny  was  broken  up  and  the  preacher  was 
saved  only  by  the  firmness  of  his  friends  and 
the  intervention  of  the  police.  He  laid  the 
matter  before  the  authorities,  and  the  nation- 
al government  notified  the  local  authorities 
that  such  meetings  should  not  be  interrupted. 
The  press  discussed  such  displays  of  intoler- 
ance, and  the  verdict  of  popular  opinion  in 
favor  of  religious  liberty  was  emphatic. 

The  mission  force  in  1884  consisted  of  the 
Superintendent,  T.  B.  Wood,  J.  F.  Thomson, 
A.  M.  Milne,    J.  E.  Wood,  W.  Tallon,  T.  H. 

478      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Stockton,  and  their  wives;  five  ladies  of  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Society,  seven  helpers 
under  regular  appointments,  and  sixteen 
brethren  who  preached  as  supplies  at  various 
points  in  the  mission.  It  reported  377  mem- 
bers and  399  probationers. 

In  1885  the  helpers  under  regular  appoint- 
ment had  increased  to  thirteen,  with  eighteen 
who  were  preaching  as  supplies.  These  fig- 
ures indicate  vitality.  Members  reported, 
437;  probationers,  461. 

In  1886  Rev.  T.  B.  Wood  was  relieved  of 
the  superintendency  and  placed  in  charge  of 
a  theological  school  for  training  ministers  for 
Spanish  work.  Rev.  C.  W.  Drees,  of  the  Mex- 
ican Mission,  was  appointed  Superintendent  of 
the  mission.  On  account  of  ill  health  J.  R. 
Wood  retired  from  the  field,  and  Rev.  C.  W. 
Miller  was  sent  out  to  supply  his  place. 

The  report  of  1888  revealed  steady  advance. 
The  native  force  was  very  efficient.  The  mis- 
sion now  embraced  important  points  in  Uru- 
guay and  Paraguay.  Four  pastoral  charges 
in  Buenos  Ayres  v/ere  self-supporting.  The 
membership  was  717,  and  616  probationers. 

The  roll  of  1889  contains  the  names  of  nine 
native  elders.  The  work  had  taken  root  in 
the  soil.     The  Woman's  Society  had  six  mis- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  479 

sionaries  in  the  field.  They  had  schools  in 
Kosario,  Buenos  Ayres,  and  Montevideo.  The 
Parent  Board  had  upwards  of  twenty  self-sup- 
porting Spanish  schools.  The  report  says  of 
the  general  work:  "  There  are  three  Spanish 
charges  (each  a  circuit)  in  the  Argentine  Ee- 
public;  also  two  English  and  two  German 
charges;  the  number  of  regular  preaching 
places  about  tw^enty.  There  are  one  English 
and  three  Spanish  charges  in  Uruguay,  one 
Spanish  charge  in  Paraguay,  and  one  Portu- 
guese charge  in  Brazil,  and  the  number  of  reg- 
ular places  in  the  entire  mission  about  thirty- 

In  1890  Kev.  A.  W.  Greenman  was  added  to 
the  missionary  force,  wdiich  numbers  seven, 
with  their  wives.  The  members  reported  are 
985,  with  880  probationers.  During  the  year 
the  Superintendent,  with  Eev.  A.  M.  Milne, 
General  Agent  of  the  American  Bible  Society, 
visited  Chili,  Peru,  and  Bolivia.  They  re- 
ported in  these  nations  a  wide  field  and  mul- 
tiplied opportunities.  Bishop  Taylor's  mis- 
sions were  in  accord  with  the  General  Board 
and  were  doing  good  work.  The  general 
work  of  the  mission  was  very  encouraging. 

In  1891  missions  were  reported  in  Para- 
guay, Brazil,  Peru,  and  Bolivia.     These  mis- 

480      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

sions  are  supplied  by  native  preachers.  The 
entire  field  in  1892  reported  7  ordained  preach- 
ers and  their  wives,  1,224  members,  and  1,146 
on  trial. 


In  1845  a  young  man  by  the  name  of  J.  D.  Col- 
lins, who  had  graduated  in  the  State  University 
of  Michigan,  and  had  been  licensed  as  a  local 
preacher,  wrote  to  Bishop  Janes,  offering  to 
go  as  a  missionary  to  China.  The  Bishop 
explained  to  him  that  no  mission  had  been 
opened  in  that  field,  and  that  no  money  had 
been  raised  for  the  support  of  the  missionary. 
The  young  man  replied:  "Bishop,  engage  me 
a  place  before  the  mast,  and  my  own  strong 
arm  will  pull  me  to  China,  and  support  me 
while  there." 

When  the  man  is  ready  to  go  the  Master 
will  open  the  way.  In  1846  the  Committee 
and  Board  in  joint  session  decided  to  open  a 
mission  in  China,  and  appropriated  $3,000 
with  which  to  send  out  and  support  two  mis- 
sionaries in  that  field.  Youug  Collins,  with 
Bev.  M.  C.  White  and  his  young  wife,  were 
chosen  for  the  work.  Only  five  ports  were 
open  at  that  time.  It  was  decided  to  estab- 
lish the  mission  at  Foochow.  The  mission- 
aries  reached   that   city  September  6,  1847. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,         481 

A  house  was  secured  and  they  began  the  study 
of  the  language  and  the  distribution  of  tracts, 
which  were  gladly  received  by  the  people. 
They  had  a  little  stock  of  medicine,  which  they 
used  in  relieving  the  sick.  In  1848  Kev.  H. 
Hickok  and  wife  and  Eev.  E.  8.  Maclay 
reached  the  mission.  Schools  were  opened 
with  native  teachers,  the  missionaries  con- 
ducting religious  services  and  giving  religious 
instruction.  The  Sunday  school  was  opened 
with  fine  prospects  of  success.  A  chapel  was 
rented  at  Nantai  for  the  distribution  of  tracts, 
while  the  crowd  that  thronged  the  street  fur- 
nished listeners  to  the  missionaries,  who 
availed  themselves  of  every  opportunity  to  de- 
liver their  message. 

The  Board  granted  the  mission  authority 
to  build,  and  a  lot  was  purchased  on  the  main 
street  to  the  south  gate  of  the  city  outside  of 
the  walls.  The  house  was  dedicated  in  Au- 
gust, 1855.  Another  church  was  dedicated  in 
October,  1856. 

The  health  of  Mr.  Hickok  compelled  his  re- 
turn to  the  United  States.  The  superintend- 
ency  devolved  on  Mr.  Collins  in  1850,  but  his 
health  was  broken,  and  in  1851  he  returned 
to  the  United  States  by  way  of  California. 
He  projected  work  among  the  Chinese  of 

482      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

San  Francisco,  but  his  strength  declined,  and 
May  13,  1852,  the  pioneer  of  Methodist  mis- 
sions in  China  received  his  crown. 

In  1851  the  mission  was  strengthened  by 
the  arrival  of  Dr.  Isaac  W.  Wiley  and  wife, 
Eev.  James  Colder  and  wife,  and  Miss  M. 
Seely.  The  translation  and  printing  of  the 
Bible,  and  preaching  in  the  chapels  were  re- 

During  the  years  1853  and  1854  the  work 
was  greatly  interrupted  by  sickness.  The 
Chinese  rebellion  was  in  progress,  the  insur- 
gents nearing  the  coast,  and  Foochow  was  con- 
sidered in  danger.  Owing  to  the  unsettled 
state  of  the  city  and  the  feeble  health  of  Mrs. 
Maclay  and  Mrs.  Colder,  it  was  decided  that 
under  escort  of  their  husbands  they  should 
retire  to  Hong  Kong.  This  left  Dr.  Wiley 
and  his  wife  alone  in  the  field.  They  also 
yielded  to  the  effects  of  the  climate.  In  No- 
vember Mrs.  Wiley  died,  and  her  husband  was 
compelled  by  failing  health  to  return  home. 

Mr.  Maclay  returned  to  the  field,  and  in 
1855  the  mission  was  reenforced  by  the  arriv- 
al of  Kev.  Erastus  Wentworth  and  Kev.  Ottis 
Gibson  and  their  wives.  Within  four  months 
after  their  arrival  Mrs.  Wentworth  was  called 
to  her  home  in  heaven.     July  14,  1857,  the  la- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  483 

bors  and  prayers  of  the  missionaries  were  re- 
warded by  the  conversion  and  baptism  of  a 
native.  The  convert  was  Ting  Ang,  a  trades- 
man of  forty-seven  years  of  age.  He  had  been 
carefully  instructed  by  the  missionaries,  had 
cleared  his  house  of  idols,  purchased  religious 
books  which  he  studied  faithfully,  and  had 
commenced  family  and  private  prayer.  There 
was  present  at  his  baptism  a  large  congrega- 
tion, who  listened  to  the  service  with  deep  in- 
terest. Shortly  after  his  baptism  his  wife 
and  two  children  were  also  received  into  the 
Church.  Before  the  year  closed  thirteen 
adults  and  three  infants  were  baptized.  Some 
of  these  converts  endured  the  loss  of  all  things 
for  Christ's  sake,  but  all  were  steadfast. 

In  1858  the  Foundling  Asylum,  designed  to 
save  female  children,  thousands  of  whom  were 
abandoned  by  their  parents  every  year,  was 

In  1859  the  mission  began  to  extend  west- 
ward. A  class  of  fifteen  members  was  formed 
at  To-Ching,  about  fifteen  miles  northwest  of 
Foochow.  During  the  year  six  native  preach- 
ers were  licensed,  one  of  whom,  Hu  Po  Mi, 
the  first  native  itinerant  in  China,  was  made 
pastor  of  the  To-cheng  appointment.  Among 
the   friends   of   the   Hu  family  in  To-cheng 

484      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

was  the  Li  family.  The  work  extended  to 
them.  The  heathen  party  made  bitter  oppo- 
sition, but  during  the  fall  twelve  were  bap- 
tized and  the  work  continued  to  move  to  the 
west.  The  news  of  this  work  cheered  the 
Church  at  home,  and  E-ev.  S.  L.  Baldwin  and 
wife,  two  young  lady  teachers,  and  Miss  Phoebe 
E.  Potter  sailed  for  China.  In  1860  Eev.  C. 
E.  Martin  and  wife  reached  the  field.  The 
arrival  of  the  Misses  Woolston  opened  a  new 
era  in  the  work  of  the  mission.  The  Female 
Seminary  under  their  supervision  became  an 
important  factor  in  the  mission  work. 

In  1860  Father  Hu,  the  first  convert,  dem- 
onstrated in  his  peaceful  death  the  power  of 
the  gospel. 

The  work  in  1861  extended  westward,  and  a 
class  was  formed  and  a  chapel  built  at  Kang 
Chia.  The  society  met  fierce  opposition,  but 
the  gospel  triumphed.  Owing  to  the  failing 
health  of  his  wife,  Mr.  Baldwin  sailed  for 
New  York,  but  when  within  one  week's  sail 
of  that  port  Mrs.  Baldwin  passed  peacefully 
to  her  final  rest.  Mr.  Maclay  visited  the 
United  States  and  by  his  earnest  appeals 
aroused  the  missionary  zeal  of  the  Church, 
and  returned  to  China  accompanied  by  his 
family  and  Eev.  Nathan  Sites  and  his  wife. 

mP**"*  ^ 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  Church.         485 

Treaty  negotiations  having  opened  other 
ports  and  also  the  YaEg-tse  Eiver  to  all  na- 
tions, the  mission  continued  to  move  into 
the  interior.  Increased  attention  was  given 
to  the  publishing  department.  Half  a  mil- 
lion of  tracts  were  issued  during  the  year. 

The  first  annual  meeting  was  held  Sep- 
tember 29,  1862.  A  course  of  study  with 
examinations  was  established  and  the  ap- 
pointments announced.  Methodism  was  crys- 
tallizing in  organic  form.  The  mission 
embraced  eight  new  fields,  with  six  ordained 
missionaries,  eight  lady  missionaries,  eleven 
native  preachers,  and  eighty-seven  members. 

After  resolute  opposition  from  the  Chinese 
authorities^  a  house  and  lot  on  East  Street, 
within  the  walls  of  Foochow,  was  bought, 
and  with  great  joy  to  the  mission  Mr.  Martin, 
who  had  charge  of  the  Foochow  Circuit,  re- 
moved with  his  family  within  the  city  in  1863. 
During  this  year  the  mission  reported  four 
new  chapels,  four  new  appointments,  three 
new  classes  of  Church  members,  two  day 
schools,  and  two  new  Sunday  schools.  The 
translation  of  the  New  Testament  was  carried 
to  the  end  of  1  Thessalonians,  and  the  print- 
ing department,  under  the  efticient  manage- 
ment of  Mr.  Baldwin,  had  more  than  doubled 

486      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

its  issues,  producing  24,905  copies  or  887,490 

During  the  next  year  the  educational  de- 
partment, under  Mr.  Gibson  and  the  Misses 
Woolston,  was  very  successful,  and  the  western 
movement  found  the  missionary  at  the  gates 
of  Yenping,  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  from 
Foochow.  It  was  also  a  year  of  trial.  The 
East  Street  Church  and  the  house  of  the  mis- 
sionary were  destroyed  by  a  mob,  and  women 
and  children  narrowly  escaped.  The  failing 
health  of  his  wife  compelled  the  return  of  Mr. 
Binckley  to  the  United  States.  The  devoted 
Martin,  after  rebuilding  the  church  destroyed 
by  the  mob,  closed  his  career.  He  was  buried 
the  week  preceding  the  Sunday  appointed  for 
its  dedication.  His  death  was  sudden.  His 
last  words  were:  "  It  pays  to  be  a  Christian." 

The  visit  of  Bishop  Thomson  in  1865  was 
of  great  importance  to  the  mission.  During 
the  year  a  portion  of  the  territory  of  the  mis- 
sion was  fraternally  surrendered  to  the  Amer- 
ican Board.  The  Eef erence  Testament  of  Mr. 
Gibson  was  completed,  and  other  valuable  pub- 
lications issued  from  the  press. 

The  mission  was  strengthened  by  the  ar- 
rival of  Eev.  V.  C.  Hart  and  Rev.  L.  N. 
Wheeler  and  their  wives  in  1866,  and  of  Bev. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         487 

H.  H.  Lowry  aud  wife  in  1867.  The  school 
work  was  greatly  prospered.  A  severe  perse- 
cution in  Hohchang  and  Kucheng  revealed  a 
martyr  spirit  among  the  native  converts.  A 
young  disciple,  hearing  that  the  native  preach- 
er was  imprisoned,  walked  eleven  miles  and 
asked  to  share  his  brother's  punishment,  and 
remained  with  him  until  the  danger  was  over. 
Eight  girls  in  the  boarding  school  became 
members  of  the  Church.  The  report  in  1867 
showed  451  members.  Plans  were  perfected 
for  an  advance  into  two  more  districts  of  the 
Fokien  province  and  for  extending  the  work 
into  the  province  west  of  Fokien.  In  Decem- 
ber Eev.  V.  C.  Hart  and  Eev.  E.  S.  Todd  en- 
tered the  Kiang  Si  province  and  occupied  the 
city  of  Kiukiang.  They  found  four  native 
Christians,  and  the  following  November  Mr. 
Hart  reported  thirty-seven  on  probation.  This 
province  and  the  adjacent  region  contained 
thirty-three  millions  of  souls. 

After  prayerful  consideration  the  mission 
resolved  to  plant  a  mission  in  Peking,  the  cap- 
ital of  the  empire.  The  field  embraced  all 
China  north  of  Yang-tse  River,  containing  a 
population  estimated  at  200,000,000,  nearly  all 
of  whom  could  understand  the  Mandarin  dia- 
lect.    Owing  to  the  failing  liealth  of  Rev.  L. 

488      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

N.  Wheeler,  which  demanded  a  change  to  a 
colder  climate,  he  was  chosen  to  pioneer  this 
new  field.  With  his  family  he  reached  Peking 
March  12,  1869.  In  about  a  month  he  was 
joined  by  Mr.  Lowry  and  family.  They  en- 
tered at  once  on  the  study  of  the  Mandarin 
dialect.  It  was  not  until  February,  1870,  that 
they  secured  premises  for  the  mission  just  in- 
side one  of  the  city  gates  and  not  far  from  the 
foreign  legations.  On  June  5,  1871,  the  first 
public  Methodist  service  in  the  capital  of 
China  was  held,  with  a  congregation  composed 
of  a  few  foreigners  and  about  forty  Manchu 
Tartars  and  Chinese. 

Bishop  Kingsley  visited  the  field  in  1869. 
He  divided  the  work  into  three  missions.  Dr. 
Maclay  was  appointed  Superintendent  at 
Foochow,  Mr.  Hart  at  Kiukiang,  and  Mr. 
Wheeler  at  Peking.  Special  attention  was 
given  to  self-support.  Each  charge  was  re- 
quired to  raise  a  certain  amount  for  its  native 
pastor,  while  only  as  much  as  might  be  needed 
to  complete  the  salary  was  appropriated  from 
the  missionary  funds.  Bishop  Kingsley  was 
impressed  with  the  promise  of  the  field,  and 
the  Church  in  response  to  his  call  sent  out  six 
young  men  in  1870.  They  went  out  by  way  of 
San  Francisco. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,         480 

The  year  1870  tested  the  faith  of  the  mis- 
sionaries. A  massacre  took  place  June  21 
at  Tientsin,  eighty  miles  from  Peking,  in 
which  about  a  hundred  native  Eoman  Catho- 
lics, several  Protestants,  and  twenty-two  for- 
eigners were  cruelly  murdered.  A  general 
persecution  was  threatened.  The  missions  at 
Peking,  Kiukiang,  and  Foochow  were  endan- 
gered. The  design  of  the  plot  was  to  drive 
foreigners  from  China.  The  newly  appointed 
missionaries  had  reached  Japan,  and  were 
counseled  to  remain  until  affairs  became 
quiet.  Two  of  them,  Davis  and  Pilcher, 
pushed  on  to  Tientsin.  They  were  welcomed 
by  Messrs.  Wheeler  and  Lowry.  The  Chinese 
were  surly,  but  they  proceeded  to  Peking 
without  violence.  The  persecution  purified 
the  mission.  Those  who  were  faithful  among 
the  native  members  increased  in  faith,  and 
favor  with  the  people.  The  Methodist  system 
of  itineration  was  put  in  practice,  the  gospel 
was  preached,  and  Christian  literature  scat- 
tered in  hundreds  of  villages  and  cities,  "from 
Dolonor,  on  the  steppes  of  Mongolia  on  the 
north,  to  the  city  of  Confucius,  four  hundred 
miles  to  the  south,  and  from  Wu-taishan, 
the  sacred  mountains  of  Shansi,  on  the  west 
to  the  point  where  the  great  wall  joins  the  sea 

490      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

on  the  east."  These  journeys  were  performed 
sometimes  in  Chinese  carts,  mule  litters,  or 
on  horseback  with  saddlebags. 

At  the  annual  meeting  at  Foochow  a 
"  self-support  anniversary "  was  held.  In 
1870  Sia  Sek  Ong,  a  native  preacher,  dis- 
tressed by  the  suspicion  among  his  country- 
men that  he  had  been  "  hired  by  foreign  rice," 
had  renounced  his  claim  on  the  Mission- 
ary Society.  He  was  asked  if  he  had  cause  to 
regret  the  step.  He  answered :  "  I  have  not 
the  thousandth  part  of  a  regret.  I  am  glad 
I  did  it,  and  I  expect  to  continue  this  way  as 
long  as  I  live."  He  was  asked  what  he  would 
do  if  supplies  failed  and  his  family  suffered? 
He  said:  "They  won't  fail;  but  if  they  do,  if  I 
come  to  where  there  is  no  open  door,  I  will 
look  up  to  my  Saviour  and  say:  *Lord, 
whither  wilt  thou  lead  me?'"  By  a  unani- 
mous vote  the  native  preacher  and  people  fa- 
vored self-support.  The  work  is  firmly 
planted  in  a  mission  field  where  it  roots 
in  the  soil  of  self-support. 

During  the  year  1870,  Dr.  Maclay  returned 
home  to  recruit  his  health.  While  in  New 
York  the  mission  to  Japan  was  projected  and 
Dr.  Maclay  was  chosen  to  open  this  new  and 
important  field. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  491 

The  want  of  female  workers,  especially  for 
the  teaching  and  training  of  Chinese  girls  and 
women,  was  apparent  to  the  missionaries  and 
the  Church  at  home.  In  1871  the  Woman's 
Foreign  Missionary  Society  sent  to  the  mis- 
sion in  North  China  Misses,  Maria  Brown  and 
Mary  D.  Porter.  Owing  to  the  freezing  of 
the  Pei-ho  Kiver,  they  did  not  reach  their 
destination  in  Peking  until  March  6,  1872. 
They  at  once  began  the  study  of  the  language, 
and  as  soon  as  possible  established  the  girls' 
boarding  school.  They  were  joined  in  1875 
by  Miss  L.  A.  Campbell. 

The  efforts  of  the  missionaries  to  secure  a 
preaching  place  in  the  southern  part  of  Pe- 
king, known  as  the  "  Chinese  City,"  where 
the  chief  business  of  the  city  is  transacted, 
and  where  large  numbers  of  Chinese  reside, 
were  persistently  frustrated  by  the  Chinese 
officials,  and  it  was  not  until  1872  that  the 
premises  now  occupied  by  the  mission  were 
secured.  A  convenient  location  was  secured 
in  the  Tartar  portion  of  the  city,  and  in  1874 
a  large  domestic  chapel  in  the  mission  com- 
pound was  dedicated. 

In  1872  the  Woman's  Society  employed  in 
the  Foochow  Mission  some  twelve  deacon- 
esses.    The  Biblical  Institute  for  their  edu- 

492      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

cation  was  reestablished.  The  year  closed 
with  an  annual  meeting  of  unusual  spiritual 
power.  After  a  sermon  by  Sie  Sek  Ong,  the 
audience  bowed  in  prayer  for  the  baptism  of 
the  Holy  Ghost.  The  native  brethren  said: 
"  The  like  of  this  we  have  never  before  expe- 
rienced." The  work  was  extended  in  the  Kiu- 
kiang  Mission.  The  first  annual  meeting  in 
in  Peking  was  held  with  much  success. 

The  work  in  Tientsin  was  begun  in  1872. 
Rev.  G.  R.  Davis  was  first  assigned  to  the 
work,  but  being  placed  in  charge  of  the  Chi- 
nese City  Station,  Rev.  J.  H.  Pyke  opened  the 
work.  A  growing  Church  has  been  the  re- 

In  1873  eight  new  missionaries  were  sent 
to  this  vast  field.  The  annual  meetings  were 
presided  over  by  Bishop  Harris.  At  Foochow 
a  large  tent  was  erected  on  the  mission  com- 
pound. Two  natives  were  ordained  elders 
and  five  ordained  deacons.  The  appointment 
of  four  native  presiding  elders  was  another 
step  which  marked  the  development  of  Meth- 
odism in  this  heathen  land.  The  year  had 
been  marked  with  prosperity  in  Kiukiang. 
The  school  of  the  Misses  Howe  and  Hoag  had 
been  successfully  opened,  public  congrega- 
tions were  increased  and  females  began  to  at- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church  493 

tend  them.  Nine  native  preachers  and  thirty- 
six  members  and  probationers  were  reported. 
The  growth  in  Peking  was  reported  as  steady 
and  healthful.  The  mission  suffered  a  severe 
loss  in  the  failing  health  and  return  home  of 
Eev.  L.  N.  Wheeler. 

In  1873  the  mission  in  Peking  was  greatly 
strengthened  by  the  arrival  of  Miss  Dr. 
Coombs,  sent  out  by  the  Philadelphia  bFanch 
of  the  Woman's  Society.  The  following  year 
the  New  York  Branch  sent  Miss  Segourny 
Trask,  M.D.,  to  Foochow,  while  Miss  Lettie 
Mason,  M.D.,  was  sent  by  the  Northwestern 
branch  of  the  same  society  to  Kiukiang. 

During  the  year  1874  Eev.  D.  W.  Chandler 
and  wife  were  added  to  the  mission  at  Foo- 
chow. The  annual  meeting  was  one  of  unusu- 
al religious  interest.  A  neat  chapel  was  built 
in  Kiukiang.  The  gospel  was  preached  to 
thousands  and  tracts  were  scattered  broadcast 
through  the  region.  The  medical  work  of 
Miss  Dr.  Coombs  in  Peking  won  favor  among 
the  Chinese.  In  the  fall  of  1875  a  hospital 
for  women  and  children  was  opened  under  the 
charge  of  Miss  Coombs,  who  conducted  it  suc- 
cessfully until  1877,  when  Miss  L.  A.  Howard, 
M.D.,  took  charge  of  the  medical  work.  Miss 
Coombs  was  married  to  Rev.  A.  Strittmater, 

494      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

and  removed  to  Kiukiang,  where  her  gifts 
were  consecrated  to  the  service  of  the  bodies 
and  souls  of  heathen  women. 

The  visit  of  Bishop  Wiley  in  1877  was  one 
of  unusual  interest.  The  report  of  the  North 
China  Mission  indicated  a  prosperous  year. 
The  membership  in  Peking  had  been  doubled 
during  the  year.  Four  natives  were  licensed 
to  preach.  In  two  new  circuits  nearly  fifty 
probationers  had  been  enrolled.  The  mission 
had  a  station  in  both  the  Chinese  and  the 
Tartar  city.  The  mission  had  extended  north 
as  far  as  the  great  wall,  400  miles  from  Pe- 
king. The  mission  had  been  saddened  by 
the  death  of  Miss  Campbell,  after  three  years' 
service  in  the  work. 

In  the  Central  Mission  the  work  was  going 
on  in  three  chapels  and  schools,  with  the  out- 
side work  divided  into  three  circuits  extend- 
ing up  and  down  the  river  and  along  the  Po 
Yang  lake.  The  missionaries  often  itinerated 
by  water,  preaching  and  selling  books  at  scores 
of  cities  and  towns.  They  were  now  able  to 
travel  without  fear  of  violence. 

Bishop  Wiley  opened  the  Conference  in 
Foochow  December  19.  He  transferred  the 
missionaries,  five  elders,  ^yq  deacons,  and  five 
probationers  from  home  Conferences,  making, 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  Church.         495 

with  native  ordained  preachers,  a  Conference 
of  twenty  members.  The  bishop  said :  ''If  it 
had  not  been  for  the  strange  language  and 
dress,  I  could  hardly  have  noticed  any  differ- 
ence, so  well  prepared  were  these  native 
preachers  for  all  the  business  of  Conference." 
Referring  to  the  growth  of  the  mission  since 
he  had  left  it  twenty  years  before,  he  adds: 
"Then  not  a  soul  had  been  counted.  Up  to 
that  time  we  were  simply  met  with  prejudice 
and  opposition,  and  did  not  dare  to  venture 
five  miles  from  the  city  of  Foochow.  Now 
our  work  extends  through  districts,  reach- 
ing two  hundred  miles  to  the  north  and  west 
and  nearly  as  many  to  the  southeast.  We 
have  about  eighty  native  preachers,  a  Chris- 
tian community  of  2,600  souls,  an  Annual 
Conference  of  twenty  members  and  fifty 
probationers,  and  forty-six  circuits,  averaging 
fully  four  stations  each,  making  about  184 
points  at  which  the  gospel  is  preached." 

In  1880  the  field  was  strengthened  by  the 
arrival  of  Revs.  O.  W.  Willetts  and  T.  C.  Carter, 
their  wives,  and  Rev.  M.  L.  Taft.  Exposures 
arising  from  persecution  and  abundant  labors 
broke  down  the  health  of  Rev.  A.  Strittmater, 
and  he  returned  home  to  die.  He  was  a  true 
missionary.     The  purchase  in  1881  of  a  valu- 

496      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

able  building  in  Foochow  by  Mr.  Ahok  for 
the  Anglo-Chinese  College  placed  that  insti- 
tution on  solid  ground.  To  this  was  added 
17,000  by  Rev.  J.  F.  Goucher  for  the  theolog- 
ical department.  There  were  soon  45  pay 
scholars  in  the  school.  The  "  Fowler  Univer- 
sity of  China"  was  established  in  Kiukiang. 
Aided  by  a  generous  foundation  provided  by 
Eev.  J.  F.  Goucher,  the  "  Isabella  Fisher  Hos- 
pital" was  opened  in  Tientsin.  Numerous 
revivals  were  reported  from  various  portions 
of  the  field.  The  formal  recognition  by  the 
government  of  the  native  adherents  of  the 
Protestant  religion,  exempting  them  from  as- 
sessment for  the  maintainance  of  certain 
heathen  rites,  afforded  great  relief.  Hitherto 
this  had  been  conceded  only  to  Catholic  con- 
verts. The  Central  China  Mission  was  reen- 
forced  by  the  arrival  of  Rev.  C.  F.  Kupfer, 
and  the  North  China  Mission  by  Rev.  F.  D. 
Gamewell  and  wife.  The  opening  of  the 
West  China  Mission  was  a  noted  event  of  the 
year.  Rev.  L.  N.  Wheeler,  D.D.,  and  family, 
and  Rev.  S.  Lewis,  sailed  for  their  field  in 
September,  1881.  A  generous  offering  of 
$5,000  from  Rev.  J.  F.  Goucher  opened  the 
way  for  this  mission.  He  added  another 
special   contribution   of   $5,000    the   follow- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         497 

ing  year.  Dr.  Wheeler  explored  the  province 
of  Szechuen,  and  purchased  property  in 
Chun-king.  The  outlook  was  hopeful.  The 
missionary  force  at  Foochow  was  increased  by 
the  arrival  of  John  L.  Taylor,  M.D.,  and  wife, 
and  Kev.  G.  B.  Smyth,  both  for  the  Anglo- 
Chinese  College.  Kev.  W.  T.  Hobart  and 
wife  joined  the  mission  at  Peking;  and  Eevs. 
J.  H.  Worley,  T.  H.  Worley,  G.  W.  Woodall, 
and  J.  Jackson,  and  their  wives,  were  added 
to  the  Central  Mission.  In  1883  the  member- 
ship of  the  entire  field  was  1,984,  with  1,143 
probationers.  From  West  China  came  the 
message:  "Cities  open;  property  secured, 
schools  are  started,  and  seekers  are  to  be  found 
at  the  headquarters  of  the  mission."  Bishop 
Wiley  visited  China  in  1884.  During  his  stay 
in  Japan  a  serious  disease  was  developed,  but 
when  his  work  was  finished  in  Japan  he  pro- 
ceeded to  Shanghai.  During  the  voyage  he 
received  medical  attention  from  Eev.  W.  R. 
Lambuth,  M.D.,  of  the  Mission  of  the  Meth- 
odist Episcopal  Church,  South.  From  Shang- 
hai he  proceeded  to  North  China.  He  attended 
to  his  duties  amid  great  suffering,  being  un- 
able to  attend  the  public  meetings.  He  re- 
turned to  Shanghai  and  found  a  welcome  in 
the  home  of  Dr.  J.  W.  Lambuth,  of  the 

498      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

Southern  Methodist  Mission.  The  members 
of  the  Central  China  Mission  had  been  noti- 
fied to  meet  the  bishop  in  Shanghai  and  spare 
him  the  long  journey  to  Kiukiang.  The  an- 
nual meeting  was  held  in  the  home  of  Dr. 
Lambuth,  as  the  bishop  was  unable  to  go  to 
the  chapel  that  was  placed  at  his  service. 
The  presence  of  the  bishop  was  a  benediction 
to  the  home  whose  Christian  hospitalities  he 
enjoyed.  In  the  midst  of  great  sufferings  he 
proceeded  to  Foochow,  the  headquarters  of 
the  Foochow  Mission.  Eeclining  on  a  couch, 
the  dying  bishop  sought  to  meet  the  responsi- 
bilities of  his  office.  He  was  anxious  to  at- 
tend to  the  ordinations  at  his  bedside,  but  his 
failing  strength  forbade.  Sia  Sek  Ong,  a 
leading  native  preacher,  said:  "This  is  the 
remnant  of  his  work  that  he  must  needs  leave 
undone  to  keep  up  the  connection  between  this 
Conference  and  the  mother  Church."  Sadly 
the  Conference  gathered  around  his  bed  and 
listened  to  his  dying  words;  "God  bless  you! 
God  bless  you  all  forever,  for  evermore. 

The  China  Mission  in  1891  embraced  the 
Foochow,  Central,  North,  and  West  Missions. 
Its  growth  in  each  had  been  steady  and  vigor- 
ous.    Its  schools,  medical,  and  publishing  de- 

Missions  of  the  M,  E.  Church,         499 

partments,  had  been  carried  on  with  wisdom 
and  energy.  It  had  thoroughly  demonstrated 
the  value  of  the  itinerant  system  in  subsoil- 
ing  and  cultivating  that  peculiar  mission 
field.  The  educational  and  medical  opera- 
tions of  the  Woman's  Foreign  Missionary  So- 
ciety had  been  eminently  successful. 

The  Foochow  Mission  in  1891  reported  6 
missionaries,  6  assistants,  8  ladies  of  the 
Woman's  Society,  QQ  native  ordained  and  96 
native  unordained  preachers,  2,823  members, 
and  2,544  probationers. 

Central  Mission:  14  missionaries,  13  assist- 
ants, 7  ladies  of  the  Woman's  Society,  2  na- 
tive ordained  and  16  native  unordained 
preachers,  369  members,  and  213  on  trial. 

North  China:  15  missionaries,  13  assistants, 
8  ladies  of  the  Woman's  Society,  8  native  or- 
dained preachers,  9  native  unordained  preach- 
ers, 1,227  members,  and  795  on  trial. 

West  China:  4  missionaries,  3  assistants,  3 
native  unordained  preachers,  23  members,  and 
32  probationers. 

Total  for  China:  39  ordained  missionaries, 
35  assistants,  23  ladies  of  the  Woman's  Soci- 
ety, 76  native  ordained  preachers,  124  native 
ordained  preachers,  4,442  members,  3,584  pro- 

500      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

In  1892  the  entire  mission  reported  16  dis- 
tricts, 109  stations,  44  missionaries,  39  assist- 
ant missionaries,  71  native  ordained  preachers, 
37  native  unordained  preachers,  4,842  mem- 
bers, and  3,879  probationers.  Tliis  splendid 
record  ranks  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Mission 
among  the  most  successful  in  that  great  em- 

Scandinavian  Missions. 

As  early  as  1844  the  attention  of  earnest 
Christians  in  New  York  City  was  drawn  to 
the  importance  of  a  mission  among  the  immi- 
grants from  Denmark,  Norway,  and  Sweden 
who  were  landed  annually  at  that  port.  In 
addition  to  the  immigrants  were  the  Scandi- 
navian sailors  who  were  returning  and  leav- 
ing its  wharves  in  large  numbers  every  month. 
Among  those  concerned  for  his  fellow-coun- 
trymen was  Peter  Bergner,  a  Swedish  long- 
shoreman who  had  been  raised  from  aban- 
doned drunkenness  into  the  life  and  liberty 
of  the  gospel.  Having  been  delivered  from 
the  pit,  he  was  eager  for  the  salvation  of  those 
who  were  still  in  its  depths. 

In  the  New  York  Conference  there  was  a 
young  man,  a  native  of  Sweden,  by  the  name 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,         501 

of  Olof  Gnstaf  Hedstrom,  for  whom  God  was 
preparing  a  great  work  among  his  race.  His 
attention  had  been  called  to  the  need  of  a 
mission  among  the  Swedes,  but  he  saw  little 
hope  in  the  movement,  always  replying  when 
it  was  named:  "  It  is  as  dark  as  a  pocket."  In 
the  meantime  a  young  merchant,  Mr.  George 
T.  Cobb,  became  interested  in  the  enterprise, 
and  gave  $50  for  the  purchase  of  a  Bethel 
ship.  W.  G.  Boggs  and  others  united  and 
bought  a  ship  on  North  River,  gave  her  the 
name  of  John  Wesley,  and  had  her  fitted  up 
as  a  Bethel  ship.  The  matter  was  laid  before 
Mr.  Hedstrom  during  the  session *of  the  New 
York  Conference  which  was  held  in  that  city  in 
1845,  by  Rev.  David  Terry,  one  of  its  chief 
promoters,  and  the  faithful  Peter  Bergner. 
After  earnest  prayer  he  accepted  the  call,  and 
was  appointed  to  the  North  River  Mission. 

The  first  service  of  Pastor  Hedstrom  was 
on  the  "  John  Wesley"  Sunday,  May  25,  1845. 
About  fifty  Swedes  were  present.  Having 
become  unaccustomed  to  his  native  tongue,  he 
did  not  venture  to  preach  extemporaneously 
until  the  third  Sunday  On  the  afternoon 
and  night  of  each  Sunday  he  preached  in 
English.  A  Sunday  school  was  organized. 
Many  Germans  lived  near  the  ship,  and  service 

502      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

was   held  for  them   in   their  own  language 
every  Sabbath. 

The  ship  soon  became  an  asylum  for  des- 
titute immigrants.  It  was  a  labor  agency 
through  which  many  strangers  found  honest 
employment.  The  pastor  declined  the  fees, 
required  by  Catholic  and  Lutheran  priests,  for 
baptism,  burial,  or  other  religious  services, 
or,  when  pressed  upon  him,  they  were  ap- 
plied to  the  offerings  for  the  ship's  fund. 
The  public  charities  of  the  city  were  cordially 
accepted  by  the  pastor,  and  employed  in  the 
promotion  of  his  work  of  mercy. 

At  the  close  of  the  year  he  reported  56  mem- 
bers, and  a  Sunday  school  with  6  teachers 
and  56  scholars.  The  invitations  to  penitents 
were  constant,  and  Swedes,  Germans,  Bel- 
gians, Fins,  Norwegians,  and  English  voices 
mingled  together  at  the  altar.  Many  sailors 
were  converted,  and  carried  their  faith  and 
zeal  to  distant  ports.  At  least  three  thousand 
strangers  were  directed  to  homes  in  the  West 
in  1847.  Many  carried  memories  of  the  Beth- 
el ship  of  North  Eiver  and  prayers  and 
teachings  of  Pastor  Hedstrom  to  their  new 
homes,  and  became  the  centers  of  religious 
influence  among  the  Scandinavian  population 
of  the  Northwest. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  603 

In  1847  a  society  was  formed  in  the  bounds 
of  the  Kock  River  Conference,  and  Jonas  J. 
Hedstrom,  a  brother  of  the  "pastor,"  was 
sent  out  as  their  religious  helper  and  guide. 
In  1848  he  was  admitted  on  trial  in  the  Rock 
River  Conference,  and  appointed  to  the  Swed- 
ish Mission.  The  work  spread  so  rapidly  that 
Andrew  Erickson  was  appointed  his  assistant. 
He  soon  after  reported  6  preaching  jjlaces, 
60  members,  and  33  probationers.  Before  the 
close  of  the  year  another  mission  was  report- 
ed in  Jefferson  County,  Iowa,  just  formed  by 
the  Rock  River  missionaries. 

Rev.  C.  Willerup  had  been  received  into 
the  Genesee  Conference  and  transferred  to  the 
Wisconsin  Conference  and  appointed  mission- 
ary to  the  Norwegians  of  the  Milwaukee  Dis- 
trict. He  had  largely  lost  his  native  language; 
but  his  tongue  was  soon  unlocked,  and  he  be- 
came a  herald  of  life  among  the  twenty  thou- 
sand Norwegians  in  that  region.  Rev.  C.  P. 
Augrelius  had  come  to  the  land  as  a  Lutheran 
preacher,  but  on  this  revival  he  found  that 
though  a  priest  he  was  unconverted.  He 
sought  and  found  pardon,  was  licensed  as  a 
local  preacher,  and  became  an  efficient  helper 
of  Mr.  Willerup. 

The    statistics   of    1850    report   4    Scandi- 

504      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

navian  missions,  6  missionaries,  and  838  mem- 

In  1850  tlie  General  Committee  made  an 
appropriation  to  assist  the  growing  work  of 
Pastor  Hedstrom.  A  colporter  w^as  provided 
to  distribute  Bibles  and  tracts  among  the  im- 
migrants and  to  visit  the  hospitals  and  asy- 
lums for  immigrants  and  seamen.  The  Amer- 
ican Bible  Society,  at  the  request  of  the 
mission,  had  printed  the  Scriptures  in  Swed- 
ish. During  the  year  1850  above  12,000 
Scandinavian  seamen  had  visited  the  j)ort 
and  15,000  Bibles  and  Testaments  had  been 
distributed  from  the  ship. 

Men  were  raised  up  as  the  work  enlarged. 
Eev.  S.  B.  Neuman,  a  Swede,  of  the  Alabama 
Conference,  heard  through  Olaf  Peterson  of 
the  work  among  his  countrymen  in  New  York. 
A  correspondence  was  opened  which  led  to 
his  appointment  as  assistant  of  Mr.  Hedstrom, 
on  the  Bethel  ship.  Olof  Petersen  was  a 
Norwegian  sailor.  He  had  been  awakened  at 
some  meetings  at  Boston  in  1845.  The  next 
year  his  convictions  were  deepened  while  at- 
tending some  meetings  in  Charleston,  S.  C. 
In  February  of  the  same  year  he  attended 
services  on  the  Bethel  ship,  New  York,  and 
sailed  for  London.     On  this  voyage  he  was 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  505 

converted.  In  1847  he  became  a  member  of 
the  Bethel  ship,  and  was  employed  as  col- 
porter  in  1850. 

The  work  in  the  West  was  assuming  such 
large  proportions  that  under  the  direction  of 
Bishop  Waugh,  Peter  Hedstrom  made  a  tour 
of  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  through  Chicago 
and  the  West.  The  work,  in  consequence  of 
this  visit,  was  greatly  strengthened  and  en- 
larged. By  the  close  of  1853  the  Western 
work  had  three  centers — viz.,  Chicago,  Kock 
Island,  and  Jamestown.  Bev.  S.  B.  Neuman 
had  charge  at  Chicago,  J.  J.  Hedstrom  at 
Bock  Island,  with  four  assistants.  The  work 
in  the  Lake  Erie  region  was  served  by  O. 

At  the  close  of  1855,  the  end  of  ten  years' 
work,  the  Missionary  Society  reported  work 
in  the  New  York,  Erie,  Wisconsin,  Bock  Biver, 
and  Iowa  Conference  as  follows:  Missiona- 
ries, 21;  members,  853;  probationers,  221. 

The  old  ship  became  so  unseaworthy  that 
pumping  day  and  night  was  needed  to  keep 
her  afloat.  Another  was  purchased,  named 
"  John  Wesley,"  and  the  work,  begun  twelve 
years  before  by  Pastor  Hedstrom,  moved  on 
under  his  charge.  AVorn  out  with  labor  and 
suffering  from  ship  fever,  Pastor  Hedstrom 

506     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

was  relieved,  and  Rev.  O.  P.  Petersen  took 
his  place  for  a  time.  After  a  brief  rest  tlie 
aged  "Pastor"  returned  to  his  post,  which  he 
held  until  1875,  when  he  surrendered  the 
helm  to  D.  S.  Sorlin,  and  in  1876  Sorlin  was 
relieved  by  Petersen.  That  year  the  "  John 
Wesley  "  was  moved  to  a  pier  at  the  foot  of 
Harrison  Street,  Brooklyn,  where  the  good 
work  was  still  carried  on. 

In  1876,  "  by  order  of  the  General  Confer- 
ence," the  Minnesota  Conference  was  to  em- 
brace the  Scandinavian  work  within  its 
bounds,  with  that  in  the  West  Wisconsin, 
Upper  Iowa,  and  Northwest  Iowa  Confer- 
ences. The  Swedish  work  within  the  Iowa, 
Central  Illinois,  Pock  Piver,  and  Wisconsin 
Conferences  was  to  belong  to  the  Central  Il- 
linois Conference.  The  Norwegian  work  in 
the  Wisconsin  and  Rock  River  Conferences 
was  to  belong  to  the  Wisconsin  Conference, 
and  the  Scandinavian  work  in  the  cities  of 
New  York  and  Brooklyn  and  their  vicinity 
was  to  belong  to  the  New  York  East  Confer- 
ence. It  was  also  provided  that  when  two- 
thirds  of  the  Swedish  members  of  the  Central 
Illinois  and  Minnesota  Conferences  should 
ask  to  be  organized  into  a  separate  Confer- 
ence the  request  should  be  granted.     In  1876 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        507 

request  was  made  and  the  Northwest  Swed- 
ish Conference  was  organized.  In  1876  the 
Scandinavian  work  reported  48  preachers, 
4,939  members,  and  711  probationers. 

In  1885  it  was  estimated  that  the  members 
and  probationers  in  the  Norwegian,  Swedish, 
and  Danish  congregations  numbered  11,819. 
They  were  liberal  in  the  support  of  their 
preachers,  and  contributed  to  the  missionary 
cause  $7,075.  The  members  were  noted  for 
their  depth  of  piety  and  steady  zeal  for 


In  1849  O.  P.  Petersen,  who  had  been  en- 
gaged in  the  Scandinavian  Mission  in  the 
United  States,  left  New  York,  intending  to 
stay  a  month  in  Norway,  telling  his  people 
the  power  of  redeeming  grace.  His  stay  was 
continued  nearly  a  year,  and  many  were  awak- 
ened under  his  message.  The  results  of  his 
visit  were  brought  before  the  Mission  Board, 
and  it  was  decided  to  send  him  to  Norway. 
Bishop  Waugh  wrote  him  that  his  mission 
was  *'to  raise  up  a  people  for  God." 

He  reached  Frederickstadt  in  December, 
1853,  and  began  his  work  with  power  and  sue- 

508     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

cess.  There  was  also  persecution.  At  his 
request  Rev.  C.  Willerup  was  sent  to  his  aid 
in  1856,  and  by  the  end  of  the  year  there  were 
119  members  at  Sarpsborg  and  70  at  Fred- 
erickstadt.  In  1857  a  good  church  building 
was  erected  in  Sarpsborg,  without  help  from 
the  home  treasury,  and  the  same  year  an- 
other, not  so  large,  was  built  at  Frederick- 

In  1857  Mr.  Willerup  was  relieved  by 
Bishop  Simpson  of  his  pastoral  charge/  that 
he  might  extend  his  evangelistic  labors  and 
open  work  in  Copenhagen,  the  capital  of  his 
native  land.  Rev.  S.  A.  Steensen  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  mission  and  Mr.  Peterson  re- 
turned to  the  United  States.  Rev.  A.  Ceder- 
holm  and  E.  Arvesen  were  added  to  the  mis- 
sion. In  1859  it  reported  441  members.  Be- 
fore long  the  names  of  P.  Olsen  and  M. 
Hansen,  an  exhorter,  appeared  among  the 
workers.     This  was  a  healthy  indication. 

In  1868  Bishop  Kingsley  divided  the  mis- 
sion and  recalled  O.  P.  Petersen  to  the  super- 
intendency  of  the  Norway  Mission.  His  work 
was  full  of  difficulties;  but  the  prospects 
brightened,  the  churches  and  meeting  places 
were  crowded,  and  revivals  were  frequent  and 
powerful.     Leaving  things  in  this  prosperous 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        509 

state,  Mr.  Petersen  returned  to  the  United 
States  in  1870,  and  Mr.  Hansen  met  the  du- 
ties of  Superintendent.  Under  his  wise  and 
pious  administration  the  mission  began  to  see 
brighter  days. 

In  1876,  under  authority  from  the  General 
Conference,  Bishop  Andrews  organized  the 
mission  into  an  Annual  Conference.  It  had 
six  elders,  one  deacon,  and  eight  probationers, 
three  of  whom  were  received  into  full  connec- 
tion. C.  Willerup,  of  Denmark,  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  Conference,  and  five  were  admit- 
ted on  trial. 

Bishop  Merrill  presided  at  the  Noi;way  Con- 
ference in  1880,  He  was  impressed  with  the 
zeal  of  the  preachers  and  the  poverty  and  de- 
votion of  the  members=  Calls  were  urgent 
for  the  gospel,  but  men  and  means  were  want- 
ing. The  following  year  Bishop  Peck  pre- 
sided. He  reported  twenty-five  hard-working 
Methodist  preachers.  Their  membership  was 
constantly  drained  by  emigration,  but  they 
carried  the  good  seed  with  them.  They  were 
oppressed  by  the  State  Church,  but  had  the 
sympathy  of  many  of  the  people.  In  1882  the 
work  in  Norway  and  Sweden  was  formed  into 
an  Annual  Conference. 

Bishop  Hurst,  who  presided  at  the  Confev- 

510     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ence  held  at  Bergen  in  1884,  was  deeply  im- 
pressed with  the  spirituality  of  the  brethren. 
Protracted  meetings  and  revivals  had  marked 
the  operations  of  the  year.  The  Sunday 
schools  were  in  prosperous  condition.  The 
people  had  been  liberal  in  church  building 
and  the  support  of  the  gospel.  Publishing  in- 
terests had  become  a  power.  The  chief  need 
of  the  mission  was  a  theological  school.  In 
1885  an  increase  of  202  members  was  reported. 
In  1886  3,737  members  and  4,099  Sunday 
school  scholars,  and  $3,666  for  Missions  in 
the  report  indicate  steady  growth.  In  1891 
there  were  in  the  field  37  ordained  ministers, 
61  unordained  ministers,  and  4,518  members. 

In  1857  Mr.  Willerup  entered  on  his  work 
in  Copenhagen.  He  was  aided  by  Boie  Smith 
as  colporteur.  Preaching  was  heard  with 
great  attention,  and  several  souls  were  con- 
verted. In  1861  the  General  Committee  ap- 
propriated S5,000  toward  building  a  church. 
It  was  dedicated  in  1866.  During  this  time 
there  were  appointments  at  Copenhagen,  Veile 
Svendborg,  and  Fraborg.  In  1877  it  reported 
608  members  and  159  probationers. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        511 

In  1880  the  mission  welcomed  Eev.  Mr. 
Thomson  from  America  to  its  number.  The 
dedication  of  a  new  church  in  Svendborg  in 
1882  greatly  encouraged  the  mission.  There 
was  a  net  increase  of  73  members.  New  open- 
ings for  work  were  numerous.  In  1883  a 
gracious  revival  spirit  rested  on  the  Churches 
in  Copenhagen,  Svendborg,  Odense,  Aalborg, 
and  Frederikshavn.  The  conversions  through- 
out the  mission  were  estimated  at  347. 

In  1884  there  were  in  the  mission  3  native 
ordained  ministers,  4  unordained  ministers, 
and  810  members.  Their  offering  in  1890  for 
the  support  of  the  gospel  was  over  eight  dol- 
lars per  member,  and  for  missions  about  one 
dollar  and  eighty  cents.  In  1891  the  mission 
had  10  ordained  preachers,  7  unordained 
preachers,  2,042  members,  and  457  on  trial. 

Among  the  converts  at  the  Methodist  Bethel 
ship  in  New  York  was  a  Swedish  sailor  named 
John  P.  Larsson.  He  returned  to  his  native 
land  to  tell  his  kindred  of  the  grace  he  had 
found  in  America.  He  was  shipwrecked,  but 
another  vessel  picked  him  up,  and  he  was  car- 
ried to  Sweden.     He  began  to  tell  the  people 

512      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

of  his  conversion.  He  was  neither  preacher 
nor  exhorter;  but  the  power  of  the  Holy  Spirit 
was  with  him,  and  a  revival  resulted  that  de- 
tained him  eighteen  months,  during  which 
time  he  labored  industriously  for  his  own  sup- 
port. He  sought  advice  of  Pastor  Hedstrom, 
of  the  New  York  Swedish  Mission.  The  pas- 
tor laid  the  case  before  the  Mission  Board. 
It  appropriated  $200  for  Larsson's  support; 
and  thus  the  young  convert  of  the  Bethel  ship 
became  the  first  Methodist  missionary  to  his 
native  land.  He  now  devoted  his  entire  time 
to  the  work,  distributing  Bibles,  visiting  the 
people,  and  holding  meetings.  In  1855  S.  M. 
Swenson,  one  of  the  Bethel  class  leaders,  went 
to  Sweden  on  business,  and  visited  Calmar, 
the  center  of  Larsson's  work,  and  at  once 
joined  his  evangelical  labors.  They  spent  the 
days,  from  morning  till  night,  praying  and 
speaking  to  large  multitudes  that  filled  sa- 
loons and  halls,  and  visiting  from  house  to 
house.  Clergymen,  teachers,  magistrates,  and 
men  of  learning  were  in  these  meetings,  be- 
fore whom  Larsson  and  Swenson  declared  the 
word  of  God.  This  work  had  to  be  done  by 
them  as  laymen,  for  there  was  at  that  time  no 
religious  freedom  in  Sweden.  In  1857  the 
liing  sought  to  obtain  more  liberal  laws  on  the 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        513 

subject  of  religion;  but  the  State  Church  of- 
ficials resisted,  and  the  movement  failed.  In 
1865  Dr.  Durbin  visited  the  mission.  The 
congregations  up  to  this  time  had  abstained 
from  meeting  during  the  hours  of  service  of 
the  Established  Church,  and  from  administer- 
ing the  sacrament.  Dr.  Durbin  advised  the 
formation  of  classes,  and  an  application  on 
the  part  of  the  people  who  wished  the  pas- 
toral care  of  Methodist  preachers  to  be  set 
off  from  the  State  Church. 

The  same  year  Mr.  Larsson  was  directed  to 
open  a  mission  in  Gottenburg.  He  was  aided 
by  August  Olsen,  a  local  preacher.  In  1866 
Kev.  y.  Witting  was  sent  to  Sweden,  and  took 
work  at  Gottenburg  and  Stockholm.  A  pow- 
erful revival  visited  the  former  places  in  1867. 
There  were  also  revivals  in  Calmar,  Carlskro- 
na,  Monsteras,  and  other  places.  In  1868 
Bishop  Kingsley  visited  the  field  and  set  it 
off  as  a  separate  mission,  under  the  superin- 
tendency  of  Kev.  V.  Witting.  The  year  was 
one  of  general  revival.  Such  prosperity 
awakened  opposition,  but  the  work  prospered. 
In  1872  Bishop  Foster  visited  the  mission  and 
confirmed  the  report  of  its  remarkable  growth. 
He  found  fifty  preachers  at  work  and  every 
department  prospering.  In  1874  Bishop  Har- 

514     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ris  presided,  and  it  was  resolved  to  withdraw 
from  the  State  Church  under  the  new  law  for 
dissenters.  The  movement  was  general  and 
met  with  manifest  public  favor.  The  work 
was  so  enlarged  that  the  bishop  divided  it 
into  three  districts.  Under  authority  from  the 
General  Conference,  Bishop  Andrews  in  1876 
organized  the  Sweden  Conference. 

Bishop  Merrill,  who  presided  at  the  Confer- 
ence in  1880,  reported  the  irregularities  of 
some  trusted  ministers  as  passing  away  under 
wise  administration.  The  people  seemed 
hungry  for  the  bread  of  life,  and  the  attend- 
ance on  the  ministry  was  wonderful.  In  1881 
there  was  an  increase  of  8  preachers  and 
281  members  and  probationers.  Six  im- 
portant places  asked  for  preachers,  but  for 
lack  of  means  the  want  could  not  be  supplied. 
In  1883  there  was  a  net  increase  of  648  mem- 
bers, and  800  on  trial. 

When  Bishop  Andrews  returned  to  the 
Sweden  Conference  in  1884  he  had  occasion  to 
rejoice  over  its  great  prosperity.  The  in- 
crease in  members  that  year  in  one  district 
was  589,  and  in  the  whole  Conference  1292. 
The  Conference  was  now  divided  into  three 
districts,  and  had  in  its  missionary  force  50 
ordained  and  22  unordained  ministers,  and  a 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        515 

membership  of  8,814.  Bishop  Hurst  presided 
at  the  Conference  of  1885.  Dr.  J.  M.  Buck- 
ley, editor  of  the  New  York  Christian  Advo- 
cate, was  present,  and  his  letters  respecting 
the  work  in  the  Sweden,  Norway,  and  Den- 
mark Conferences  gladdened  the  Church  at 
home,  and  deepened  its  interest  in  the  Scandi- 
navian missions.  The  remarkable  advance  of 
Methodism  in  Sweden  was  indicated  by  the 
election  of  J.  M.  Erikson,  the  book  agent  of 
the  mission  and  editor  of  the  Svmeka  Sande- 
biidst,  as  one  of  the  ministers  from  Stock- 
holm of  tJie  Swedish  Diet. 

In  1887  the  work  had  stretched  out  into  Fin- 
land, with  two  ordained  missionaries  and  six 
local  preachers  in  charge  of  converts.  It  was 
reaching  out  into  certain  points  in  Kussia, 
and  the  hope  was  expressed  that  the  time  was 
not  distant  when  the  missionaries  from  Swe- 
den and  the  missionaries  from  Bulgaria  would 
meet  in  the  heart  of  the  Eussian  Empire.  In 
1888  the  mission  in  Finland  reported  279 
members  and  175  on  trial.  In  1891  the  Swe- 
dish mission  had  in  its  service  84  ordained 
and  155  unordained  preachers,  13,689  mem- 
bers, and  2,703  probationers.  Thus  has  Meth- 
odism by  the  remarkable  extension  of  her  bor- 
ders given  proof  of  her  providential  origin. 

516     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

German  Missions. 

William  Nast,  a  young  German  of  twenty- 
one  years  of  age,  reached  America  in  1828. 
His  parents  were  pious  members  of  the 
Lutheran  Church.  He  had  been  educated  for 
the  ministry,  but  during  his  college  life  he 
had  fallen  under  rationalistic  teaching,  and 
when  he  had  finished  his  course  his  faith  was 
shipwrecked,  and  he  found  himself  in  the 
sea  of  life  with  no  polar  star  to  guide  him 
over  its  depths.  In  the  United  States  he 
came  in  contact  with  Methodism,  and  its  evan- 
gelical spirit,  as  well  as  the  joy  it  brought  to 
its  converts,  awakened  and  deepened  the  im- 
pressions of  his  early  life.  His  conviction 
of  sin  was  profound, .  but  it  was  not  until 
1835,  at  a  Methodist  revival  in  Danville, 
Ohio,  that  he  realized  a  joy  unutterable  and 
full  of  glory. 

The  attention  of  thoughtful  Christians  had 
been  drawn  to  the  tide  of  Eomanism  and  infi- 
delity that  was  pouring  into  the  United  States 
with  the  annual  immigration  from  Germany. 
The  importance  of  evangelical  agencies  that 
would  arrest  these  influences  that  threatened 
both  the  religious  and  moral  life  of  the  nation 
was  manifest.  In  the  conversion  of  William 
Nast  a  man  was  prepared  for  this  mission. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        517 

He  was  received  into  the  Ohio  Conference  in 
the  fall  of  1835,  and  appointed  German  Mis- 
sionary in  the  city  of  Cincinnati.  He  entered 
with  great  zeal  on  his  mission,  preaching  in 
the  churches  of  English-speaking  Christians 
when  there  was  no  regular  service,  and  hold- 
ing meetings  in  rented  halls  or  private  houses. 
He  soon  aroused  the  attention  of  his  country- 
men and  encountered  their  bitter  opposition. 
The  first  year  he  reported  three  conversions, 
one  of  whom,  John  Swahlen,  became  a  faith- 
ful and  successful  preacher.  At  the  close  of 
his  first  year  the  German  Methodist  Society 
reported  twenty-six  members. 

In  1838  Eev.  Adam  Miller,  who  had  been 
preaching  several  years  in  English,  was  as- 
signed to  the  German  Mission.  John  Swah- 
len proved  a  valuable  assistant.  He  visited 
Wheeling,  and  in  two  weeks  formed  a  class  of 
twenty-four.  He  was  licensed  to  preach,  and 
appointed  to  Wheeling,  where  his  labors  were 
very  successful.  As  early  as  1836  Mr.  Nast 
urged  the  importance  of  a  religious  literature 
for  the  Germans.  His  appeals  met  responses 
from  different  parts  of  the  Church,  and  in 
1839  the  Book  Agents  at  Cincinnati  began  the 
publication  of  the  Christian  Apologist,  with 
William  Nast   as  editor.     He  was  admirably 

518     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

fitted  by  natural  gifts,  superior  scholarship, 
and  a  high  order  of  grace  for  this  department 
of  Christian  effort.  Though  relieved  of  pas- 
toral care,  Mr.  Nast  continued  his  evangelical 
labors  in  Cincinnati  and  other  cities  and  towns 
into  which  the  German  population  was  gath- 

The  vitality  of  the  mission  was  manifest  in 
the  number  and  character  of  the  preachers  who 
answered  its  calls.  C.  H.  Doering,  a  young 
German,  reached  Baltimore  in  1830.  He  was 
employed  by  a  pious  Methodist,  and  under 
the  preaching  of  Eev.  Wesley  Browning  was 
thoroughly  converted,  licensed  to  preach,  and 
assigned  to  the  work  in  Pittsburg.  Rev. 
Peter  Schmucker,  a  Lutheran  preacher  whose 
faithfulness  had  aroused  the  opposition  of  his 
own  people,  heard  the  call  of  Mr.  Nast  for 
help  at  a  camp  meeting.  His  labors  in  the 
meeting  resulted  in  his  becoming  a  devout 
and  successful  pioneer  of  German  Methodism. 
He  was  appointed  to  Cincinnati  when  Mr. 
Nast  was  assigned  to  the  Apologist.  Mr. 
Swahlen,  at  Wheeling,  found  a  helper  in  Mr. 
Riemenschneider.  He  was  in  due  time  li- 
censed to  preach,  sent  to  Allen  Mission,  Ohio, 
and  afterward  became  a  missionary  to  the 
fatherland.     The  work  extended  from  Wheel- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        519 

ing  to  Marietta,  where  an  appointment  was 
organized  under  the  charge  of  Mr.  Koeneke. 
The  most  noted  conversion  in  1839  was 
that  of  Ludwig  S.  Jacoby.  He  was  a  young 
German  physician  of  Cincinnati,  of  noble  in- 
tellect and  superior  attainments.  He  went  to 
hear  Mr.  Breunig,  a  local  preacher,  out  of 
curiosity,  but  his  heart  was  touched,  and  after 
earnest  search  he  found  the  pearl  of  great 
price.  He  soon  began  to  preach  to  others  the 
gospel  he  had  once  despised.  A  call  for  a 
German  missionary  came  from  St.  Louis,  and 
Mr.  Jacoby  was  sent  to  that  large  but  difficult 
field.  His  congregations  were  large,  but  the 
opposition  violent.  He  was  mobbed  while 
preaching  in  the  market  place,  and  slander- 
ously assailed  in  the  German  papers;  but  the 
work  prospered,  and  when  he  opened  the 
doors  of  the  Church  twenty-two  responded. 
Swahlen,  from  Wheeling,  was  sent  to  Pinck- 
ney  Mission,  Missouri,  and  J.  M.  Hartman  to 
Bellville,  Illinois,  and  from  these  points  the 
German  Mission  extended  thoughout  that 
western  land.  In  1841  C.  H.  Doering  was 
sent  to  New  York.  Rev.  Biemenschneider,  the 
same  year,  was  sent  to  open  a  mission  in 
North  Ohio.  By  May  the  next  year  he  re- 
ported 12  appointments  and  38  members. 

520     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Work  was  opened  in  Louisville,  Ky.,  by 
Mr.  Schmucker.  He  was  succeeded  by  Mr. 
Alirens,  and  Schmucker  opened  work  in  1842 
in  Evansville.  In  a  few  months  he  had  sev- 
enteen members.  About  the  same  time  Mr. 
Barth  preached  his  first  sermon  in  Columbus, 
O.  He  had  six  hearers,  a  shower  of  tears, 
and  a  powerful  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit. 
The  work  extended  to  Madison,  Chillicothe, 
Dayton,  and  other  points.  In  1843  Adam 
Miller  opened  work  in  Baltimore.  John  Sau- 
ter  began  work  in  Newark,  New  Jersey,  in 
1844.  He  was  then  a  local  preacher,  but  be- 
came one  of  the  leaders  in  founding  the  East- 
ern work.  The  same  year  another  mission 
was  begun  in  Bloomingdale,  New  York  City, 
which  in  six  months  received  sixty  members. 

The  General  Conference  of  1844  made  pro- 
vision for  the  formation  of  the  German  mis- 
sions into  presiding  elders'  districts  within 
the  Conference,  and  where  they  were  the  most 
numerous.  Two  districts  were  formed  in  the 
Ohio  Conference,  of  which  C.  H.  Doering  and 
Peter  Schmucker  were  presiding  elders.  The 
work  in  Illinois  was  also  formed  into  two  dis- 
tricts, in  charge  of  Mr.  Nast  and  Mr.  Jacoby. 
In  1847,  ten  years  from  the  beginning  of  the 
work,  there  were  6  districts,  62  missions,  75 

Misdons  of  the  31.  E  Church.         521 

missionaries,  and  4,385  members.  In  1848 
Drs.  Nast  and  Jaco-by  were  delegates  to  the 
General  Conference.  In  1864  the  Germans 
were  a  unit  in  favor  of  German  Annual  Con- 
ferences. The  General  Conference  granted 
their  request.  Three  Conferences  were  or- 
dered—viz., the  Central,  the  Northwest,  and 
Southwest.  The  bishops  were  also  authorized 
to  organize  an  Eastern  Conference  if  its  in- 
crease should  justify  the  measure. 

The  Central  Conference  was  organized  by 
Bishop  Morris  August  24,  1864,  with  76 
preachers  and  8,015  members.  The  North- 
west Conference  was  organized  September  7, 
1864,  by  Bishop  Scott,  with  64  preachers  and 
4,474  members.  The  Southwest  Conference 
was  organized  by  Bishop  Janes,  September  29, 
1864,  with  70  preachers  and  5,376  members; 
making  a  total  at  that  date  of  210  preachers 
and  17,865  members.  In  1866  the  East  Ger- 
man Conference  was  organized  by  Bishop 
Janes,  with  28  preachers  and  2,428  members. 
In  1878  the  entire  German  work  reported  409 
stationed  preachers,  44,664  members,  734  Sun- 
day schools,  and  38,018  scholars. 

522     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Germany  and  Switzerland. 

Early  in  this  century  a  young  German 
named  Christopher  G.  Mtiller  fled  from  Ger- 
many to  England  to  escape  military  duty 
under  the  first  Napoleon.  He  was  converted 
under  the  preaching  of  the  Wesleyans,  and  be- 
came a  local  preacher.  In  1830  he  returned 
to  Wlirtemberg,  and  at  Winnenden  began  to 
tell  of  the  saving  grace  he  had  found,  and  to 
preach  the  necessity  of  conversion.  Many 
were  awakened  and  converted  and  organized 
into  classes.  When  he  returned  to  England 
his  little  flock  petitioned  the  Wesley  an  mis- 
sionary authorities  to  return  Mr.  Mtiller  to 
them  as  a  missionary.  The  request  was 
granted,  and  in  1831  he  renewed  his  work  in 
his  fatherland.  In  1835  he  reported  23  ex- 
horters  and  326  members.  In  1839  he  had  60 
assistants  and  upwards  of  600  members.  He 
was  permitted  to  labor  only  where  and  when 
the  State  clergy  allowed,  and  was  often  perse- 
cuted and  threatened  with  imprisonment- 

The  hearts  of  many  German  Methodists  in 
the  United  States  very  naturally  turned  to 
their  native  land,  and  the  desire  grew  strong 
that  their  kindred  after  the  flesh  should  share 
the  blessings  tiiey  had  found  in  their  West- 
ern home.     In  1844  Rev.  William  Nast  was 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        523 

authorized  to  visit  Germany  and  report  as  to 
the  wisdom  of  undertaking  a  mission  to  re- 
vive scriptural  holiness  amid  the  dead  for- 
malities of  the  national  Church.  He  found 
the  people  eager  to  listen  to  an  evangelical 
ministry,  but  the  Established  Church  deter- 
mined in  asserting  its  exclusive  claims.  He 
had  a  free  and  fraternal  conference  with  Mtil- 
ler,  and  was  led  to  believe  that  this  faithful 
man  of  God  was  occupying  all  the  ground 
then  open  for  evangelical  work  in  Germany. 

A  few  years,  however,  wrought  a  mighty 
change  in  Europe,  in  which  Germany  largely 
shared.  There  was  a  large  advance  in  civil 
and  religious  freedom.  In  Germany  religious 
liberty  was  proclaimed.  Though  this  free- 
dom was  afterward  restrained  by  the  policy 
of  the  crown,  a  large  advance  had  been 
gained  on  the  line  of  religious  toleration, 
which  neither  the  State  nor  Church  could  ar- 

Nast  and  Jacoby,  at  the  General  Confer- 
ence of  1848,  called  the  attention  of  the 
bishops  and  missionary  authorities  to  the  fact 
that  in  Germany  the  barriers  to  mission  work 
were  breaking  down.  At  the  annual  meeting 
in  May  the  Board  arranged  for  a  mission  and 
requested  the  bishops  to  appoint  two  mission- 

524    Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

aries  to  Germany.  Bishop  Morris  appointed 
Ludwig  S.  Jacoby.  Owing  to  failing  health, 
Mr.  Jacoby  had  been  planning  to  locate  for  a 
time,  but  he  rallied  to  answer  this  call  to  his 
native  land.  He  reached  Bremen  November 
7,  1849.  After  some  delay  and  much  opposi- 
tion he  secured  the  Krameramthaus— a  hall 
that  would  seat  four  hundred— and  on  Sabbath 
December  23,  it  was  so  crowded  that  the 
preacher  had  difficulty  in  reaching  the  stand. 
The  congregations  increased  until  another 
hall  in  the  same  building  was  secured,  which 
held  eight  hundred  persons.  On  Easter  Sun- 
day, 1850,  a  class  of  twenty-one  converted 
souls  was  formed.  May  21,  1850,  the  first 
Quarterly  Conference  was  held.  The  same 
date  the  first  number  of  Der  Evangelist,  a 
Methodist  religious  journal,  was  printed. 
The  means  for  its  support  the  first  year  were 
furnished  by  two  brothers,  Charles  and  Henry 
Baker.  It  has  done  noble  service  in  Germany 
for  evangelical  Christianity. 

The  work  enlarged  and  in  answer  to  Mr. 
Jacoby's  call  Kev.  C.  H.  Doering  and  Kev. 
Louis  Nippert  were  sent  to  his  aid.  They 
reached  Germany  June  7,  1850.  A  circuit  of 
fifteen  appointments  was  formed  in  and 
around  Bremen,  to  which  the  new  mission- 

Missions  of  the  M-  E.  Church.        525 

aries  were  assigned,  Mr.  Jacoby  remaining  in 
charge  in  Bremen.  The  peculiarities  of 
Methodism  were  faithfully  observed.  The 
converts  were  active,  some  acting  as  colpor- 
ters,  and  in  August,  1850,  Wessel  Fiege  was 
licensed  as  exhorter.  He  was  the  forerunner 
of  an  army  of  native  preachers.  Mr.  Jacoby 
attended  the  Peace  Congress  in  Frankfort,  and 
also  visited  Muller.  They  rejoiced  together 
over  the  prosperity  of  evangelical  religion  in 
Germany.  Muller  adopted  the  hymn  book 
of  the  M.  E.  Church,  and  they  agreed  to  re- 
new these  fraternal  conferences.  Jacoby 
preached  to  a  congregation  so  large  that  the 
burgomaster  was  induced  to  place  the  church 
at  his  service. 

The  success  of  the  mission  awakened  oppo- 
sition. Camp  and  class  meetings  were  often 
disturbed  by  mobs.  Strong  persecutions  met 
them  in  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Saxe- Weimar, 
the  Kingdom  of  Hanover,  and  the  Duchy  of 
Brunswick.  Though  the  Parliament  had  or- 
dained religious  liberty,  the  missionaries  had 
liberty  to  preach  and  form  congregations 
only  in  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Oldenburg  and 
the  free  cities  of  Germany.  Notwithstanding 
the  persecution,  the  work  prospered,  and  in 
1851  Rev.  E.  Eiemenschneider  and  Rev.  H. 

526     Hand  Book  of  Jjlethodist  Missions. 

Nuelsen  were  sent  to  reenforce  the  mission. 
The  first  annual  meeting  was  held  in  Bremen 
March  11,  1852.  The  five  missionaries  re- 
ported 232  members  and  582  Sunday  school 
scholars.  In  view  of  the  number  of  native 
helpers  coming  to  their  aid,  the  missionaries 
did  not  press  the  call  for  more  men  from  the 
United  States.  In  1856  there  were  10  mis- 
sionaries and  10  native  helpers  in  the  field, 
with  537  members. 

Mr.  Jacoby,  by  request  of  the  Board,  at- 
tended the  General  Conference  of  1856,  and 
by  his  account  of  the  work  added  largely  to 
the  interest  felt  in  the  mission  in  Germany. 
The  Conference  advised  the  Board  to  appro- 
priate $1,000  per  annum  for  four  years  for  the 
publication  of  books  and  papers  in  Germany, 
and  also  authorized  the  formation  of  the 
mission  into  an  Annual  Conference.  The 
Conference  was  organized  in  Bremen,  Sep- 
tember 10, 1856,  L.  S.  Jacoby  presiding.  One 
missionary  was  added  to  the  force  and  two 
native  preachers  were  received  on  trial.  Calls 
for  preachers  came  from  Switzerland,  only  a 
part  of  which  could  be  answered. 

Bishop  Simpson  presided  in  1857.  Dr. 
McClintock  and  Mr.  Nast,  who  were  attending 
the  Evangelical  Alliance,  were  present.     Their 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        527 

presence  and  the  address  of  Mr.  Nast  on 
Methodism  before  the  Evangelical  Alliance 
removed  many  prejudices  against  the  mission. 
The  reports  of  the  Conference  showed  a  net 
gain  of  237  members.  In  1858  the  mission 
was  divided  into  four  districts — viz.,  Bremen, 
Oldenburg,  South  German,  and  Switzerland. 
In  1860  the  Conference  was  held  in  Zurich. 
The  Evangelist  and  Kinderfreund,  published  by 
the  mission,  had  become  self-supporting.  In 
every  department  advance  was  reported.  In 
1861  Kev.  W.  F.  Warren  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor of  the  Mission  Institute.  Five  young 
men  who  had  received  training  in  the  Insti- 
tute were  received  on  trial  in  the  Conference. 
In  1866  Mr.  Warren  returned  home,  and  Dr. 
John  F.  Hurst,  of  the  Newark  Conference, 
became  his  successor.  In  1871  Dr.  Jacoby 
presided.  He  had  opened  the  mission,  had 
shared  its  labors  for  nineteen  years,  and  now 
bade  farewell,  with  loving  words,  to  his  breth- 
ren. He  closed  his  life  and  labors  in  St. 
Louis,  The  Conference  also  lost  Dr.  Hurst, 
who  had  accepted  a  professorship  in  the  Drew 
Theological  University.  In  1878  there  were 
eighty  men  stationed  in  the  Conference,  with- 
out counting  the  supplies,  while  the  member- 
ship had  risen  to  11,525. 

528     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

For  several  years  the  Churches  in  Germany 
had  been  seriously  embarrassed  with  debt. 
In  1880  there  were  in  the  Conference  eighty- 
three  chapels  with  a  total  valuation  of  $452,- 
157,  which  were  mortgaged  to  the  amount  of 
$235,179.  After  deducting  rent,  the  annual 
interest  was  a  drain  on  the  Church  of  $6,008. 
While  this  was  a  heavy  tax,  had  not  the  debt 
been  incurred,  the  annual  rent  for  chapels 
would  have  cost  at  least  $22,000.  The  Socie- 
ty at  home  appropriated  in  1880  $4,800  for 
the  principal  of  the  chapel  debt,  the  congre- 
gations in  the  field  making  like  contribution. 
As  means  were  obtained,  this  chief  burden 
would  be  removed  from  the  vigorous  mission. 

In  1884  Bishop  Hurst,  who  presided  at  the 
Conference,  noted  its  advance  in  all  depart- 
ments, and  particularly  the  number  of  genu- 
ine revivals  in  many  charges.  The  member- 
ship was  reported  at  10,372,  and  probationers 
at  2,492. 

In  1886  the  Conference  was  divided  and 
the  Switzerland  Conference  organized.  The 
division  left  in  the  German  Conference  the 
Bremen,  the  Berlin,  the  Frankfort  am  Main, 
and  Wtirtemberg  Districts,  with  66  appoint- 
ments, 6,697  members,  and  2,134  on  trial. 
The  Switzerland  Conference  was  divided  into 

Missio7is  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        529 

the  Zurich  and  Bice  Districts,  with  24  circuits, 
4,396  members,  and  900  probationers.  In 
1891  it  reported  30  ordained  preachers  and  14 
unordained  preachers,  5,507  members,  and 
1,035  probationers.  The  reports  revealed 
great  vitality  in  both  Annual  Conferences,  and 
demonstrate  the  fact  that  Methodism  is  prov- 
ing a  potent  agency  in  quickening  the  spirit- 
ual life  of  the  German  race.  The  German 
Institute  had  become  an  important  factor  in 
accomplishing  these  results.  It  had  sent  out 
150  graduates  into  the  mission  field  at  home 
and  abroad. 


In  1852  the  General  Committee  made  pro- 
vision for  the  commencement  of  a  mission  in 
Bulgaria,  a  province  in  European  Turkey  bor- 
dering on  the  Black  Sea  and  extending  from 
the  Danube  to  the  Balkan  Mountains.  Though 
the  people  had  been  in  the  Greek  Church 
since  the  ninth  century,  they  were  dissatisfied 
with  its  priesthood,  which  had  sought  to  ban- 
ish the  Bulgarian  tongue,  the  Church,  and 
school.  They  had  heard  of  the  good  work 
done  by  the  missionaries  of  the  American 
Board  in  Roumania,  across  the  Balkans,  and 

530     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

had  invited  its  missionaries  to  come  over  and 
help  them.  Unable  to  occupy  the  field,  the 
American  Board  had  earnestly  advised  the 
Missionary  Board  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  to  plant  a  mission  in  Bulgaria. 

In  1857  Eev.  W.  Prettyman  and  Eev.  A.  L. 
Long  were  sent  out  to  commence  the  work. 
They  reached  Constantinople,  and  after  coun- 
seling with  the  brethren  of  the  American 
Board,  they  took  steamer  to  Varna,  on  the  Eed 
Sea.  From  thence  they  visited  Shumla  and 
Rustchuk,  and  decided  to  occupy  the  former 
city.  They  were  soon  settled  in  their  home 
and  engaged  in  the  study  of  the  language. 
Encouraged  by  their  report,  Eev.  F.  W. 
Flocken  was  added  to  the  mission.  Letters 
from  prominent  Bulgarians  in  Tirnova  decid- 
ed them  to  occupy  that  point,  and  Mr.  Long 
and  his  family  reached  there  December  24, 
and  opened  work  in  the  Bulgarian  language. 
The  work  was  scarcely  open  when  the  mission 
was  denounced  from  the  pulpit,  but  the  con- 
gregation increased  until  a  larger  house  was 
needed.  Two  Bulgarian  priests  called  on  Mr. 
Long  and  deplored  the  sad  degeneracy  of  the 
Church.  One  begged  him  for  a  Bible.  He 
was  joined  by  Gabriel  Elieff,  the  first  Bulga- 
rian Protestant  convert,  as  colporter  and  as- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E,  Church.        531 

sistant.  He  had  been  in  the  employ  of  the 
British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society.  He  be- 
came one  of  the  chief  supports  of  the  mis- 

At  Shumla  Messrs.  Prettyman  and  Flocken 
continued  their  studies,  the  latter  preaching  in 
German  and  the  former  in  English.  As  Mr, 
Prettyman  had  the  work  well  in  hand,  it  was 
decided  that  Mr.  Flocken  should  visit  Tultcha. 
a  city  south  of  the  Danube  and  near  the 
Black  Sea.  It  has  a  population  of  about  28,- 
000,  of  whom  10,000  are  Bulgarians,  7,500 
Russians,  and  several  hundred  Germans.  As 
Mr.  Flocken  spoke  both  Russian  and  German, 
he  found  here  an  open  field,  while  studying 
the  Bulgarian.  He  became  deeply  interested 
in  a  Russian  sect  called  Molokans.  In  Russia 
they  are  afraid  to  speak  of  their  belief,  and 
but  little  is  known  of  their  usages  and  faith, 
Mr.  Flocken  gained  their  confidence  and 
learned  something  of  their  history.  Late  in 
the  last  century  a  young  Russian  nanded  Sim- 
eon Matfeowitch  and  a  young  woman  named 
Arina  Timofeowna  were  in  the  service  of  the 
Russian  Embassador  to  England.  During 
their  stay  they  met  a  people  whose  worship 
was  different  from  that  of  their  native  land. 
They  had  no  temples,  but  met  for  worship  in 

532     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

dwelling  houses.  They  had  no  images,  no 
cross  nor  candle,  yet  were  a  very  pious  and 
earnest  people.  On  returning  to  Eussia  they 
told  their  relations  and  friends  of  these  peo- 
ple, and  many  of  them  concluded  to  adopt 
these  modes  of  worship  but  to  retain  their 
relations  to  the  Eusso-Greek  Church.  They 
had  banished  from  their  houses  all  images 
and  crosses  and  fasted  on  Wednesdays  and 
Fridays,  on  which  days  they  lived  principally 
on  milk.  The  use  of  milk  (which  in  Eussian 
is  moloko)  on  Eussian  fast  days  has  led  their 
enemies  to  call  them  Molokans.  They  in- 
creased considerably  in  numbers  until  perse- 
cution under  Alexander  I.  broke  out  against 
them.  They  sent  their  men  to  the  emperor, 
and  asked  him  to  allow  them  to  worship  in 
his  presence,  that  he  might  judge  for  himself. 
After  witnessing  their  w^orship  he  permitted 
them  to  return  home,  and  they  had  peace  un- 
til the  days  of  Emperor  Nicholas.  Notwith- 
standing their  persecution,  they  have  greatly 
increased.  To  escape  the  intolerance  of  the 
Eussians  they  had  sought  refuge  under  the 
Turks  in  Tultcha.  Mr.  Flocken  attended  one 
of  their  services.  It  consisted  in  reading  or 
singing  chapters  from  the  Old  and  New  Tes- 
taments, with  occasional  comment  and  prayer. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        533 

They  use  no  water  in  baptism  nor  bread  and 
wine  in  the  Lord's  Supper.  Mr.  Flocken 
thought  that  the  two  persons  who  had  been  in 
England  had  met  with  the  Wesleyans.  They 
listened  to  the  teaching  of  the  missionary,  and 
he  had  great  hopes  of  reaching  this  singular 
people  in  Eussia  through  this  colony  at  Tult- 
cha,  but  his  expectations  have  not  yet  been 

During  the  year  1861  each  of  the  stations 
reported  a  native  coworker.  At  Tirnova  Ga- 
briel Elieff  had  proved  an  efficient  helper  of 
Mr.  Long.  At  Shumla  Mr.  Melanovitsch,  a 
Bohemian,  was  a  great  help  to  Mr.  Prettyman. 
At  Tultcha  Ivan  lyanoff  had  great  influence 
among  his  Molokan  brethren.  Mr.  Pretty- 
man  did  faithful  work  at  Shumla,  but  he  be- 
came discouraged  and  was  permitted  to  re- 
turn to  the  United  States.  In  1863  Mr. 
Long  was  removed  from  Tirnova  to  Constan- 
tinople, where  he  became  associated  with  Dr. 
Eiggs  in  the  revision  of  the  Bulgarian  New 
Testament,  to  be  published  by  the  British 
and  Foreign  Bible  Society.  In  1864  he  com- 
menced the  publication  of  the  Zornltza, 
the  "  Day  Star,"  which  was  received  with 
great  favor  by  the  Bulgarians. 

In  1865  Bishop  Thomson  visited  the  mis- 

5^4     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  ^fissions. 

sion.  He  believed  much  had  been  accom- 
plished, and  recommended  three  additional 
missionaries.  In  1866  Mr.  Long  visited  the 
United  States  to  supervise  the  stereotyping  of 
a  parallel  edition  of  the  New  Testament  in 
the  ancient  Slavic  and  Bulgarian  languages. 
He  returned  in  1868  to  Constantinople, 
where  he  resumed  regular  services  on  Sunday. 
His  chief  work  was  the  Christian  literature 
he  gave  to  Bulgaria. 

Eev.  Wanless  and  wife  went  out  in  1868. 
Mr.  Flocken  was  directed  to  remove  to  Rust- 
chuk,  on  the  Danube,  with  Mr.  Wanless  as  an 
associate,  but  he  was  delayed  in  his  departure 
by  a  revival  which  was  in  progress  at  Tultcha 
among  the  Lipovans.  Many  were  converted 
and  others  were  inquiring  the  way  of  life. 
Dimitry  PetroflP,  one  of  their  number,  had 
been  appointed  leader,  and  was  licensed  to 
exhort.  He  commenced  a  special  course  of 
study  with  Mr.  Flocken,  preparatory  to  assum- 
ing charge  of  this  work  among  his  people. 

Mr.  Wanless  proceeded  to  Bustchuk.  In 
1870  Petroff  took  charge  of  the  flock  at  Tult- 
cha, and  Mr.  Flocken  removed  to  Rustchuk. 
It  reported  17  members,  2  probationers,  and  a 
Sunday  school  of  35.  Very  soon  the  priests 
developed  strong  opposition.     The  work  had 

Missions  of  the  31.  E   Church.        535 

been  maintained  amid  many  discouragements. 
In  1871  the  General  Committee  made  provis- 
ion for  the  return  of  Messrs.  Flocken  and 
AYanless,  Dr.  Long,  who  had  been  called  to 
a  professor's  chair  in  Roberts  College,  Con- 
stantinople, was  to  superintend  the  mission, 
as  far  as  his  other  duties  allowed.  These 
changes  left  Petroff  in  charge  of  the  mission 
at  Tultcha.  Gabriel  Eiieff  retained  charge  of 
the  work  in  Sistoff  and  itinerated  largely  in 
the  adjacent  towns.  Mrs.  Proca,  who  had 
been  teacher  in  the  mission,  entered  on  volun- 
teer work  as  Bible  reader. 

In  their  loneliness  Eiieff  and  Petroff  made 
an  earnest  appeal  to  the  Board.     It  wasdeter- 
mined  to  reenter  the  field  with  a  full  force  of 
missionaries.     Mr.   Flocken   was   directed  to 
return  to  Bulgaria,  and  Rev.  H.  A.  Buchtel 
was  appointed  to  the   field.     They  left  for 
Bulgaria  in  March,  1873.     The   outlook  was 
encouraging.      Separation    from    the    Greek 
Church  was  complete.     It  was  soon   evident 
that  these  hopes  were  delusive.     The  priests 
were  ordered  by  the  bishops  to  read  the  serv- 
ice   in  the  Slavic  instead  of    the   Bulgarian 
tongue.     The  land  was  soon  in  ecclesiastical 
disorder.     In  addition  to  these  troubles,  finan- 
cial distress  in  the  United  States  made  it  im- 

536     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

possible  to  reenforce  the  mission.  Mrs.  Buch- 
tel's  health  compelled  her  return  home,  while 
cholera  at  Shumla  and  other  points  dis- 
organized the  work.  Mr.  Flocken  was  left 
alone.  He  placed  a  young  man  from  his  theo- 
logical class  at  Orchania,  and  Elieff  at  Plevna, 
and  kept  up,  as  best  he  could,  the  old  work. 

Bishop  Harris  visited  the  field  in  1874 
He  urged  the  reenf  or  cement  of  the  mission. 
Eev.  E.  F.  Lounsbury  and  Eev.  D.  C.  Challis 
were  sent  out  in  1875.  Then  followed  the  war 
between  Eussia  and  Turkey  in  1877,  and  the 
missionaries  had  to  retire  from  the  field.  In 
1878  Mr.  Long  was  alone,  directing  as  best  he 
could  the  native  brethren  who  endeavored  to 
care  for  their  scattered  flocks.  When  the  war 
ceased  Mr.  Challis  and  Eev.  S.  Thoneoff  were 
sent  to  the  mission. 

In  1884  the  missionary  force  consisted   of 

D.  C.  Challis,  E.  F.  Lounsbury,  J.  S.  Ladd,  A. 

E.  Jones,  T.  Constanstine,  and  their  wives, 
Miss  L.  Schenck,  of  the  Woman's  Society, 
four  native  ordained  preachers,  and  two  local 
preachers.  The  stations  were  Eutschuk,  Sis- 
tof,  Loftcha,  Orchania,  Selvi,  and  Plevna, 
with  45  members  and  31  probationers.  In 
1885  the  mission  was  divided  into  the  Lower 
Danube,  Upper  Panube,  Varna,  and  Balkan 

'    Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        537 

Districts.  The  mission  was  again  disturbed 
by  war,  but  the  missionaries  moved  on  with 
their  work,  and  reported  an  increase  of  12 
members  and  10  on  trial.  In  1891  the  mission 
had  4  ordained  missionaries,  4  assistants,  128 
members,  and  43  on  trial. 

At  the  St.  Louis  Conference,  held  in  March, 
1871,  Bishop  Ames  appointed  "  Rev.  Leroy  M. 
Vernon,  D.D.,  Missionary  and  Superintendent 
of  the  Mission  Work  of  the  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church  in  Italy."  He  sailed  with  his 
family  from  New  York  June  28  of  the  same 
year.  In  London  he  conferred  with  the  Wes- 
ley an  missionary  authorities,  and  formed  fra- 
ternal relations  concerning  the  prospective 
work  in  Italy.  They  reached  Genoa  early  in 
August.  He  entered  on  the  systematic  study 
of  the  language,  besides  visiting  the  leading 
cities  in  order  to  form  an  intelligent  judg- 
ment as  to  the  point  where  the  headquarters 
of  the  mission  should  be  located.  Rev.  Mr. 
Piggott,  Superintendent  of  the  Wesleyan  Mis- 
sions, proposed  the  union  of  the  forces  of 
the  two  Societies  to  constitute  one  Italian 
Methodism.     Dr.  Vernon   at   the  time    con- 

538     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

cur  red,  and  reported  in  favor  of  the  plan  to 
the  Board.  When  the  thoughtful  men  in 
charge  attempted  to  reduce  the  theory  to  prac- 
tice the  difficulties  they  encountered  caused 
the  proposition  to  fail.  The  Board  adhered 
to  a  Methodist  Episcopal  Mission  with  cordial 
fraternal  relations. 

In  December  Dr.  Vernon  was  instructed,  to 
fix  his  headquarters  at  Bologna,  with  notice 
that  Bev.  F.  A.  Spencer  was  coming.  Owing 
to  the  opposition  and  interference  of  the 
priests,  it  was  over  four  months  before  Dr. 
Vernon  could  secure  a  suitable  hall  for  public 
worship.  During  this  time  he  met  Bev.  J.  C. 
Mill,  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  and 
Signor  A.  Guigou.  After  a  number  of  inter- 
views respecting  the  character  and  policy  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  and  the  aims 
of  the  mission,  they  united  with  the  Church 
and  joined  the  mission.  June  16,  1873,  the 
Italian  mission  opened  its  public  services  in 
a  hall  in  Modena.  Sigiior  Guigou  preached 
to  some  sixty  hearers,  and  Dr.  Vernon  fol- 
lowed, explaining  the  character  and  design  of 
the  mission.  June  22  the  hall  in  Bologna  was 
opened  by  Bev.  J.  C.  Mill.  By  the  close  of 
the  month  work  was  opened  in  Forli  and  Ba- 
venna.     Bev.  E.   A.   Spencer  arrived  in   Bo- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        589 

logna  in  January,  1873.  He  entered  on 
school  work  with  fair  success.  In  view,  how- 
ever, of  the  well-ordered  public  schools  of  It- 
aly and  the  conviction  of  the  Board  and  bish- 
ops that  a  Methodistic  type  of  native  preach- 
ers was  needed  and  could  be  formed,  the 
committee  made  no  appropriation  for  schools 
and  Mr.  Spencer  returned  in  1874. 

In  October,  1874,  evangelical  work  was  com- 
menced in  the  town  of  Bagnacavallo  by  Sig- 
nor  B.  Godino;  in  Pescara  andChieti,  by  Sig- 
nor  B.  Malan;  and  in  Eimini,  by  Signor 
Charbonnier.  About  the  same  time  B.  Dal- 
mas  and  G.  Tourn  pioneered  the  Eomagna  as 
colporters.  They  found  many  open  doors, 
and  at  times  faced  fierce  fanaticism. 

During  the  autumn  of  1874  Dr.  Vernon 
formed  the  acquaintance  of  Signor  Teofilo 
Gay,  a  graduate  under  Dr.  d'Aubigne  of  the 
Genevan  Theological  School.  He  had  served 
a  year  as  assistant  pastor  in  a  French  Church 
in  London.  His  ancestry  had  been  ministers 
in  the  Waldensiau  Church.  AVhen  his  pious 
mother  saw  him  enter  the  Methodist  Episco- 
pal Church  she  said:  "This  is  the  Lord's  do- 
ing." He  was  appointed  to  open  the  mission 
in  Bome.  After  ten  days'  search  Dr.  Vernon 
secured  a  small  hall  near  the  Mamertine  pris- 

540     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

on.  On  Sunday,  December  18,  Mr.  Gay  opened 
his  message,  the  hall  being  entirely  filled.  A 
movement  among  the  Italian  soldiers  had 
been  commenced  by  a  yoiang  Italian  who  had 
been  discharged  from  service.  He  maintained 
it  at  his  own  expense,  with  occasional  gifts 
from  his  friends.  These  resources  were  in- 
sufficient and  Dr.  Vernon  took  up  the  work 
and  affiliated  it  with  the  mission. 

At  the  close  of  1873  a  mission  was  planted 
in  Florence,  with  Rev.  A.  Arrighi  in  charge. 
A  suburban  hall  was  secured,  and  the  attend- 
ance was  fair.  The  priests  aroused  the  people, 
and  a  mob  assailed  the  house,  breaking  the 
windows,  putting  out  the  lights,  and  assault- 
ing the  sexton.  Six  rioters  were  lodged  in 
jail  the  next  day.  The  cause  moved  forward 
in  increasing  popularity. 

Early  in  1874  work  was  opened  in  the  town 
of  Brescello  and  Faenza.  The  most  important 
advance  was  by  Rev.  J.  C.  Mill,  in  Milan,  the 
capital  of  Lombardy.  Two  places  were  occu- 
pied and  five  or  six  services  held  each  week. 
The  work  of  Mr.  Mill  in  Bologna  was  supplied 
by  Signor  E.  Borelli,  a  man  of  experience  and 
ability,  who  was  received  into  the  Church  and 

During  the  year  Dr.  Vernon  was  introduced 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,        541 

to  Dr.  Alceste  Lanna,  at  that  time  Professor 
in  Appolinari,  the  most  popular  Catholic  col- 
lege in  Rome.  He  had  long  been  an  earnest 
inquirer  after  religious  truth.  He  had  ob- 
tained some  knowledge  of  the  gospel;  but  with 
his  position  it  was  perilous  to  approach  a  Prot- 
estant minister,  and  to  profess  Protestantism 
would  involve  the  loss  of  friends,  position,  and 
income.  He  frankly  told  Dr.  Vernon  and  Mr. 
Gay  his  struggle,  and  sought  with  tears  their 
counsel.  After  repeated  interviewing,  in 
which  he  impressed  Dr.  Vernon  with  his  sin- 
cerity and  superior  gifts  and  attainments,  he 
decided  to  surrender  all  for  Christ.  He  en- 
tered fully  into  the  work. 

The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  mission  was 
held  September  10,  at  Bologna,  by  Bishop 
Harris.  Nine  of  the  preachers  had  been  ad- 
mitted on  trial  in  the  Germany  and  Switzer- 
land Conference  July  2,  and  E.  Borelli  and 
L.  Capellini  had  been  elected  to  deacons  and 
elders  orders  under  the  missionary  rule.  They 
were  ordained  at  Bologna.  Bishop  Harris, 
after  a  survey  of  the  field,  transferred  the  head- 
quarters of  the  Mission  to  Eome,  and  directed 
the  removal  of  the  superintendent  to  that 

The  conversion  of  Prof.  E.  Caporali,  LL.D., 

542     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

in  Milan  greatly  strengthened  the  Mission. 
He  was  the  son  of  an  Italian  baroness,  was  a 
noted  student,  and  well  known  as  an  editor 
and  author.  He  was  led  to  attend  the  services 
of  the  mission.  The  words  of  the  messenger 
reached  his  heart,  and  he  was  subdued  by  the 
power  of  the  Spirit.  He  openly  confessed 
Christ  and  united  with  the  Church.  Soon  he 
turned  from  the  open  path  of  literary  distinc- 
tion and  devoted  himself  to  evangelical  work 
among  his  people.  About  April  1,  1875,  a 
station  was  opened  in  the  city  of  Perugia, 
midway  between  Eome  and  Florence,  with 
good  prospects.  Many  soon  embraced  the 
gospel.  Eev.  Vincenzo  Eavi  was  engaged  in 
evangelical  work  in  Rome.  He  had  been  con- 
verted several  years  before  while  reading  the 
Gospels.  He  abandoned  Catholicism,  and  with 
it  the  presidency  of  a  college  in  Sicily.  In 
Naples,  and  afterward  at  Florence,  where  he 
pursued  his  studies  in  theology,  he  fell  in  with 
Protestants.  Later  he  studied  in  Scotland. 
While  there  he  married  a  Scotch  lady,  and, 
with  the  help  of  Christian  friends,  returned 
to  engage  in  evangelical  work  in  Italy.  He 
had  a  little  flock  in  Eome  well  grounded  in 
the  truth.  He  was  a  watchful  pastor  and  able 
preacher.     In  May,  1875,  he,  with  his  congre- 

mssions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        543 

gation  of  forty  members,  united  with  the  M. 
E.  Church. 

June  30,  1875,  Bishop  Simpson  held  the 
second  annual  meeting  in  Milan.  His  coun- 
sels and  services  greatly  impressed  the  native 
preachers  and  members.  Dr.  Alceste  Lanna 
was  ordained  deacon  and  elder.  In  April, 
1875,  Dr.  Vernon  secured  an  eligible  site  for 
a  church.  The  purchase  was  approved  by  the 
Board,  and  funds  appropriated  for  a  small 
church  and  mission  residence.  The  work  be- 
gan July  15.  The  ground  had  been  Church 
property.  Priests  and  monks  were  outraged 
that  a  Protestant  church  should  be  built  on 
once  holy  ground.  The  daily  papers  welcomed 
the  enterprise.  The  municipal  architect,  who 
under  Italian  authority,  approved  the  plans 
and  watched  over  the  w^alls,  was  Col.  Calan- 
drelli,  one  of  the  Triumvirs  of  the  Eoman  Ee- 
public  of  1849.  He  met  successfully  the  in- 
fluence of  the  clergy  in  the  municipal  council, 
and  the  house  was  built.  The  St.  Paul's 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church  was  dedicated 
by  Dr.  Vernon  on  Christmas,  1875.  Able  ser- 
mons were  preached  in  Italian  by  Eev.  Teofilo 
Gay,  Eev,  Vincenzo  Eavi,  Dr.  Lanna,  of  the 
Mission,  and  brief  discourses  by  representa- 
tives of  the  evangelical  Italian  Churches. 

544    Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Signor  Eavi  was  sent  to  Naples  in  the  au- 
tumn of  1875.  He  began  preaching  in  his  own 
residence  while  seeking  a  place  of  public  wor- 
ship, and  soon  had  a  little  class  of  adherents. 
Early  in  1876  a  small  theater  was  rented  and 
transformed  into  a  sanctuary.  Soon  a  young 
Neapolitan  lawyer  named  Eduardo  Stasio  was 
brought  into  the  Church.  His  interest  deep- 
ened, and  before  the  year  closed  he  was  pre- 
paring for  the  ministry.  About  the  same  time 
Crisanzio  Bambini  united  with  the  Church 
at  Perugia  and  began  to  study  for  his  Mas- 
ter's service.  In  July  of  the  same  year  a 
young  man  by  name  of  Daniele  Gay  applied 
to  Dr.  Vernon  for  admission  into  mission 
work.  He  and  Signor  Bambini  were  sent  to 
open  a  station  at  Terni.  A  monk  assailed  the 
mission  in  sermons  and  pamphlets.  Mr.  Gay 
met  him  with  sermons  and  pamphlets.  The 
work  went  on,  and  converts  united  with  the 
Church.  Mr.  Bambini  opened  a  good  work  at 
Narni,  near  Terni. 

In  1876  Kev.  F.  Cardin,  of  the  Wesleyan 
Mission,  united  with  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Mission.  After  counsel  with  his  late  superin- 
tendent, he  was  admitted,  and  sent  in  August 
to  open  a  station  in  Venice.  In  1877,  at  Dr. 
Vernon's  suggestion;  the  work  and  workers 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         545 

among  the  Italian  soldiers  in  Kome  were 
turned  over  to  the  Wesleyan  brethren.  With 
part  of  the  funds  formerly  devoted  to  the 
"  Military  Church  "  a  station  was  planted  in 
the  Tuscan  town  of  Arezzo,  near  Florence. 
A  place  was  secured  on  a  long  lease.  The 
priests  were  greatly  aroused,  and  assailed  the 
mission  with  great  bitterness.  The  preacher 
was  Baron  Gattuso.  He  had  served  as  an 
officer  under  Garibaldi.  He  was  now  an  able 
and  faithful  soldier  of  the  cross. 

The  annual  meeting  was  held  March  11, 
1877,  in  Eome,  Bishop  Andrews  presiding. 
The  preachers  had  expected  the  Italian  An- 
nual Conference  to  be  organized,  but  from  the 
act  of  the  General  Conference  it  appeared  that 
authority  was  ''granted  to  the  bishops  to  or- 
ganize "  the  Conference.  As  the  bishops  had 
not  taken  action.  Bishop  Andrews  did  not  feel 
competent  to  act  without  their  approval.  It 
was  a  great  disappointment,  but  the  meeting 
was  one  of  great  interest. 

In  August,  1877,  under  direction  from  the 
Woman's  Foreign  Missionary  Society,  Signora 
Amalia  Conversi,  in  Rome,  Signora  Adele 
Gay,  in  Terni,  and  Signora  Carolina  Cardin, 
in  Venice,  engaged  in  the  Bible  work.  En- 
dowed with  piety,  culture,  and  zeal,  they  en- 

546      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

tered  precincts  inaccessible  to  men  and  ren- 
dered service  the  men  had  attempted  in  vain. 
Later  the  Society  provided  tried  Bible  women. 
The  American  Bible  Society  cooperated  with 
the  work,  providing  the  Scriptures  and  main- 
taining for  a  time  a  Bible  culporter  under  the 
direction  of  Dr.  Yernon. 

Silvio  Stazi,  D.Ph.,  D.D..  who  had  been  ed- 
ucated with  Dr.  Lanna,  was  admitted  into  the 
Church  and  mission  w^ork  near  the  close  of 
1877.  He  had  resisted  all  efforts  to  place  him 
in  the  priesthood,  and  had  been  called  to  en- 
dure many  trials.  He  had  wandered  to  En- 
gland, where  he  obtained  some  knowledge  of 
the  gospel.  He  returned  to  Italy  greatly  con- 
cerned for  the  religious  welfare  of  his  people. 
He  was  a  man  of  rare  attainments,  and  was 
placed  in  charge  of  the  mission  station  at 

In  1881  the  Mission  was  organized  into  an 
Annual  Conference.  The  purchase  of  a  build- 
ing at  Florence  suitable  for  a  church  and  par- 
sonage placed  the  work  at  this  point  in  good 
position.  The  conversion  of  Monsignor  Cam- 
pello,  a  canon  of  the  Patriarchal  Basilica  of 
St.  Peter's,  was  a  notable  event.  For  three 
years  he  had  pondered  the  momentous  ques- 
tion.    On  September  4  he  abjured  Catholicism 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  547 

and  united  with  the  Methodist  Church.  Ow- 
ing to  his  throat  trouble,  he  did  not  take  ac- 
tive work,  but  desired  to  labor  for  the  gospel 
through  the  public  press.  At  the  Conference 
of  1882  six  native  preachers  were  received  on 
trial.  In  1883  Kev.  J.  H.  Hargis  was  added 
to  the  mission. 

In  1888  Eev.  L.  M.  Vernon,  D.D.,  who  had 
founded  the  mission  and  served  it  faithfully 
sixteen  years,  retired  from  the  field.  The 
mission  was  reenforced  by  the  arrival  of  Eev. 
E.  S.  Stackpole,  who,  after  mastering  the  lan- 
guage, opened  a  theological  school  at  Flor- 
ence. Kev.  G.  B.  Gatturo^  an  Italian  preacher, 
was  made  presiding  elder  of  the  Kome  District. 
Miss  E.  M.  Hall  was  directress  of  the  woman's 
work  and  nine  Bible  women  were  at  work  in 
different  cities.  In  1889  the  entire  work  was 
placed  in  one  district,  with  Kev*  W.  Burt  in 
charge.  In  1891  the  theological  school  at 
Florence  was  well  equipped  for  work,  with 
Kev.  E.  S.  Stackpole  President,  and  two 
American  and  two  Italian  professors  as  his 
assistants.  It  was  evidently  the  policy  of  the 
mission  to  evangelize  Italy  through  the  agency 
of  native  preachers.  The  mission  now  re- 
ported 4  missionaries,  2  native  missionaries, 
19  native  ordained  and  7  unordained  preach- 

548      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ers,  836  members,  and  236  probationers.  In 
In  the  midst  of  formidable  difficulties  the 
faith  of  the  laborers  was  strong. 

In  1852  Dr.  Durbin,  Corresponding  Secre- 
tary, called  the  attention  of  the  General  Com- 
mittee to  the  importance  of  India  as  a  mission 
field,  and  it  was  resolved  that  a  fund  be  cre- 
ated and  placed  at  the  discretion  of  the  Board 
and  bishops  for  commencing  a  mission  in 
India,  and  $7,500  was  appropriated  for  that 
purpose.  It  was  not  until  1856  that  a  man 
qualified  for  the  work  of  founding  the  mission 
could  be  found.  In  that  year  Kev.  William 
Butler  was  chosen  for  the  work.  He  was  a 
native  of  Ireland,  and  had  been  a  Wesleyan 
preacher  before  he  came  to  the  United  States, 
where  he  labored  in  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  for  four  years  before  he  was  sent  to 
India.  He  reached  Calcutta  with  his  family 
September  25.  After  a  careful  survey  of  the 
field  he  decided  to  establish  the  mission  in 
Eohilcund,  a  large  and  important  section,  at 
that  time  unoccupied  by  a  single  missionary. 
The  city  of  Bareilly  was  selected  as  the  center 
of  his  operations.     On  his  way  to  this  point 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  549 

the  American  Presbyterians  at  Allahabad  let 
him  have,  as  interpreter  and  helper,  a  young 
native  Christian  named  Joel  Janvier.  He  be- 
came the  first  native  preacher  in  the  mission. 
Mr.  Butler  had  been  in  Bareilly  about  two 
weeks  when,  on  March  31,  1857,  the  Sepoy 
Rebellion  broke  out.  The  native  soldiers  at 
Bareilly  mutinied  and  attempted  to  slaughter 
every  officer  and  foreigner  in  the  place.  A 
few  escaped  to  Nynee  Tal,  a  health  resort  in 
the  mountains.  Among  the  number  was  the 
missionary  and  his  family.  Their  home  was 
left  in  charge  of  the  faithful  Joel  and  his 
wife,  and  in  the  darkness  they  started  on  their 
perilous  journey.  His  family  traveled  in 
doolies  borne  by  men.  The  next  evening  they 
reached  a  belt  of  deep  jungle  at  the  foot  of  the 
Himalayas,  about  twenty  miles  wide.  It  was 
the  haunt  of  tigers  and  rank  with  malaria. 
At  midnight  the  dooley  bearers,  weary  with 
their  burden,  refused  to  go  on.  In  his  ex- 
tremity Mr.  Butler  slipped  into  the  dark 
jungle  and  lifted  his  heart  in  an  agony  of 
prayer.  Writing  of  that  terrible  trial  he 
says:  "My  prayer  did  not  last  two  minutes, 
but  how  much  I  prayed  in  that  time!  I  put 
on  my  hat,  returned  to  the  light,  and  looked. 
I  spoke  not.     I  saw  my  men  at  once  bend  to 

550      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

the  dooley ;  it  rose  and  off  they  went  instantly, 
and  they  never  stopped  a  moment  except 
kindly  to  push  little  Eddie  in  when,  in  his 
sleep,  he  rolled  so  his  feet  hung  out.  .  .  . 
We  were  ten  hours  going  those  fifteen  miles. 
At  last  day  broke  and  our  torch  bearer  was 
dismissed.  Hungry  and  thirsty,  our  souls 
fainted  in  us  indeed.  But  at  last  we  reached 
Katgodam  and  found  the  mother  and  babes 
all  safe."  They  reached  Nynee  Tal,  and  while 
the  storm  of  war  swept  over  the  land  the  mis- 
sionary continued  to  work  for  the  Master. 
Religious  services  were  held  both  in  English 
and  Hindoostanee.  Josiah  Parsons,  who  had 
been  in  the  servic  e  of  the  Church  Missionary 
Society,  joined  the  mission  and,  speaking  the 
language  of  the  country,  did  efficient  work. 
Joel,  the  native  helper,  and  his  wife  saw  their 
house  in  Bareilly  destroyed  and,  after  passing 
through  fearful  dangers,  found  Mr.  Butler  in 
Nynee  Tal,  in  April,  1855.  Eev.  J.  L. 
Humphrey  and  Rev.  R.  Pierce  and  their 
families  had  been  sent  out  to  aid  in  planting 
the  mission.  They  left  Boston  on  June  1, 
the  day  after  the  mutiny  broke  out  in  Ba- 
reilly. They  reached  Nynee  Tal  in  April, 
1858.  A  house  and  tract  of  land  were  secured 
and  a  chapel  in  due  time  erected. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  651 

As  soon  as  possible,  after  the  English  had 
reoccupied  Rohilcund,  the  work  was  opened 
in  the  cities  of  Moradabad  and  Bareily.  Mr. 
Parsons  removed  to  Moradabad  early  in  Jan- 
uary, 1859,  and  was  joined  by  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Humphrey  on  the  28th  of  the  same  month. 
Mr.  S.  Knowles,  who  had  been  an  officer  in 
the  British  army,  and  had  joined  the  mission 
in  1858,  was  left  in  charge  at  Nynee  Tal.  Soon 
after  they  opened  work  in  Moradabad  they 
were  visited  by  some  men  of  the  class  called 
Mazhabee  Sikhs,  who  invited  them  to  their  vil- 
lage. Their  religion  was  a  mixture  of  Hin- 
dooism  and  Mohammedanism.  Their  priest 
had  heard  the  gospel  preached  by  American 
Presbyterian  missionaries  at  the  melas  on  the 
banks  of  the  Ganges,  and  before  he  died  had 
advised  his  people  to  go  to  the  missionaries 
for  instruction.  They  were  a  low  caste  among 
their  people.  The  missionaries  answered  their 
call,  native  preachers  were  raised  up  among 
them,  and  by  1871,  in  over  a  hundred  vil- 
lages, two-thirds  of  this  class  had  been  bap- 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Humphrey  removed  to  Bareil- 
ly  February  25,  1859.  Every  English  house 
had  been  destroyed  during  the  mutiny,  and 
they  had  to  occupy  a  deserted  native  house 

552      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

two  miles  from  the  city,  and  on  the  opposite 
side  from  the  English  station.  They  secured 
two  efficient  native  assistants — Joseph  Field- 
bran,  a  Eurasian  who  had  been  for  several 
years  a  preacher  in  another  mission,  and  Azim 
Ati,  a  converted  Mohammedan.  The  natives 
were  unfriendly  to  the  missionaries,  but  Mr. 
Inglis,  the  magistrate  of  Bareilly,  gave  them 
his  cordial  support.  The  American  Methodist 
style  of  preaching  seemed  specially  adapted  to 
this  field.  They  stood  up  in  the  bazaars,  or 
markets,  and  crowds  gathered  around,  while 
they  preached  "Christ  and  him  crucified." 
They  attended  the  great  melas,  or  fairs,  where 
vast  multitudes  met  on  the  banks  of  the  Gan- 
ges, or  at  some  noted  shrine,  for  worship  and 
trade.  At  some  of  these  festivals  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  people  remained  for  days  bathing 
and  bartering,  or  burning  portions  of  the  bod- 
ies of  their  deceased  friends,  that  their  ashes 
might  be  cast  into  the  waters  of  the  sacred 
river.  They  afforded  good  opportunity  for  the 
sale  of  Bibles  and  religious  books  and  tracts, 
and  presented  large  congregations  gathered 
from  all  parts  of  the  land.  Circuits  were 
formed,  embracing  many  towns  and  villages, 
to  which  the  missionaries,  native  preachers, 
and  colporters  in  native  houses,  could  meet 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  553 

the  people.  Often,  beneath  the  shade  of  a 
tree,  the  missionary  could  deliver  to  old  and 
young  the  story  of  the  cross. 

In  July,  1859,  Dr.  Humphrey  baptized  the 
first  convert,  Zahur-ue-Huqq.  His  family, 
who  were  Mohammedans,  opposed  him  bitter- 
ly. His  father  and  brothers  would  not  allow 
him  to  visit  them,  and  his  wife  refused  to  see 
him.  Dr.  Humphrey,  who  needed  an  assist- 
ant, employed  him.  In  a  few  months  he  be- 
gan to  preach,  and  became  a  useful  member 
of  the  North  India  Conference. 

In  the  fall  of  1858  Mr.  Butler,  accompanied 
by  Mr.  Pierce,  visited  the  leading  towns  and 
cities  of  Kohilcund  to  select  points  for  mission 
stations.  At  Lucknow  they  were  warmly  wel- 
comed by  Commissioner  Montgomery.  A 
great  number  of  houses  had  been  confiscated 
after  the  mutiny,  aud  were  at  the  disposal  of 
the  government.  A  location  was  chosen  and 
placed  in  charge  of  the  mission.  Mr.  Mont- 
gomery had  the  buildings  repaired  and  added 
a  cash  subscription  of  $250,  which  his  private 
Secretary  and  other  gentlemen  made  up  to 
11,000.  Mr.  Butler  left  Mr.  Pierce  in  charge 
in  Lucknow,  with  Joel  Janvier  as  his  assist- 
ant. They  commenced  work  in  September, 
and  by  November  had  four  preaching  places 

554    Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

each  week  in  the  bazaars,  a  class  meeting,  and 
two  schools.  They  also  conducted  service  and 
held  class  meetings  among  the  British  sol- 
diers. In  1859  J.  A.  Cawdell,  an  English 
Wesley  an,  joined  the  mission.  On  May  1  a 
chapel  was  dedicated.  In  July  the  record 
showed  in  the  English  class  six  members  and 
nine  probationers,  and  in  the  Hindoostanee 
class  six  members  and  nine  probationers. 

In  1859,  the  mission  was  reenforced  by  the 
arrival  at  Calcutta  of  Revs.  James  Baume,  O. 
W.  Judd,  J.  W.  Waugh,  J.  R.  Downey,  E.  W. 
Parker,  and  their  wives,  and  James  M.  Tho- 
burn.  They  proceeded  to  Lucknow  and  held 
their  first  annual  meeting.  Mr.  Downey  was 
sick  on  his  arrival  at  Lucknow,  and  though  he 
received  every  attention,  he  died  in  four  days. 
It  was  intended  that  he  should  have  charge  of 
the  hospital.  Mrs.  Downey  begged  the  priv- 
ilege of  carrying  on  his  work,  which  was  grant- 
ed. The  annual  meeting  was  marked  by  har- 
monious and  vigorous  action.  New  work  was 
mapped  out,  and  the  following  appointments 
were  made:  Lucknow,  B.  Pierce,  J.  Baume; 
Shahjelianpore,  J.  W.  Waugh;  Bareilly,  J.  L. 
Humphrey,  Mrs.  J.  R.  Downey;  Moradabad, 
C.  W.  Judd,  J.  Parsons;  Bijnour,  E.  W.  Par- 
ker; Nyuee  Tal,  J.  M.  Thoburn,  S.  Knowles. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        555 

Near  the  close  of  the  war  Maj.  Gowan,  a 
British  officer,  placed  in  charge  of  Mr.  Butler 
the  orphan  son  of  a  Sepoy  officer  who  had 
been  killed  in  battle.  Soon  afterward  four  or 
five  boys,  whose  parents  were  slain  in  the  mu- 
tiny, were  placed  in  charge  of  Mr.  Pierce,  in 
Lucknow.  In  1858  they  had  increased  to 
twelve.  In  August,  1860,  Mr.  Waugh,  who 
had  succeeded  Mr.  Humphrey  at  Bareilly,  re- 
ported twenty-four  orphan  boys.  By  the  close 
of  the  year  there  were  thirty-nine.  These 
were  the  beginnings  of  the  "  Boys'  Orphan- 
age," which  afterward  was  located  at  Shahje- 
hanpore.  During  this  year  the  site  for  the 
mission  buildings  was  secured,  a  printing  of- 
fice fitted  up,  and  publications  issued.  The 
"Mission  Press,"  or  Book  Concern,  was  re- 
moved to  Lucknow  in  1866. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Humphrey  removed  to  Buda- 
on  in  December,  1859.  Premises  for  a  mis- 
sion residence  were  secured,  and,  with  the  aid 
of  a  native  catechist,  the  work  was  opened. 
Two  schools  for  boys  and  one  for  girls  were 
opened.  Preaching  was  carried  on  among  the 
bazaars  of  the  city,  and  a  number  of  places  in 
the  district.  A  famine  prevailed,  and  chil- 
dren were  sold  in  the  streets  by  parents  who 
could  not  feed  them.     Many  of  these  waifs 

556     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

were  turned  over  to  the  mission  at  different 
points.  Mr.  Humphrey  received  in  this  way 
several  girls,  who  in  1861  were  gathered  to- 
gether at  Lucknow  and  constituted  the 
"  Girls'  Orphanage." 

Among  the  villages,  in  the  district  of  which 
Budaon  was  the  center,  was  scattered  a  class 
of  people,  mehters  or  sweepers,  of  the  lowest 
caste.  Some  were  converted.  Among  them 
was  Chimmar  Lai.  He  studied  hard,  gradu- 
ated from  the  theological  school  at  Bareilly, 
and  became  noted  as  a  native  evangelist.  He 
went  from  town  to  town,  and  many  were  led 
to  the  Lord  through  his  labors.  Several  oth- 
ers of  the  same  class  of  people  were  convert- 
ed, trained  in  the  school,  and  are  now  success- 
ful preachers  among  their  people.  A  Mo- 
hammedan by  name  of  Mahbub  Khan,  from 
the  same  region,  was  led  to  the  knowledge  of 
Christ.  His  people  bitterly  opposed  him,  but 
he  and  his  wife  and  children  were  baptized. 
He  became  a  useful  preacher  in  the  mission. 
The  work  in  the  Budaon  District  was  prosper- 
ous. In  1875  the  sweeper  class  as  a  body  was 
favorable  to  Christianity.  The  work,  carried 
on  from  nine  centers,  was  manned  by  native 
preachers,  who  reported  three  hundred  com- 
municants.   Mr.  Parker,  with  two  native  help- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         557 

ers,  opened  work  in  Bijnour  in  October,  1859. 
They  commenced  day  preaching  in  the  bazaar 
the  day  of  their  arrival.  They  held  service 
the  first  Sunday  under  a  mango  tree,  and  con- 
tinued the  Sunday  service  in  the  sitting  room 
of  the  mission  house.  They  commenced  itin- 
erating in  November,  preaching  in  places  to 
large  crowds,  and  distributing  books  and 
tracts.  At  Bijnour  a  class  and  Sunday  school 
were  organized.  At  the  close  of  the  year 
twenty-four  members  were  reported. 

Mr.  Thoburn  reached  Nynee  Tal  in  October, 
1859,  where  he  remained  until  1863.  He 
preached  to  the  soldiers  while  learning  the 
language.  A  boys'  school,  a  girls'  school,  and 
a  boys'  Hindoo  school,  in  which  were  seven- 
teen scholars,  were  established.  An  interest- 
ing work  was  also  opened  among  the  Taroos, 
who  lived  just  outside  the  great  Terai  jun- 

The  second  annual  meeting  was  held  in 
Bareily  February  1,  1861.  Four  new  names 
appear  among  the  missionaries— viz.,  Kevs. 
Jackson,  Hauser,  Messmore,  and  Miss  L.  A, 
Husk.  Eev.  J.  T.  Gracey  and  wife  arrived  in 
October,  and  were  appointed  to  open  work  at 
Seetapore.  This  city  is  midway  between  Luck- 
now  and  Shahjehanpore.     Mr.  Gracey  found 

558      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions, 

here  ten  or  twelve  native  Christians,  whom  he 
organized  into  a  class.  James  David  was  the 
assistant  native  preacher.  The  first  one  en- 
rolled in  the  class  was  Henry  M.  Daniel;  the 
-second  was  Sunder  Yal,  both  of  whom  became 
ministers.  When  the  class  was  organized 
Henry  M.  Daniel  was  head  clerk  of  the  Depu- 
ty Commissioner's  office.  He  had  been  edu- 
cated in  the  Secundra  Orphanage  at  Agra,  and 
had  acquired  a  knowledge  of  the  Greek,  He- 
brew, Arabic,  Persian,  and  English  languages, 
and  was  familiar  with  Moslem  and  Hindoo 
life  and  teaching.  He  rendered  efficient  serv- 
ice, preaching  on  Sunday  and  at  the  bazaar 
during  the  early  days  of  the  Seetapore  mis- 

The  Hindoos  in  Bareilly  were  greatly  moved 
in  1861  by  the  conversion  of  Ambica  Churn, 
the  son  of  the  native  postmaster.  The  violent 
opposition  of  his  kindred  caused  him  to  take 
refuge  among  the  missionaries.  The  rajah 
visited  him  and  urged  his  return  to  his  old  re- 
ligion. His  father-in-law,  on  one  occasion, 
struck  him  to  earth  with  a  heavy  stick.  His 
wife  was  taken  from  him,  but  he  was  faithful 
to  his  newly  found  faith.  He  became  one  of 
the  most  useful  native  preachers  in  the  North 
India  Conference. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  559 

The  next  annual  meeting  was  held  in  1863. 
Since  the  annual  meeting  of  1861  the  mission 
had  been  reenforced  by  the  arrival  of  Revs.  J. 
D.  Brown,  D.  AV.  Thomas,  W.  W.  Hicks,  T.  S. 
Johnson,  T.  J.  Scott,  H.  Mansell,  and  P.  T. 
AYilson.  In  1862  the  mission  was  called  to 
mourn  the  loss  by  death  of  Mrs.  Jackson,  Mrs. 
Thoburn  (formerly  Mrs.  Downey),  and  Mrs. 
Pierce.     Their  deaths  were  triumphant. 

The  fourth  annual  meeting  was  held  in  Ba- 
reilly  in  February,  1864.  Dr.  Butler  made  his 
last  report  and  gave  notice  of  his  resignation 
as  Superintendent.  The  report  revealed  re^ 
markable  advance  in  all  parts  of  the  work. 

Nine  important  cities  had  been  occupied; 
nineteen  mission  houses  had  been  bought  or 
built;  ten  chapels  and  sixteen  schoolhouses 
had  been  erected:  a  publishing  house  and  two 
large  orphanages  had  been  established;  one 
hundred  and  sixty-one  had  entered  on  a  Chris- 
tian experience,  of  whom  four  were  preachers 
and  eleven  exhorters,  while  one  thousand  three 
hundred  and  twenty-two  youths  were  brought 
under  daily  instruction. 

At  the  General  Conference  of  1864  provision 
was  made  for  the  organization  of  the  India 
Mission  into  a  Mission  Annual  Conference. 
The  brethren  met  Bishop  Thomson  December 

560     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

8,  1864,  and  after  religious  services,  the  holy 
communioD,  and  an  impressive  address  by  the 
bishop,  the  Conference  was  organized.  The 
members  were  Messrs,  Butler,  Baume,  Judd, 
Parker,  Waugh,  Thoburn,  Jackson,  Hauser, 
Messmore,  Gracey,  Thomas,  Brown,  Scott, 
Johnson,  Mansell,  Stivers,  and  Knowles,  Joel 
T.  Janvier,  H.  M.  Daniel,  Zahur-ul-Huqq,  and 
J.  A.  Cawdell  were  admitted  on  trial,  and  P. 
T.  Wilson  into  full  connection.  On  Sabbath 
Knowles,  Cawdell,  Janvier,  and  Daniel  were 
ordained  deacons,  and  Mr.  Knowles  elder. 
The  report  showed  one  hundred  and  seven- 
teen members  and  ninety-two  probationers.  A 
new  mission  was  planned  in  Gurwhal,  to  which 
Mr.  Thoburn  was  ai3pointed.  The  Conference 
was  divided  into  the  Moradabad,  Bareilly,  and 
Lucknow  Districts. 

Mr.  Thoburn  was  in  the  United  States  when 
the  Conference  was  organized.  Mr.  Hauser, 
aided  by  Mr.  Mansel,  went  from  Bijnour  to 
Gurwhal,  prepared  buildings,  and  opened  the 
mission,  which  Mr.  Mansel  maintained  until 
Mr.  Thoburn's  return  in  1866.  Mr.  Thoburn 
entered  on  his  charge,  visiting  and  talking 
with  the  people,  circulating  books  and  tracts, 
and  looking  for  suitable  openings  for  the 
work.     At  the  close  of  the  year  a  day  school 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        561 

of  thirty  or  more  children  was  in  operation, 
with  a  Sunday  school  of  twenty-five,  and  one 
adult  baptized.  In  1867  six  adults,  ten  orphan 
boys,  and  two  infants  were  baptized.  The 
government  school  at  Sreenugger  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  mission,  and  Thomas  Gowan  was 
appointed  head-master.  Houses  were  built  on 
the  Paori  Mission  for  students  who  came  to 
school  from  a  distance.  Thirty  boys  soon  oc- 
cupied them,  eighteen  of  whom  were  aided  by 
the  local  government  in  defraying  their  extra 
expense.  Two  girls  applied  for  admittance 
and  were  received.  Three  small  schools  for 
boys  and  three  for  girls  were  started.  The 
total  number  of  children  was  280,  of  whom  33 
were  girls.  After  two  years  of  successful 
work.  Dr.  Thoburn  exchanged  stations  with 
Dr.  Mansell,  of  Moradabad.  Mrs.  Mansell 
opened  work  among  the  women,  which  re- 
sulted in  the  accession  of  many  female  con- 
verts to  the  Church.  In  1869  seventy  mem- 
bers were  reported.  The  Sreenugger  property 
was  improved  and  a  room  fitted  up  for  wor- 
ship, so  that  there  were  two  chapels  on  the 
circuit.  The  total  number  of  scholars  in  the 
day  schools  was  406,  of  whom  51  were  girls. 
In  1870  the  orphans  numbered  twelve  boys 
and  eight  girls. 

562     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

The  second  Annual  Conference  was  held 
February  1,  1866,  in  Moradabad.  The  return 
of  Rev.  James  Baume  to  the  United  States, 
owing  to  the  broken  health  of  Mrs.  Baume, 
was  approved.  The  mission  was  strengthened 
by  the  arrival  of  Revs.  F.  A.  Spencer  and  S. 
S.  Weatherby.  A  gracious  work  in  the  or- 
phanage was  reported,  at  which  twenty-two 
girls  were  converted. 

The  third  Conference  was  held  January  10, 
1867,  at  Shahjehanpore,  and  the  fourth,  Janu- 
ary 16,  1868,  at  Bijnour.  The  General  Con- 
ference was  approaching,  and  the  question  of 
a  resident  bishop  was  discussed,  but  the  Con- 
ference did  not  favor  it.  The  Conference  had 
no  right  to  a  delegate,  but  as  Mr.  Gracey  was 
on  his  way  to  the  United  States  he  was  chosen 
to  represent  them  on  that  occasion.  Near  the 
close  of  the  session  he  was  admitted  as  a  dele- 
gate, being  the  first  from  a  foreign  land.  The 
fifth  session  met  at  Bareilly  January  14, 1869. 
The  session  was  one  of  great  spiritual  power. 
Bishop  Kingsley  presided  at  the  sixth  session, 
also  held  at  Bareilly.  It  met  January  20,  1870. 
Miss  Thoburn  and  Miss  Swain,  sent  out  by 
the  Woman's  Foreign  Missionary  Society, 
were  warmly  welcomed.  Joel  T.  Janvier  and 
Zahur-ul-Huqq  were   ordained   elders.      The 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.      .  563 

seventh  session  was  held  at  Lucknow,  begin- 
ning January  12,  1871.  Kev.  William  Taylor 
(now  Bishop  Taylor,  of  Africa),  who  had  been 
invited  to  visit  the  mission  in  1870,  was  pres- 
ent, and  by  request  took  part  in  the  delibera- 
tions. P.  M.  Buck  and  Thomas  Craven,  new 
recruits  from  the  United  States,  were  also 
present.  The  eighth  session  met  January  18, 
1872,  in  Moradabad.  E.  Cunnigham,  W.  J. 
Gladwin,  and  J.  H.  Gill  were  added  to  the 
mission  forces.  The  year  was  memorable 
because  of  the  gift  of  $20,000  by  Eev.  D.  W. 
Thomas  and  $5,000  by  E.  Kemington,  Esq., 
for  the  establishment  of  a  theological  .sem- 
inary. The  ninth  session  was  held  January 
16,  1873,  at  Bareilly.  J.  D.  Brown,  who 
had  been  in  America  seeking  health  since 
1870,  returned,  and  B.  H.  Badley  and  F.  B. 
Cherrington  were  added  to  the  mission.  The 
reports  showed  great  expansion  in  the  work  at 
the  orphanage  schools  and  publishing  depart- 
ments. The  presence  of  Bishop  Harris  at  the 
tenth  session,  which  convened  January  7, 
1874,  at  Lucknow,  added  greatly  to  the  inter- 
est of  the  occasion.  The  Conference  was  re- 
enforced  by  the  arrival  from  the  United  States 
of  J.  Mudge,  D.  O.  Fox,  W.  E.  Bobbins,  A. 
Norton,  E.  Gray,  M.D.,  A.  D.  McHenry,  and 

564      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

J.  E.  Scott.  The  eleventh  session  was  held  at 
Shahjehanpore  January  6,  1875.  C.  P.  Hard, 
F.  A.  Goodwin,  and  J.  E.  Robinson  were  pres- 
ent. They  had  been  transferred  from  the 
South  India  work.  The  twelfth  session  met  in 
Cawnpore,  D.  W.  Thomas  in  the  chair.  The 
mission  was  reenforced  by  the  return  of  F.  M. 
Wheeler  and  the  arrival  of  G.  H.  McGrew  for 
North  India;  and  M.  H.  Nichols,  J.  Black- 
stock,  E.  J.  Davis,  W.  E.  Newlon,  and  D.  H. 
Lee  for  South  India. 

The  General  Conference  of  1876  had  pro- 
vided for  two  Annual  Conferences  in  Hindu- 
stan. .  One,  to  be  caded  the  North  India  Con- 
ference, was  to  embrace  the  old  mission  field; 
and  the  other,  the  South  India  Conference, 
to  embrace  the  work  under  the  superintend- 
ency  of  William  Taylor.  The  South  India 
Conference  was  organized  at  Bombay,  Novem- 
ber 9,  1876,  by  Bishop  Andrews.  The  thir- 
teenth session  of  the  North  India  Conference 
was  held  January  3,  1877,  by  Bishop  Andrews 
at  Moradabad. 

Rev.  William  Taylor  came  to  India  in  an- 
swer to  an  invitation  written  by  Dr.  Thoburn 
in  behalf  of  all  the  missionaries.  He  reached 
Calcutta  November  20,  1870.  Ten  days  later 
he  was  welcomed  in  Lucknow  by  the  missioii- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        565 

aries,  and  at  once  began  to  preach  in  the  mis- 
sion chapel,  with  Joel  Janvier  as  his  interpreter. 
Services  were  held  for  three  weeks,  and  more 
than  a  hundred  presented  themselves  as  seek- 
ers of  religion.  December  18  he  began  a 
meeting  at  the  Union  Chapel  at  Cawnpore,  as- 
sisted by  George  Myall,  a  native  preacher. 
The  w^ork  was  interrupted  by  the  holidays,  and 
Mr.  Taylor  resorted  to  private  houses  and  the 
bazaars.  He  next  visited  Seeapore,  Shahje- 
hanpore,  Bareilly,  Budaon,  Amroha,  and  Mor- 
adabad.  He  stirred  up  the  native  helpers, 
gathered  some  fruit,  but  had  no  general  reviv- 
al. In  October,  1871,  he  visited  Ahmednug- 
ger,  to  attend,  at  the  request  of  the  missiona- 
ries of  the  American  Board,  their  annual  meet- 
ing. His  preaching  met  some  success.  On 
November  12  he  began  Mahratti  services  in 
the  chapel  of  the  American  Board  at  Bombay, 
followed  by  English  services  at  Institution 
Hall.  His  methods  were  severely  criticised 
by  the  ministers  and  Churches  of  Bombay. 
This  absence  of  sympathy  with  his  movements 
caused  him  to  consider  the  importance  of  or- 
ganizing the  converts  under  his  ministry  into 
societies  within  and  around  the  churches  after 
the  manner  of  Mr.  Wesley.  He  accordingly 
formed  his  followers  into  "  Fellowship  Bands." 

566      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

It  soon  became  evident  that  a  more  permanent 
organization  was  needed.  A  petition  signed 
by  eighty-three  of  the  converts  urged  him  to 
organize  a  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in 
Bombay.  With  this  he  complied,  publishing 
to  the  world  that  he  did  it  only  to  take  care  of 
such  souls  as  God  had  given  him,  not  con- 
nected with  any  other  Church.  His  labors 
had  reached  the  Eurasians,  a  class  in  India 
who  are  of  European  and  native  parentage. 
They  number  about  150,000.  They  are  in  mil- 
itary and  civil  service,  while  many  are  teach- 
ers, contractors,  clerks,  merchants,  and  me- 
chanics. Owing  to  their  mixed  parentage, 
they  labor  under  a  sense  of  isolation  and  have 
shared  but  slightly  in  the  evangelical  labors 
in  India.  The  earnest  and  striking  style  of 
Mr.  Taylor  had  arrested  their  attention,  and 
they  answered  his  appeals  as  they  had  an- 
swered no  other  missionary.  In  addition  to 
this  class,  a  number  of  Hindoos,  Mohammed- 
ans, and  Parsees  were  attracted  by  his  way 
of  presenting  the  gospel.  Among  his  adher- 
ents were  several  who,  in  their  native  lan- 
guage, commenced  the  work  of  evangelists 
among  their  people.  Several  preached  in 
Mahratti,  and  several  in  Madras  preached  in 
Tamil.    In  July,  1872,  he  went  from  Bombay  to 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         567 

Pooiia.  In  September  a  Chnrcli  was  organ- 
ized with  thirty-seven  members.  This  Church 
soon  numbered  one  hundred.  Out  of  this 
Church  sprang  a  Church  at  Lanowlee,  and  an- 
other at  Kurrachee.  Boon  Mr.  Taylor  needed 
helpers.  The  first  was  Mr.  James  Shaw,  a 
Bible  reader  in  the  army.  Then  Rev.  George 
Bowen,  who  had  gone  out  as  a  missionary  of 
the  American  Board,  identified  himself  with 
the  movement.     In  November,  1872,  Rev.  W. 

E.  Robbins  came  out  from  the  United  States 
at  his  own  expense  to  help  in  this  revival 
work.  Revs.  D.  O.  Fox  and  A.  Norton  were 
sent  out  by  the  mission  authorities  for  the  re- 
lief of  Mr.  Taylor.  In  1873  C.  W.  Christian, 
from  the  Bombay  bank,  and  W.  T.  G.  Curties 
and  G.  K.  Gilder  gave  up  good  positions  in 
the  telegraph  office  and  engaged  in  the  work. 
In  1874  Revs.  C.  P.  Hard,  J.  E.  Robinson,  and 

F.  A.  Goodwin  were  sent  out  by  the  Mission- 
ary Society.  Part  of  this  expense  was  paid 
by  Mr.  Taylor,  who  was  in  the  United  States 
lecturing  and  selling  his  books  to  raise  the 

In  December,  1873,  Bishop  Harris,  after 
full  discussion  with  Mr.  Taylor,  and  with  his 
consent,  brought  his  mission  into  organic  re- 
lations with  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 

568      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

Mr.  Taylor  was  appointed  superintendent  of 
the  work  he  had  organized,  and  he  and  the 
other  preachers  became  members  of  the  India 
Conference,  from  which  they  were  appointed 
as  missionaries  to  the  field.  None  of  the  pe- 
culiarities of  the  mission  were  changed  by 
this  arrangement.  This  mission  had  then 
about  ten  preachers  and  five  hundred  members 
scattered  through  Bombay,  Bengal,  Central 
India,  and  the  Deccan.  At  the  Conference 
held  at  Lucknow  the  appointments  of  the 
South  India  Conference  were  as  follows: 
Bombay  and  Bengal  Mission,  William  Tay- 
lor, Superintendent;  Bombay,  George  Bowen, 
W.  E.  Bobbins,  James  Shaw;  the  Deccan 
(Poona,  Lanowlee,  Deksal,  etc.),  D.  O.  Fox; 
Central  India,  A.  Norton,  G.  K.  Gilder;  Ben- 
gal (Calcutta),  J.  M.  Thoburn,  C.  W.  Chris- 
tian, C.  R.  Jeffries. 

The  work  went  on  with  increasing  vigor.  In 
1875  Revs.  M.  H.  Nichols,  J.  Blackstock,  F. 
G.  Davis,  W.  E.  Newlon,  and  D.  H.  Lee  were 
sent  out;  and  in  1876  Revs.  I.  F.  Row,  L.  R. 
Janney,  and  C.  B.  Ward  arrived  at  Mr.  Tay- 
lor's cost.  Thomas  H.  Oakes  joined  the  mis- 
sion at  Calcutta.  P.  M.  Mukerji,  an  educated 
Brahmin,  united  with  the  movement,  as  did 
also  B.  Peters,  at  Madras.    The  converts  were 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  569 

taught  that  it  was  their  duty  ever  to  be  boldly 
witnessing  for  Christ.  In  Hyderabad,  under 
the  labors  of  Mr.  Shaw,  the  work  was  devel- 
oped so  rapidly  that  Mr.  Bowen  went  there 
and  organized  a  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 
In  a  few  months  it  had  over  a  hundred  mem- 
bers. About  the  same  time  Mr.  Taylor  went 
to  Madras  three  hundred  and  forty  had  con- 
nected themselves  with  the  Church.  At  a 
meeting  held  at  Bangalore  one  hundred  joined 
the  Church. 

Under  the  labors  of  Mr.  Taylor  a  class  had 
been  organized  in  Calcutta.  The  first  Quar- 
terly Conference  was  organized  September  4, 
1873,  when  it  was  determined  to  build  a  tem- 
porary tabernacle  in  a  rented  lot  in  Zigzag 
Lane,  in  a  thickly  populated  part  of  the  city. 
On  the  9th  of  November  the  place  of  worship 
was  opened.  Many  were  converted,  and  a  si- 
lent but  deep  interest  was  awakened  in  the 
city.  In  the  meantime  the  foundation  of  a 
new  brick  church  had  been  laid  at  a  central 
point  in  the  city.  The  generous  gift  of  $5,000 
by  Kev.  George  Bowen  made  the  erection  of 
the  building  possible  for  the  struggling  but 
devoted  little  Church.  In  1874  Eev.  J.  M. 
Thoburn  was  transferred  from  North  India  to 
Calcutta.     He  preached  his  first  sermon  to  a 

670      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

congregation  of  about  sixty  souls.  Souls  were 
converted.  On  the  completion  of  the  new 
church  over  four  hundred  persons  attended 
the  dedication  service.  These  subscribed  suf- 
ficient to  free  the  building  of  debt.  A  gra- 
cious revival  began.  About  three  hundred 
professed  conversion  during  the  first  six 
months,  and  a  deep  religious  feeling  extended 
through  the  city.  The  work  continued 
through  the  hot  season.  Souls  were  saved  at 
nearly  every  service,  and  class  meetings  flour- 
ished. When  cool  weather  came  on  it  was  de- 
cided to  rent  the  theater  for  Sunday  evening- 
services.  It  held  about  fourteen  hundred,  and 
its  seats  were  filled.  Among  the  listeners 
many  educated  Hindoo  gentlemen  were  found. 
The  house  was  unfit  for  service  in  hot  weath- 
er, and  the  congregation  was  transferred  to 
the  chapel.  It  was  decided  to  build  a  house 
that  would  meet  the  progress  of  the  work. 
An  appeal  was  made  to  the  congregation  in 
the  theater,  and  their  response  justified  the 

The  collection  of  funds  was  continued  until 
enough  was  secured  to  purchase  the  lot  and 
commence  the  work.  On  January  1,  1877,  the 
congregation  moved  into  a  plain  but  substan- 
tial building  capable  of  seating  two  thousand. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  571 

The  financial  statement  at  the  dedication 
announced  that  the  building  and  lot  had  cost 
$38,000,  of  which  about  $19,000  had  been  paid. 
A  call  was  made  for  the  remaining  $19,000. 
It  was  promptly  subscribed. 

A  remarkable  work  had  been  commenced  by 
Mr.  Taylor  among  the  Siamese.  In  1875  Kev. 
T.  H.  Oakes  was  placed  in  charge.  He  visit- 
ed their  boarding  house  in  Bow  Bazaar,  and 
also  the  shipping.  Some  of  the  ladies  of  the 
Church  engaged  in  this  work.  They  led  many 
from  the  streets  and  grogshops  into  the  sanc- 
tuary, where  the  earnest  preaching  of  Dr. 
Thoburn  led  them  to  Christ.  Several  cap- 
tains offered  their  ships  for  this  service.  In 
December,  1875,  the  Seamen's  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  of  Calcutta,  was  organized. 
A  large  building  was  rented  at  a  cost  of  $2,400 
a  year,  and  made  the  headquarters  for  this 
mission,  with  a  hall  for  public  worship,  a 
home  for  the  missionary,  a  reading  room,  cof- 
fee room,  and  apartments  for  boarders  When- 
ever it  was  possible  a  class  was  organized  on 
the  ships  in  which  the  converts  sailed,  so  that 
services  were  continued  when  at  sea.  Up- 
wards of  fifty  vessels  were  soon  on  the  ocean 
carrying  praying  bands  made  up  of  converts 
from  the  Calcutta  Seamen's  Bethel. 

572      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

November  9,  1876,  Bishop  Andrews  organ- 
ized the  Bombay,  Bengal,  and  Madras  Mis- 
sion into  the  South  India  Annual  Conference. 
It  opened  with  fifteen  members,  one  of  whom 
was  a  transfer  from  the  North  India  Confer- 
ence, two  were  from  the  United  States,  with 
nine  probationers.  The  Conference  was  di- 
vided into  the  Bombay,  Calcutta,  and  Madras 
Districts.  In  1878  the  Conference  reported 
one  thousand  two  hundred  and  seventy-five 
members  and  four  hundred  and  forty-six  pro- 

The  value  of  the  theological  school  at  Ba- 
reilly  became  more  apparent  every  year.  In 
1880  it  reported  twenty-ane  under  instruction. 
Of  these,  thirteen  were  to  graduate  after  a 
course  of  three  years'  instruction.  The  wives 
of  three  students  were  regularly  trained  in  a 
class,  and  bid  fair  to  helj)  in  the  work  of  their 
husbands.  While  in  the  school  the  students 
preached  extensively.  They  worked  in  bands 
in  the  city  during  the  hot  season,  and  among 
the  villages  in  cool  weather.  As  evidence  of 
the  stability  of  the  native  Christians  Kev.  J. 
H.  Hill,  missionary  at  Gurwhal,  said  that,  of 
the  two  hundred  and  ninety  baptisms  since  that 
mission  was  opened  in  1866,  he  was  "  aware  of 
but   three  persons  who  could  now  be  called 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  673 

useless  wanderers."  At  Lucknow  the  evan- 
gelistic work  was  greatly  assisted  by  a  magic 
lantern.  Explaining  tlie  pictures,  singing,  and 
preacliing,  they  were  able  to  bring  the  truth 
very  near  the  people.  In  portions  of  the  work 
there  was  a  marked  willingness  on  the  part  of 
both  Hindoo  and  Mussulman  to  listen  to 
preacliing.  The  work  in  South  India  among 
the  Euglish-speaking  people,  Eurasians,  and 
natives  made  steady  advance.  The  Sunday 
school  of  North  India  was  one  of  its  marked 
features.  In  1891  the  scholars  numbered 
eleven  thousand  nine  hundred  and  six.  Spe- 
cial mention  is  made  of  the  lecturing  tours  of 
Ran  Chanda  Bose,  whose  visit  to  the  United 
States  made  a  deep  impression.  Especially  in 
Calcutta  his  lectures  and  preaching  awakened 
great  interest  among  his  educated  country- 
men. Among  the  apx^ointments  of  the  North 
India  Conference  we  find  the  name  of  Zahur- 
ul-Huqq,  i:)residing  elder.  He  was  the  first 
native  to  hold  that  ofiice  in  India. 

The  work  of  the  South  India  Conference, 
which  was  now  closing  the  fifth  year  of  its 
history,  was  able  to  present  encouraging  re- 
sults. Its  object  was  to  use  the  small  settle- 
ments of  Europeans  and  Eurasians  in  the  large 
cities  of  India  as  centers  of  operation  among 

574      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

the  heathen  and  Mohammedan  populations. 
The  work  presented  formidable  difficulties, 
yet  promised  important  results.  The  antipa- 
thies of  religious  faith  and  the  barriers  of 
caste  were  in  the  way.  Owing  to  constant 
changes  in  residence  every  Church  had  to  re- 
new itself  about  every  seven  years.  Yet  they 
had  gathered  fruit.  It  had  extended  its  oper- 
ations to  Burmah  and  among  the  Telugus. 

The  year  1883  was  signalized  by  the  meeting 
of  the  great  Decennial  Conference  of  the  mis- 
sionaries in  India.  Their  reports  showed  an 
increase  in  members  from  ninety-one  thou- 
sand and  ninety-two  in  1851  to  four  hundred 
and  seventeen  thousand  three  hundred  and 

In  1886,  under  authority  granted  by  the 
General  Conference,  Bishop  Ninde  divided 
the  South  India  Conference  into  two  Annual 
Conferences,  one  retaining  the  original  name, 
and  the  other  to  be  styled  the  Bengal  Confer- 
ence. The  former  embraced  Bombay  on  the 
west  and  Madras  on  the  east,  with  nearly  all 
the  territory  of  the  peninsula  proper,  a  part  of 
Central  India,  and  a  part  of  Sindh  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Indus.  The  whole  Conference 
was  embraced  in  the  Bombay  and  Madras 
Pistricts.     The  Bengal  Conference  embraced 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  575 

the  Calcutta,  Allahabad,  Ajmeer,  and  Burmah 

During  the  visit  of  Bishop  Ninde  in  1887 
the  boundaries  of  the  North  India  Conference 
were  extended  so  as  to  include  nearly  all  the 
territory  of  the  northwest  provinces  of  India, 
embracing  a  population  of  about  thirty  mil- 

The  India  Mission  made  a  grand  report  in 
1888.  In  the  North  India  Conference  there 
were  over  two  thousand  conversions.  The 
three  Conferences  reported  four  thousand  and 
sixty-five  members  and  four  thousand  seven 
hundred  and  eighty-two  probationers.  The 
number  on  trial  exhibits  wonderful  vitality. 
During  this  year  Eev.  J.  M.  Thoburn,  D.D., 
was  elected  missionary  bishop.  His  field  em- 
braced the  Indian  Empire  and  Malaysia. 

In  1889  the  mission  appears  under  the  name 
of  India  and  Malaysia.  In  his  report  to  the 
board  Bishop  Thoburn  exhibited  the  magni- 
tude of  the  field.  The  North  India  Confer- 
ence contained  a  population  of  forty-three 
million.  It  included  Oude,  the  northwest 
provinces,  and  the  upper  Ganges,  and  em- 
braced the  chief  seats  of  ancient  Hindooism, 
and  where  probably  its  death  struggle  will  be 
witnessed.     He  reported  the  work  well  organ- 

576      Hand  Booh  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ized.  A  feature  of  special  interest  was  the 
fact  that  a  large  body  of  youths  of  both  sexes 
had  been  gathered  into  schools,  from  whom 
they  expected  in  a  few  years  to  double  their 
ministerial  force.  The  South  India  Confer- 
ence contained  eighty-one  million  souls,  and 
the  Bengal  Conference  one  hundred  and  twen- 
ty million.  To  the  southeast,  Burmah,  with 
people  of  a  different  race  and  religion,  was  oc- 
cupied; and  farther  east  was  the  newly  opened 
field  of  Malaysia. 

The  reports  from  North  India  were  full  of 
encouragement.  In  the  Eohilcund  District 
over  two  thousand  six  hundred  baptisms  were 
reported.  The  publishing  interests  of  the 
Conference  were  pushed  with  vigor.  During 
the  year  twenty-five  million  seven  hundred  and 
ninety-nine  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty 
pages  were  printed.  Through  the  itinerant 
system  many  villages  on  their  large  circuits 
were  constantly  reached  by  evangelical  agen- 
cies. These  villages  were  rapidly  being  de- 
veloped into  the  centers  of  circuits  and  the 
circuits  into  districts.  Educational  agencies 
were  pouring  out  constantly  a  stream  of  evan- 
gelical forces.  The  Bareilly  Theological  In- 
stitute had  sent  out  one  hundred  and  thirteen 
theological  graduates.     The   net   increase   in 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        577 

membership  was  one  thousand  one  hundred 
and  ninety-six. 

The  Malaysia  Mission  was  opened  in  1885. 
Its  first  annual  meeting  was  held  by  Bishop 
Thoburn  April  29,  1889.  The  work  embraced 
an  English  mission  and  missions  among  the 
Chinese,  the  Malays,  and  the  Tamils.  The 
Woman's  Society  had  an  efficient  lady  repre- 
sentative, with  seven  native  assistants.  The  re- 
port showed  in  the  mission  five  missionaries, 
three  assistants,  four  native  unordained 
preachers,  eighty  members,  and  twenty-seven 

In  1890  Eev.  A.  J.  Maxwell,  agent  of  the 
Lucknow  Publishing  House,  died  of  cholera. 
This  was  the  first  death  of  a  male  missionary 
in  over  thirty  years.  There  was  much  sick- 
ness, but  the  year  was  one  of  success.  There 
were  three  thousand  six  hundred  and  four  in 
the  North  India  Conference,  and  a  net  increase 
of  one  thousand  and  twenty-nine  members. 
The  probationers  numbered  seven  thousand 
four  hundred  and  sixty-three.  This  would  in- 
dicate a  steady  revival.  There  was  a  net  in- 
crease of  eighteen  in  Malaysia. 

December  21,  1891,  Bishop  Thoburn  wrote 
from  the  field :  *'  When  in  America  last  year  I 
stated  that  five  hundred  heathens  were  com- 

578     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ing  over  to  Cliristianity  in  our  mission  every 
month.  The  statistics  showed  that  I  was  one 
hundred  below  the  mark.  Returning  to  India, 
I  reported  that  ten  thousand  souls  were  ready 
to  receive  baptism  if  we  could  reach  them. 
The  baptisms  thus  far  exceed  sixteen  thou- 
sand, and  the  final  summing  up  may  show 
eighteen  thousand;  and  now  as  we  near  the 
threshold  of  another  year  we  are  confronted 
by  twenty  thousand  heathen  as  ready  for  the 
gospel  as  were  the  ten  thousand  a  year  ago." 

The  report  of  1891  gives  us  the  following 
for  India  and  Malaysia:  Ordained  missiona- 
ries, 30;  assistants,  69,  native  ordained,  54; 
native  unordained,  477;  members,  7,951;  pro- 
bationers, 9,403.         

In  1872  Rev.  William  Butler,  D.D.,  who 
had  planted  the  mission  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  in  India,  was  chosen  by 
Bishop  Simpson  to  establish  a  mission  in  the 
Republic  of  Mexico.  He  arrived  in  the  City 
of  Mexico  February  23,  1873.  Bishop  Haven 
had  reached  the  city  some  three  weeks  earlier, 
and  had  visited  Puebla,  laying  his  plans  for 
the  mission  to  be  established.  Dr.  Butler 
had  funds  at  his  command  which  enabled  him 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        579 

to  secure  a  valuable  part  of  the  Monastery  of 
San  Francisco,  in  the  City  of  Mexico.  It  had 
been  confiscated  by  the  government  and  sold 
to  a  theater  company.  It  was  known  as  "  The 
Circus  of  Charinie."  It  is  said  that  this 
property  stands  on  the  ground  occupied  by 
the  palace  of  Montezuma.  It  is  now  the  home 
of  the  missionary,  with  a  large  chapel,  a  large 
female  school  connected  with  it,  and  a  well- 
appointed  publishing  house.  In  Puebla  the 
property  secured  and  transformed  into  chapel 
and  home  for  the  Protestant  missionary  was 
a  part  of  the  Komish  inquisition.  When 
this  property  was  secularized  and  streets 
opened  through  its  massive  walls  cells  were 
found  containing  the  bodies  of  victims  who 
had  been  walled  up  in  cells  to  die  of  starva- 

March  13  Eev.  Thomas  Carter  and  family 
reached  Mexico.  Being  familiar  with  the 
Spanish  language,  he  commenced  divine  serv- 
ices and  a  day  school  in  a  house  in  Calle  de 
Lopez,  City  of  Mexico.  The  Superintendent 
visited  Pacliuca,  in  the  State  of  Hidalgo, 
where  he  found  a  small  Mexican  congregation 
which  had  been  gathered  by  a  native  physi- 
cian, Marcelino  Guerrero.  On  April  25  Eng- 
lish service  was  commenced  in  the  Chapel  of 

580     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

San  Andres,  the  property  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  South.  It  had  been  loaned 
to  the  mission  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  by  Bishop  Keener  until  the  mission- 
ary he  had  appointed  could  reach  Mexico. 

At  the  close  of  the  first  quarter  four  Mexi- 
can congregations  were  reported,  with  an  at- 
tedance  of  130  Mexicans  and  105  English.  At 
the  close  of  1873  Dr.  Cooper,  of  the  Episco- 
pal Church,  who  had  spent  several  years  in 
Spain  and  had  been  sent  to  Mexico  by  the 
American  and  Foreign  Union  for  Spanish 
work,  united  his  congregation  with  that  of  the 
mission  and  began  work  with  it. 

Early  in  1874  Mr.  Carter  returned  home. 
The  Superintendent,  with  Dr.  Cooper,  who 
was  in  feeble  health,  and  two  native  preach- 
ers, continued  the  work,  but  calls  that  came 
from  various  parts  of  the  country  made  the 
need  of  an  increased  force  imperative.  May 
9  Kev.  C.  W.  Drees  and  Eev.  John  W.  But- 
ler reached  the  field.  In  January,  1875,  Mr. 
Drees  opened  work  in  Puebla.  He  was  ac- 
companied by  Eev.  C.  Ludlow,  a  local  preach- 
er and  practical  builder,  who  had  charge  of 
refitting  the  buildings  for  mission  purposes. 
While  the  chapel  was  being  prepared  services 
were  held  in  a  schoolroom  and  the  public  in- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E. .  Church.        581 

vited.  On  the  first  day  a  mob  filled  the 
street.  A  shower  dispersed  the  crowd.  Soon 
the  little  schoolroom  was  packed  with  hear- 
ers. August  15,  1875,  the  chapel  was  dedi- 
cated with  a  congregation  present  of  over  150. 
The  names  of  16  probationers  were  enrolled. 
During  these  early  years  the  converts  and 
congregation  encountered  violent  abuse  and 
frequent  acts  of  violence.  These  trials  dem- 
onstrated the  fidelity  of  the  members. 

A  station  was  planted  at  Miraflores  in 
1875.  A  congregation  was  gathered.  A  de- 
voted Christian  lady,  at  her  death,  arranged 
that  $500  should  be  given  to  build  a  church, 
and  her  husband  added  a  piece  of  ground. 
Every  member  contributed  something,  and  a 
handsome  church  (said  to  be  the  first  regular 
Protestant  church  erected  in  Mexico)  was 
built.  It  was  dedicated  by  Bishop  Merrill  in 

The  health  of  Dr.  Cooper  requiring  a  mild- 
er climate,  he  was  assigned  to  Orizaba,  where 
he  opened  services  in  the  upper  story  of  an 
old  convent.  He  was  insulted  and  stoned  in 
the  street,  but  he  labored  on  until  his  health 
gave  way  and  he  returned  home.  In  1876 
Rev.  S.  P.  Craver  and  S.  W.  Siberts  were  sent 
to  Mexico.     On  the  9th  of  February  Mr.  Si- 

582     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

berts  and  his  wife  opened  work  in  the  city  of 
Guanajuato.  The  superintendent  and  mis- 
sionary called  on  the  Governor  and  repre- 
sented the  object  and  methods  of  their  work. 
He  responded  cordially.  The  distribution  of 
tracts  aroused  the  clergy.  The  bishop  issued 
an  edict  denouncing  the  Protestants  and  their 
work.  Some  hostilities  were  displayed.  The 
colporter  was  attacked  and  followed  to  the 
mission  house.  About  8  o'clock  in  the  even- 
ing the  doors  and  windows  were  assailed  with 
stones,  when  an  order  from  the  Governor 
compelled  the  police  to  disperse  the  mob.  In 
1877  ten  members  were  received  into  the 

In  1879,  after  seeing  the  mission  well  es- 
tablished. Dr.  Butler  retired  from  the  field. 
In  1880  Superintendent  Drees  reported  a  con- 
siderable increase  in  the  working  force  of  the 
mission,  a  rapid  growth  in  membership,  an 
increase  of  twenty-five  per  cent,  in  average  at- 
tendance on  public  worship,  large  additions  to 
the  Sunday  schools,  the  acquisition  of  three 
new  places  of  worship  and  two  parsonages. 
On  Sunday,  April  30, 1881,  Eev.  A.  W.  Green- 
man  and  his  wife,  with  Senor  Cardozo,  the  na- 
tive preacher  at  Queretaro,  were  assaulted  by 
a  mob  of  over  two  thousand  people.     The  lo- 

Missions  of  the  31.  E.  Church.        583 

cal  authorities  professed  themselves  unable  to 
protect  them,  and  the  missionaries  took  ref- 
uge in  the  city  of  Mexico.  The  general  gov- 
ernment promptly  interposed,  and  they  re- 
turned to  their  post  in  July  and  resumed  their 
work.  The  native  preacher  at  Silao,  Senor 
Mendoza,  was  threatened  and  his  house  at- 
tacked. Epigminio  Monroy,  the  native  preach- 
er at  Apizaco,  was  murdered.  He  was  on  his 
way  to  an  appointment  named  Santa  Amta 
when  he  was  assailed,  and  he  died  a  few  days 
after.  One  of  his  companions  was  mortally 
wounded  at  the  same  time.  Rev.  D.  Kemble 
and  wife  went  out  to  the  mission  this  year. 
The  completion  of  the  new  hymn  and  tune 
book  greatly  promoted  the  interest  of  the 
work.  The  mission  press,  under  the  supervis- 
ion of  Bev.  J.  W.  Butler,  was  increasingly 
important.  El  Abogado  Cristiano  Ilustrado 
had  a  circulation  of  two  thousand  five  hun- 

In  1883  the  bishop  of  Queretaro  issued  a 
pastoral  designed,  like  that  of  1881,  to  inflame 
the  people.  The  mission  was  again  stoned  by 
a  mob,  but  the  troops  promptly  cleared  the 
streets.  The  value  of  the  theological  school 
was  manifest  in  the  superior  character  and  ef- 
ficiency of  the  native  preachers.     They  are 

584    Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

now  the  chief  evangelical  agency  in  the  mis- 

In  1884  C.  W.  Drees  was  Superintendent 
and  Treasurer;  J.  W.  Butler,  Publishing 
Agent;  and  S.  W.  Sebirts,  President  of  the 
Theological  School.  The  year  was  marked  by 
violent  persecution  at  certain  points.  Broth- 
er Gamboa,  of  Queretaro  Circuit,  while  on 
his  way  to  an  appointment,  was  shot  and  dan- 
gerously wounded,  and  his  chapel  keeper  was 
killed.  An  attempt  was  made  to  lasso  Broth- 
er Montes,  a  colporter  in  the  State  of  Vera 
Cruz,  and  drag  him  with  horses  over  the  stony 
road,  but  he  escaped  in  the  thicket  and  re- 
mained in  the  mountains  all  night.  But  the 
work  prospered. 

The  mission  was  erected  into  a  Conference 
in  1885.  It  was  embraced  under  one  district, 
with  C.  W.  Drees  presiding  elder.  The  in- 
crease of  members  was  one  hundred  and  sev- 
enteen. In  1886  the  work  was  divided  into 
the  Central,  Northern,  and  Eastern  Districts. 

There  was  a  manifest  movement  in  the  line 
of  self-support,  always  a  healthy  indication  in 
the  mission  field.  During  this  year  Eev.  C. 
W.  Drees  was  transferred  to  the  South  Amer- 
ican Mission. 

In  1890  the  work  was  divided  into  four  dis- 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        585 

tricts,  with  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  ap- 
pointments. The  mission  force  embraced  10 
foreign  missionaries,  8  assistants,  with  9  la- 
dies of  the  Woman's  Society,  13  ordained  and 
38  unordained  preachers,  1,404  members,  and 
1,261  probationers.  Estimated  value,  in  Mex- 
ican currency,  of  churches  and  chapels,  182,- 
575;  parsonages  or  "homes,"  $110,925;  or- 
phanages, schools,  hospitals,  book  rooms,  etc., 
$111,490.     Total,  $304,988. 

The  General  Committee  in  November,  1872, 
authorized  tlie  establishment  of  the  Japan 
Mission.  Eev.  R.  S.  Maclay,  of  the  China 
Mission,  was  appointed  Superintendent,  and 
Eevs.  J.  C.  Davison,  Julius  Soper,  and  M.  C. 
Harris,  missionaries.  Dr.  Maclay  and  family 
reached  Yokohama  June  11,  1873.  Bishop 
Harris  reached  Yokohama  July  9.  Rev.  Ir- 
vin  Correll  and  wife,  on  their  way  to  China, 
were  detained  by  the  sickness  of  Mrs.  Correll 
at  Yokohama,  and,  after  obtaining  medical  ad- 
vice, the  bishop  transferred  them  to  the  Ja- 
pan Mission.  On  August  8  Messrs.  Davison 
and  Soper  and  their  wives  reached  Yokohama. 
Bishop  Harris  remained  five  weeks,  engaged 

586    Rand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

in  laying  the  foundations  of  the  mission.  On 
the  evening  of  August  8  Bishop  Harris  ar- 
ranged the  work  as  follows:  Superintendent, 
E;.  S.  Maclay,  residence  at  Yokohama;  Yoko- 
hama, I.  H.  Correll;  Tokio,  Julius  Soper;  Ha- 
kodati,  M.  C.  Harris;  Nagasaki,  J.  C.  Davi- 

The  missionaries  made  rapid  progress  in  the 
language,  at  the  same  time  organizing  Bible 
classes  and  Sunday  schools,  and  presenting 
the  gospel  to  all  with  whom  they  came  in  con- 
tact. The  first  annual  meeting  was  held  at 
Yokohama  June  27,  1874.  They  united  in  an 
earnest  appeal  for  more  missionaries,  and  ar- 
ranged for  an  early  translation  of  the  Disci- 
pline, Catechism,  and  other  religious  literature 
needed  in  mission  work.  As  they  mastered 
the  language  during  their  second  year  they 
began  public  preaching  while  their  Bible  work 
and  Sunday  schools  were  enlarged.  During 
the  year  Rev.  John  Ing,  who  had  been  con- 
nected with  the  China  Mission,  began  work  in 
Hirosaki,  Japan.  The  first  converts,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Kichi,  were  baptized  by  Mr.  Correll  Octo- 
ber 4,  1874,  in  his  house  in  Yokohama.  On 
January  14  a  lot  was  secured  in  Yokohama  for 
the  use  of  the  mission.  Miss  Dora  Schoon- 
maker,  of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Society, 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,        587 

reached  Tokio  and  began  work  November  6. 
On  January  3,  1875,  Mr.  Soper  baptized,  in 
Tokio,  two  converts,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Tsuda.  On 
this  occasion  the  Lord's  Supper  was  adminis- 
tered for  the  first  time  in  the  mission  in  the 
Japanese  language.  Mr.  Soper  commenced 
holding  services  outside  the  Foreign  Conces- 
sion in  a  portion  of  Tokio  called  Kanda.  In 
Yokohama  the  mission  secured  its  first  church 
edifice  by  purchasing  a  partly  completed 
building.  At  Hakodati  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harris 
conducted  a  Bible  class  with  encouraging  re- 
sults. The  government  donated  the  mission 
an  eligible  lot  on  which  it  built  a  substantial 
mission  house. 

In  Nagasaki  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Davison  en- 
countered the  hostility  which  had  been  en- 
gendered two  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago 
when  the  political  intrigues  of  the  Jesuits  ar- 
rayed the  government  against  Christianity. 
The  missionaries  devoted  themselves  to  the 
work  of  their  mission  amid  many  difficulties, 
and  were  encouraged  by  the  application  of 
two  persons  for  baptism.  In  Hirosaki  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Ing  were  cheered  by  the  work  among 
their  pupils,  and  June  5,  1875,  fourteen  young 
men,  all  students  but  one,  were  baptized  by 
Mr.  Ing  in  their  dwelling.     Eight  others  were 

588     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

to  have  been  baptized,  but  it  was  deferred  for 
a  time  on  account  of  the  opposition  of  their 
parents.  In  the  afternoon  eighteen  met 
around  the  Lord's  table. 

The  second  annual  meeting  was  held  in  the 
Bluff  Churchy  Yokohama,  July  5,  1875.  It 
had  been  recently  opened  for  service.  The  re- 
ports were  cheering.  A  more  formal  organiza- 
tion of  the  mission  according  to  the  rules  of 
the  Church,  and  the  introduction  of  Quarterly 
Conferences  were  agreed  upon.  Dr.  Maclay 
was  devoting  much  time  to  the  translation  of 
the  Bible  in  cooperation  with  the  committee 
engaged  in  that  important  work.  The  third 
annual  meeting  was  held  at  Yokohama  June 
30,  1876.  The  principal  events  of  the  year 
were  the  erection  of  a  handsome  mission 
chapel  in  Tokio;  of  a  home  in  Tokio  by  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Society;  the  commence- 
ment of  mission  out  stations;  the  preparation 
by  Mr.  Davison  of  a  Japanese  hymnal;  the 
initiation  of  a  course  of  study  for  the  native 
helpers;  the  removal  to  a  new  site  of  the 
Bluff  Church  at  Yokohama,  and  the  recom- 
mendation of  ten  native  helpers  connected 
with  the  mission  for  admission  on  trial  into 
Annual  Conferences  in  the  United  States. 
On  September  20  Miss  Olive  Whiting  arrived 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Chuixh.         589 

in  Tokio  to  assist  Miss  Sclioonmaker  in  the 
work  of  the  Woman's  Foreign  Missionary  So- 

The  fourth  annual  meeting  was  held  in  the 
new  mission  chapel  in  Tokio  beginning  July 
10,  1877.  After  careful  examination  nine  na- 
tive helpers  were  recommended  for  admission 
on  trial  in  Annual  Conferences  in  the  United 
States.  A  resolution  was  adopted  urging  upon 
the  Board  the  importance  of  the  immediate 
establishment  in  Yokohama  of  a  mission 
training  school. 

February  7,  1878,  Bishop  Wiley  arrived  at 
Yokohama  and  remained  in  the  mission  until 
April  6.  His  experience  as  a  missionary  in 
China  rendered  his  counsel  of  rare  value  to 
every  department  of  the  work.  He  visited  all 
its  leading  stations,  ordaining  the  native 

In  1880  the  mission  embraced  four  leading- 
stations,  with  twenty-one  appointments.  In 
1882  Kevs.  C.  W.  Green  and  W.  C.  Kitchin 
and  their  wives  and  Eev.  J.  Blackledge  joined 
the  mission.  In  January  of  this  year  Rev.  J, 
F.  Goucher  proposed,  in  view  of  organizing, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  mission,  an  Anglo- 
Japanese  University  at  Tokio,  to  give  $5,000 
toward  the  purchase  of  a  proper  site,  $800  per 

590     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

annum  for  ^ye  years  toward  the  salary  of  an 
American  professor,  and  $400  for  the  salary 
of  a  Japanese  professor.  To  further  the  pro- 
posal action  was  taken  to  remove  the  theolog- 
ical and  training  school  from  Yokohama  to 
Tokio,  and  steps  for  the  organization  of  the 
university  adopted.  The  headquarters  of  the 
mission  were  transferred  to  Tokio. 

A  remarkable  visitation  of  the  Holy  Spirit 
came  on  the  mission  in  1883.  The  native  min- 
istry was  raised  to  a  higher  plane  of  spiritual 
life,  the  foreign  missionaries  greatly  inspired, 
and  the  hearts  of  Christians  in  America  pro- 
foundly stirred.  In  1884  the  mission  was  or- 
ganized into  an  Annual  Conference.  It  had 
a  missionary  force  of  13  ordained  missiona- 
ries, 11  assistants,  and  10  ladies  of  the  Wom- 
an's Society.  The  work  was  divided  into  the 
East  Tokio,  West  Tokio,  North  Tokio,  Yoko- 
hama, North  Yokohama,  Nagasaki,  Yezo,  and 
North  Honda  Districts.  The  net  increase  of 
members  in  1885  was  three  hundred  and 
eighty-nine.  The  Philander  Smith  Institute 
and  Anglo-Japanese  College  were  doing  ef- 
ficient service.  In  1891  the  mission  report- 
ed 21  foreign  missionaries;  19  assistants;  25 
ladies  of  the  Woman's  Society;  27  native  or- 
dained and  58  unordained   preachers,    with 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,         591 

3,061  members  and  644  probationers;  2  theo- 
logical schools  with  10  teachers  and  32  stu- 
dents, 10  high  schools  and  91  teachers.  Esti- 
mated value  of  churches  and  chapels,  $31,164; 
parsonages  or  homes,  $45,600;  orphanages, 
schools,  hospitals,  and  book  rooms,  $107,200. 
Total,  $183,964. 


In  order  to  open  a  mission  in  Corea  the 
General  Committee,  in  1883,  added  $5,000  to 
the  Japan  appropriation.  Of  this,  $2,000  was 
to  be  a  special  donation  from  Eev.  J.  F.  Gouch- 
er.  In  1884  Dr.  Maclay  visited  Corea  to  de- 
termine the  outlook.  He  reached  Seoul,  the 
capital  of  Corea,  June  24.  A  paper  setting 
forth  the  design  of  the  Christian  missionaries 
was  cordially  received  by  the  king,  who 
granted  permission  to  open  work,  especially 
medical  and  school  work,  so  long  as  it  was 
Protestant.  He  had  learned  the  difference 
between  Protestantism  and  Komanism.  Eev. 
W.  B.  Scranton,  M.D.,  and  Eev.  H.  G.  Appen- 
zeller,  their  wives,  and  Mrs.  Mary  F.  Scranton, 
the  mother  of  Dr.  Scranton,  were  appointed 
to  the  mission  by  the  Woman's  Foreign  Mis- 
sionary Society. 

When  the  mission   party   reached  Japan, 

592      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

February  27,  1885,  they  found  Corea  in  the 
midst  of  political  commotion.  Both  China 
and  Japan  claimed  the  country  and  had  an 
armed  force  in  the  capital.  A  collision  had 
occurred  in  which  a  number  of  the  Chinese 
party  were  killed.  The  missionaries  were  ad- 
vised by  many  not  to  enter  the  country.  Dr. 
Stanton,  unattended  by  his  family,  reached 
Seoul  in  May.  He  succeeded  in  purchasing 
a  native  house  in  a  good  locality,  and  in  due 
time  his  family,  his  mother,  and  Mr.  Appen- 
zeller  and  wife  reached  the  field  and  purchased 
property  adjoining  that  already  secured  for 
the  hospital.  On  the  arrival  of  his  medicine 
and  surgical  instruments,  Dr.  Scranton  opened 
his  hospital  and  soon  had  work.  The  king 
was  notified  of  their  presence  and  operations, 
and  expressed  himself  kindly  respecting  their 
work.  We  find  in  the  report  for  1886  the  fol- 
lowing statistics:  Foreign  missionaries,  2; 
assistant  missionaries,  2;  missionary  of  the 
Woman's  Society,  1 ;  probationer,  1;  adher- 
ents, 100;  conversion,  1;  adult  baptized,  1; 
Sunday  school,  1;  pupils,  30. 

The  missionaries  had  been  diligent  in  ac- 
quiring the  language.  The  catechism  was 
translated  and  Mr.  Appenzeller  was  at  work 
on  other  books  and  tracts.     The  mission  of 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.        593 

the  Woman's  Society  had  secured  property, 
but  were  discouraged  by  news  from  home  that 
no  extra  appropriation  had  been  made  for  the 
house.  Prayer  for  help  was  offered  and  soon 
the  word  came  that  a  generous  donation  of 
$3,000,  by  Mrs.  Blackstone,  and  a  gift  from 
the  New  York  Branch  of  $300  had  supplied 
their  need.  The  house  for  teachers,  and 
women  who  would  come  for  instruction,  88 
feet  long  and  80  feet  wide,  was  soon  in  course 
of  erection. 

In  1887  Kev.  F.  Ohlinger  and  wife.  Miss 
Louisa  C.  Eothweiler,  and  Rev.  G.  H.  Jones 
were  appointed  to  the  mission.  Bishop  War- 
ren visited  Corea  in  September.  We  give  an 
interesting  extract  from  his  account  of  the 

I  asked  a  catechumen  who  desired  baptism  if  his 
heart  really  glowed  with  love  to  Christ  as  his  personal 
Saviour?  A  kind  of  sunrise  came  over  his  face  as  he 
answered :  "  If  I  did  not  love  Christ,  why  should  I  de- 
sire to  be  baptized  and  to  join  the  Church  my  people 
despise?"  I  went  on:  ''But  the  Corean  laws  against 
the  Christian  religion  are  not  yet  repealed,  and  may 
yet  be  executed,  involving  all  professed  Christians  in 
death.  Are  you  ready  for  that?  "  "  I  do  not  know," 
said  he,  "but  if  peril  and  death  do  come,  I  believe 
Christ  will  be  with  me  and  support  me  to  the  end."  I 
then  baptized  him.* 


594     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

We  dedicated  the  first  building  ever  erected  in  Co- 
rea  for  educating  men  on  Christian  principles.  It  is 
76  by  52  feet.  The  king  sent  us  a  name,  Pai  TjoA  Hak 
Dang,  "The  institute  for  making  useful  men."  Broth- 
er Appenzeller,  the  superintendent,  is  Principal.  He 
has  three  assistants. 

Dr.  Scranton  has  a  hospital  and  dispensaries.  His 
first  patient  he  picked  up  in  the  fields,  where  she  was 
carried  away  to  die  alone.  He  greatly  desires  to  estab- 
lish a  hospital  at  the  East  Gate  for  the  sick  that  are 
carried  thence  to  die  in  the  fields.  The  W.  F.  M.  S. 
has  a  school  under  the  care  of  Mrs.  Scranton,  mother 
of  the  doctor.  The  queen  sent  it  a  name,  I  Hoa  Hak 
Dang,  "The  pear  blossom  institute."  The  pear  blos- 
som is  to  the  Coreans  what  the  chrysanthemum  is  to 
the  Japanese,  the  fleur  de  lis  to  France,  and  the  red  rose 
to  the  house  of  Lancaster. 

The  report  of  the  superintendent  tells  of 
the  conversion  of  two  native  students  who 
joined  as  probationers.  They  were  his  first 
baptisms.  Evangelistic  work  as  yet  was  con- 
ducted under  restrictions.  Though  the  king 
and  his  party  favored  opening  the  land  to  the 
influence  of  "Western  civilization,  there  was  no 
religious  liberty  in  Corea.  The  people  had 
not  forgotten  the  persecution  of  the  Catholics 
in  1866.  Yet  the  good  seed  was  being  sown. 
A  Corean  called  on  Mr.  Appenzeller  and  told 
him  he  was  a  Christian.  He  had  been  a  col- 
porter  under   the    directions  of  Revs.  Boss 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church.         595 

and  Mclntyre  in  their  work  on  the  borders  of 
China  and  Corea.  He  was  employed  as  col- 
porter,  and  began  the  distribution  of  the  gos- 
pel of  Mark  and  the  catechism.  He  was  beat- 
en twice,  but  rejoiced  that,  in  the  midst  of 
reproach,  it  was  his  privilege  to  bear  the  gos- 
pel to  his  countrymen.  He  said  there  were 
many  believers  in  the  Ping  province  waiting 
for  a  missionary  to  come  and  baptize  them 
and  organize  a  Church.  A  small  house  was 
bought  for  a  chapel  in  September.  On  Octo- 
ber 5  the  missionary  held  his  first  service 
with  four,  besides  himself,  present.  The  next 
Sunday  he  baptized  the  colporter's  wife.  In 
April  and  May  Mr.  Appenzeller  visited  Ping 
Yang,  the  capitol  of  the  northwestern  prov- 
ince of  the  same  name.  Ground  had  been 
broken  here  by  colporters  sent  out  Rev.  Mr. 
Ross  from  Mukden,  in  China,  200  miles  from 
the  border  of  Corea.  Volunteers  were  needed 
for  this  region,  but  the  pioneer  missionary 
says  the  man  who  enters  this  promising  field 
must  be  prepared  for  many  hardships.  In 
the  fall  of  1887  we  sent  out  two  colporters  to 
travel  in  the  northwest  part  of  the  peninsula. 
One  was  robbed  by  highw^aymen,  but  found  a 
few  who  listened  to  his  words.  The  other  was 
arrested  and  kept  three  days  in  a  cold,  damp 

596    Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions, 

prison,  and  then  brought  before  a  magistrate 
who  heard  the  charges  and  promptly  dis- 
charged him. 

In  the  spring  of  1888,  with  Eev.  H.  G.  Un- 
derwood, of  the  Presbyterian  Mission,  Mr. 
Appenzeller  visited  the  north  of  Corea,  selling 
medicines,  books,  and  tracts.  They  were  re- 
ceived cordially,  but  in  about  two  weeks  they 
received  a  letter  from  the  United  States  Min- 
ister in  Seoul  recalling  them.  He  had  a  mes- 
sage from  the  king  objecting  to  their  work  of 
disseminating  the  doctrines  of  the  Christian 
religion.  Their  acquiescence  to  the  king's 
request  favorably  impressed  the  government. 

The  work  among  the  women,  under  the  ef- 
ficient direction  of  Mrs.  M.  F.  Scranton,  kept 
pace  with  other  departments  of  the  mission. 
Eighteen  girls  were  living  at  the  home.  Eeg- 
ular  meetings  for  religious  instruction  were 
held.  Two  Bible  women  were  constantly  em- 
ployed, and  their  reports  were  cheering.  On 
one  occasion  fifty  were  present  at  the  Sunday 
evening  meeting.  Four  women  were  baptized 
and  a  number  were  awaiting  the  ordinance. 
Miss  Eothweiler  and  Miss  Dr.  Howard  arrived 
in  October,  1888.  Miss  Eothweiler  began 
work  in  the  school,  and  Dr.  Howard  began 
^ork  among  the  wom6n  in  Dr.  Scranton's  hos-. 

Missions  of  the  M.  E.  Church,        597 

pital.  Slie  treated  two  thousand  woman  pa- 
tients during  the  year. 

Dr.  Scranton  encountered  some  trouble 
during  the  year.  The  obnoxious  course  of 
the  Catholics  caused  a  royal  request  through 
the  several  legations  that  all  religious  teach- 
ing should  cease.  The  opposition  awakened 
was  not  confined  to  the  Catholics.  It  was  ru- 
mored that  foreigners  kidnapped  babies  and 
ate  them,  using  their  eyes  for  medicine  and 
photographic  purposes.  Threats  to  tear  down 
the  building  were  made,  and  the  number  of 
patients  reduced,  but  the  alarm  soon  passed 

In  1889  the  mission  was  reenforced  by  the 
arrival  of  Dr.  W.  B.  McGill,  but  was  weak-, 
ened  by  the  return  home  of  Miss  Howard.  In 
1891  the  mission  reported  5  missionaries,  4 
assistants,  5  missionaries  of  the  Woman's  So- 
ciety, 1  native  unordained  preacher,  6  foreign 
teachers,  15  members,  58  probationers.  No 
new  work  had  been  opened,  but  the  work  in 
hand  had  been  healthfully  developed. 

In  the  fall  of  1890  Mr.  Appenzeller  com- 
menced meetings  in  Chang  No,  the  center  of 
the  city,  but  met  with  little  encouragement. 
In  the  spring  he  moved  the  bookstore  to  the 
main  street,  but  the  attendance  at  the  meet- 

598     Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

ings  did  not  increase.  The  zeal  of  the  native 
brethren  compensated,  in  a  measure,  for  this 
disappointment.  They  traveled  through  the 
country,  held  meetings,  sold  books  and  tracts 
at  the  markets  and  on  the  streets  of  Seoul  and 
other  towns,  without  remuneration.  A  work- 
ing native  Church  is  the  hope  of  every  mis- 
sion field.  The  educational  work  continued 
to  hold  the  chief  place  in  the  work.  The  stu- 
dents were  required  to  work  their  way 
through  school  without  financial  aid.  The 
influence  of  the  medical  mission  in  breaking 
down  prejudice  and  securing  the  confidence  of 
the  people  was  of  great  value.  It  was  estima- 
ted that  in  six  years  twenty  thousand  people 
had  been  reached. 

In  the  spring  Mr.  Appenzeller  and  a  native 
helper  made  a  trip  to  the  Corean-Chinese 
boundary  on  the  northwest.  They  visited  over 
thirty  large  cities  and  districts,  selling  three 
hundred  and  twenty-nine  copies  of  the  Scrip- 
tures and  Christian  books  and  telling  to  many 
the  gospel  story.  The  people  were  accessible 
and  friendly.  The  work  in  the  large  city  of 
Piung  Yank  had  suffered  for  want  of  attention 
and  the  removal  of  a  part  of  the  class.  They 
were  the  guests  of  Mr.  Cho,  a  military  noble 
of  the  fifth  class,  an  earnest  Christian,  and  a 

Missions  of  the  M.  JS.  Church.        599 

leader  among  his  brethren.  The  missionary 
and  his  helper  each  preached  three  times. 
Five  adults  applied  for  baptism,  and  were  re- 
ceived on  six  months'  trial.  They  pushed  be- 
yond one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  to  the  fron- 
tier city  of  Wuchu,  where  he  was  welcomed 
by  a  little  company  of  brethren  who  were  ac- 
tive and  rejoicing  in  the  midst  of  many  dis- 
couragements. Here  also  there  were  appli- 
cants for  baptism.  The  native  evangelist  had 
been  there  in  advance  of  the  missionary.  On 
his  return  to  Seoul,  a  distance  of  three  hun- 
dred and  fifty  miles,  he  made  a  detour  to  visit 
the  city  of  Hai  Chu,  the  capital  of  the  Hoang- 
hai  Province.  It  was  new  ground,  where  he 
hoped  ere  long  to  plant  a  mission.  Referring 
to  the  moral  condition  of  the  regions  he  had 
visited,  Mr.  Appenzeller  writes:  "  It  is  impos- 
sible to  speak  of  the  moral  death  of  heathen- 
ism. A  ride  across  a  pagan  country  is  like  a 
plunge  into  darkness.  It  is  a  trite  saying  that 
*  while  we  can  measure  only  the  visible  out- 
come of  human  labor  in  the  Master's  vineyard, 
he  takes  cognizance  of  vast  and  eternal  re- 
sults which  lie  beyond  human  vision.'  To  the 
worker  in  Corea,  faith  in  this  in  pioneer  days 
is  precious." 

From  the  report  of  1891  we  glean  the  fol- 

600      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

lowing  figures  that  mark  the  advance  of  this 
new  and  interesting  mission:  Foreign  mis- 
sionaries, 5;  assistant  missionaries,  4;  mission- 
aries of  the  Woman's  Society,  3;  native  or- 
dained preacher,  1;  members,  15;  on  trial,  58; 
pupils  in  high  schools,  85;  Sunday  schools, 



Dr.  GraceY;  in  his  excellent  Missionary 
Year  Book,  gives  an  account  of  a  missionary- 
society  in  the  Methodist  Protestant  Church 
"  organized  in  Baltimore  in  1870  by  Miss  Har- 
riet G.  Britain,  who  had  been  several  years  in 
India  in  the  service  of  the  Woman's  Union 
Missionary  Society.  It  was  originated  as  a 
joint  home  and  foreign  board,  and  so  contin- 
ued until  1888,  when  a  division  was  had  by 
the  separate  organization  of  the  home  work." 
In  1888  the  income  of  the  Foreign  Society  was 
$20,000.  It  has  work  only  in  Japan,  where  it 
sustains  three  ordained  male  missionaries,  six 
female  missionaries,  and  four  native  workers. 
They  have  in  Yokohama  an  Anglo-Japanese 
school,  with  190  pupils;  a  girls'  school,  with 
95  pupils;  a  Sunday  school,  with  230  pupils. 
At  Fujisawa  they  have  10  members  and  a 
mixed  school,   with   70  pupils.     At  Nagoya 


602      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

they  have  62  members,  a  boys'  school  of  60 
pupils,  and  a  girls'  school  of  26  pupils. 

The  "  Encyclopedia  of  Missions  "  gives  an 
account  of  the  organized  work  of  the  Metho- 
dist Protestant  Church,  which  began  in  1882. 
Prior  to  that  date  money  for  Foreign  Missions 
was  given  to  other  boards  at  the  direction  of 
the  pastor  who  secured  it.  Some  of  the  mon- 
ey reached  Japan,  where  Miss  L.  M.  Guthrie 
was  employed  by  the  Woman's  Union  Mis- 
sionary Society,  of  New  York.  By  this  means 
Miss  Guthrie  learned  of  the  Methodist  Prot- 
estant Church.  When  in  this  country  she 
had  an  interview  with  some  ladies  of  the 
Church  in  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  through  whom  she 
had  received  funds  in  Japan  for  her  work. 
This  led  to  the  organization  of  the  Woman's 
Board  of  the  Methodist  Protestant  Church. 
Soon  after  the  General  Conference  elected  a 
Board  of  Missions.  Kev.  F.  C.  Klein  was  ap- 
pointed Superintendent  of  the  mission  in  Ja- 
pan. Kev.  F.  T.  Tagg  was  elected  Corre- 
sponding Secretary.  He  organized  methods 
for  the  collection  of  funds,  the  Church  became 
more  interested  in  Missions,  and  the  society 
has  been  able  to  send  more  workers  to  the 
field.     In   1890  the  Japan  Mission  reported 

Work  of  Other  Methodist  Bodies.       603 

350   Sunday   school   scholars   and  203  mem- 


This  society  was  organized  in  1882.  Its  for- 
eign work  was  opened  in  1887.  A  mission  has 
been  opened  in  Freetown,  Sierra  Leone,  West 
Africa.  It  reports  a  membership  .of  three 
hundred,  and  an  equal  number  of  scholars  in 
Sunday  school.  It  has  in  the  field  1  ordained 
and  4  lay  missionaries,  with  12  native  assist- 
ants. The  society  is  preparing  to  send  out 
additional  missionaries  and  extend  the  work 
out  among  the  interior  tribes  who  have  ex- 
pressed the  wish  to  receive  teachers. 


This  board  opened  mission  work  in  Free- 
town, Sierra  Leone,  in  1886.  Since  then  they 
have  organized  a  mission  in  the  interior  on 
the  Scarciesrim.  The  king  of  the  country 
has  given  the  missionaries  ten  acres  of  land, 
and  a  mission  home  which  will  seat  400  has 
been  built. 

The  Church  is   also   carrying  on   mission 

604      Hand  Book  of  Methodist  Missions. 

work  at  Port  au  Prince,  Hayti,  San  Domingo, 
and  the  Indian  Territory.  Its  receipts  from 
1884  to  1888  were  $15,295. 

In  1890  it  reported  in  Sierra  Leone  and 
Liberia  5  stations  and  out  stations,  3  ordained 
missionaries,  4  lay  missionaries,  3  native 
teachers,  207  members. 



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